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Application of Nanotechnology in Agriculture with special reference to Pest Management.

Nanotechnology, a promising field of research opens up in the present decade a wide array of
opportunities in the present decade and is expected to give major impulses to technical innovations in
a variety of industrial sectors in the future.

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Application of Nanotechnology in Agriculture with special reference to Pest Management.

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  2. 2. Application of nanotechnology in agriculture with special reference to pest management Ramesh A. K. PG13AGR5015 Seminar I on
  3. 3. Seminar Outline • Introduction • Background of Nanotechnology • Nanoparticles • Applications of nanotechnology • Nanotechnology in Agriculture and allied sciences • Nanotechnology in pest management • Nanopesticides • Conclusion 3
  4. 4. Nanotechnology ?... “Nanotechnology is the art and science of manipulating matter at nanoscale” The design, characterization, production and application of structure, device and system by controlling shape and size at nanoscale British standard institution, 2005 4
  5. 5.  ‘Nano’- Greek word means ‘Dwarf’  1 nm = one billionth (10ˉ⁹) of metre  Size range between 0.1 and 100 nm 5
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  7. 7. “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” - at American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology on Dec-29, 1959. “Adaptability to manipulate, control, assemble, produce and manufacture things at atomic precision” 7 Father of nano technology Nobel Laureate-1965 Richard Feynman, Physicist
  8. 8. Norio Taniguchi, Professor - coined the term “Nanotechnology” (1974) “Nano-technology’’ - Processing, separation, consolidation and deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule. 8
  9. 9. Time Line of Nanotechnology ~ 2000 Years Ago Sulfide nanocrystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye hairs ~ 1000 Years Ago Gold nanoparticles of different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass windows 1959 “There is plenty of room at the bottom” by R. Feynman 1974 Taniguchi uses the term nanotechnology for the first time 1981 IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope 1985 “Buckyball” - Scientists at Rice University and University of Sussex discover C60 1986 • “Engines of Creation” - First book on nanotechnology by K. Eric Drexler. • Atomic Force Microscope invented by Binnig, Quate and Gerbe 1989 IBM logo made with individual atoms 1991 Carbon nanotube discovered by S. Iijima 1999 “Nanomedicine” – 1st nanomedicine book by R. Freitas 2000 “National Nanotechnology Initiative” launched (British Standards Institution, 2005) 9
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  11. 11. Nanoparticles Arranged or assembled into ordered layers, or mine layers Revolutionize agriculture including pest management in the near future Possess distinct physical, biological and chemical properties associated with their atomic strength Bhattacharyya et al., 2010 11
  12. 12. Properties of nano particles 10nm 50nm Property Below about 100 nm the rules that govern the behaviour of the elements of our known world start to give way to the rules of quantum mechanics, and everything changes Quantum effects 12
  13. 13. Things behave differently in nano-world  Carbon in the form of graphite (i.e. pencil lead) is soft, at the nano-scale, can be stronger than steel and is six times lighter  Nano-scale copper is a highly elastic metal at room temperature, stretching to 50 times its original length without breaking  Shiny orange yellow Gold changes its colour to brownish black on reducing the size 13
  14. 14. METHODS OF NANOPARTICLE PRODUCTION 14 (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004)
  15. 15. TOP DOWN APPROACH (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, 15 2004)
  16. 16. 16 BOTTOM UP APPORAOCH (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004)
  17. 17. Tools of Nanotechnology Carbon Nanotubes Fullerenes Dendrimers Quantumdots Nanosensors Nano Chips C60 Cadmium selinade 17
  18. 18. 18 Nanotechnology
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  20. 20.  Medicine  Cancer treatment  Bone treatment  Drug delivery  Appetite control  Drug development  Medical tools  Diagnostic tests  Imaging  Information Technology  Smaller, faster, more energy efficient and powerful computing and other IT-based systems  Energy  More efficient and cost effective technologies for enenergy production  Solar cells  Fuel cells  Batteries Consumer Goods Foods and beverages  Advanced packaging materials, sensors, and lab-on-chips for food quality testing Appliances and textiles  Stain proof, water proof and wrinkle free textiles Household and cosmetics  scratch free products, paints, and better cosmetics 20
  21. 21. Nanomaterials and Agriculture • There has been significant interest in using nanotechnology in agriculture The goals fall into several categories  Increase production rates and yield  Increase efficiency of resource utilization  Minimize waste production  Nano-based treatment of agricultural waste  Nanosensors  Specific applications include: Nano-fertilizers, Nano-pesticides 21
  22. 22. Application of nanotechnology in agriculture and allied sciences • Food technology • Crop improvement • Seed technology • Precision farming • Nano-fertilizer for balance crop nutrition • Plant disease diaganose • Weed management • Water management • Biosensors (Electronic nose) • Agricultural engineering issue • Animal science • Fishery and aquaculture • Pest management 22
  23. 23. Food science and technology • Nanotechnology for enhancing food security in India Sastry et al., 2011 • Hybrid polymer : Smart packaging with Nano silicon embedded durethan polymer to enhance the shelf life of the food materials Bayer polymers 23
  24. 24. Crop improvement • Gene therapy for plants : use of 3-nm mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) for smuggling foreign DNA into cells. Peterson et al.,2014 • Shown the feasibility of DNA sequencing using a fluidic nanochannel functionalized with a graphene nanoribbon kyu min et al., 2013 Seed technology • Use of carbon Nanotubes increases the germination through better penetration of the moisture Khodokovskaya et al.,2010 24
  25. 25. Precision farming Smart Field System • Bio-Nanotechnology has designed sensors which give increased sensitivity and earlier response to environmental changes and linked into GPS • These monitor soil conditions and crop growth over vast areas • Such sensors have already been employed in US and Australia UASD 25
  26. 26. Plant pathology • 100% growth inhibition was seen in the Pythium ultimum, Magnaporthe grisea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinere and, Rhyzoctonia solani, showed at 10 ppm of the nanosized silica-silver Park et al., 2006 • QDs have emerged as pivotal tool for detection of a particular biological marker with extreme accuracy Madhuri et al., 2010 26
  27. 27. Soil remediation • Nanotech-based soil binder called SoilSet employed to avoid soil erosion Sequoia Pacific Research of Utah (USA) Removal of heavy metals • Ligand based nanocoating can be utilized for effective removal of heavy metals as these have high absorption tendency Water treatments • magnetite (iron oxide) nanocrystals to capture and remove arsenic from contaminated water. Researchers at Rice University 27
  28. 28. Animal science • Nano micelles, liposomes, nano-emulsions complexes improves the utilization efficiency of nutrients in the fodder Fishery and aquaculture • NanoCheck- 40 nm lanthanum-based compound absorbs phosphates from the water and prevents algae Growth. • Fast growing fish: Younger carp exhibited 30% faster growth rate when fed with iron nanoparticles Russian Academy of Sciences Agricultural Engineering Issues • Nano coating of agricultural tools to increase their resistance against wear and corrosion 28
  29. 29. Nano-fertilizer technology • Foliar application of nano Phosphorous as fertilizer (640 mg ha-1) and soil application of phosphorous fertilizer (80 kg ha-1 ) yielded equally in clusterbean and pearl millet under arid environment. Tarafdar et al., 2012 Weed management • Soybean based nano surfactant reported to make glyphosate resistant crops susceptible to glyphosate Kokiladevi et al., 2007 29
  30. 30. 30 Nanotechnology in Pest Management
  31. 31. 31  Nanopesticides Metallic nanoparticles  Migrational studies  e-nose
  32. 32. Nanopesticides “Nano-scale either active ingredients or inert ingredients with a particle size of 100 nm or less” Formulation of a pesticide  Nano emulsion  Nano suspension  Nano encapsulation  Nano particles 32
  33. 33. Nanoemulsions  Consist of lipid or polymeric vesicles or particles  Size 20-200 nm  Larger surface area, slower release rate  Non sedimentation or creaming 33
  34. 34. Nano emulsion • Downsizing of natural oils to form nanoemulsions could be effective as larvicidal agents Anjali et al., 2012 Klang et al., 2012 Nano Emulsion High energy emulsion High pressure homogeniser Ultra-sonification Low energy emulsion Self emulsion Phase transition Phase inversion 34
  35. 35. In Vitro Characterization and Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Repellent Activity of Essential-Oils-Loaded Nanoemulsions Nuchuchua et al., 2009 35 Nuchuchua et al., 2009
  36. 36. Nano suspensions Submicron colloidal dispersions of pure active compounds typically range from 50–500 nm Solvent-diffusion methods Improvement of efficacy due to higher surface area Higher solubility, higher mobility Induction of systemic activity due to smaller particle size 36
  37. 37. Development of pyridalyl nanocapsule suspension for efficient management of tomato fruit and shoot borer (Helicoverpa armigera) Gopal et al., 2014 37
  38. 38. Nano encapsulation • Encapsulation -packaging the nano-scale active ingredient within a kind of tiny 'envelope' or 'shell‘ Nanotechnology enables us to manipulate the properties of the outer shell of a capsule 38
  39. 39. uses Protection Increase solubility Reduce the contact of active ingredients with agricultural workers Environment- reducing run-off rates Mohdzobir et al., 2005 39
  40. 40. Few designs • Slow release – the capsule releases over a longer period of time • Quick-release – breaks upon contact with a surface (e.g. when pesticide hits a leaf ) • Moisture release – releases contents in the presence of water (e.g., in soil) • Heat-release – releases when the environment warms above a certain temperature • pH release –Releases only in specific pH (e.g., in the stomach or inside a cell) • Ultrasound release – ruptured by an external ultrasound Frequency • DNA Nano capsule – smuggles a short strand of foreign DNA into a living cell 40
  41. 41. Relative larvicidal potentiality of nano-encapsulated Temephos and Imidacloprid against Culex quinquefasciatus Bhan et al., 2014 41
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  43. 43. Nano particles  Solid core or matrix, usually composed of metallic atoms  Material used for fabrication- Metal oxide ceramics & silicates, magnetic materials silver nanoparticles synthesized using an aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora cordifolia showed maximum mortality of head louse Pediculus humanus Jayaseelan et al., 424011
  44. 44. Efficacy of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against Sitophilus oryzae Zahir et al., 20415 2
  45. 45. Silver nano particle synthesis by Bt • Silver nano particle were synthesised by the spore complex of B. thuriengiensis • These nanostructures are highly toxic to multi drug resistant human pathogenic bacteria Jain et al., 2010 46
  46. 46. Agro chemicals • Agricultural chemical companies such as Monsanto, Syngenta and BASF; have ventured in developing nanoparticle pesticides • The world's leading chemical company already sells a number of pesticide emulsions containing nanoparticles • The positive side of nanoparticle pesticides is that far less need to be applied and reducing cost and environmental damage. 47
  47. 47. • World’s largest agrochemical company syngenta have number of chemicals with emulsions that contain nanoparticles. Syngenta have obtained a patent for ‘GUTBUSTER’ microcapsule will break open in alkaline environments, including the stomach of certain insects (ETC Group, 2004). Syngenta’s US Patent No. 6,544,540 To date, none of these agrochemicals are currently labeled as containing nano particles. 48
  48. 48. Quick-Release Encapsulation • Karate with Zeon Technology used against a broad spectrum of cotton pests. • The capsules are only 2.5 microns • No problem of clogging • Once applied, the quick-release capsules adhere strongly to the foliage and immediately begin releasing the active ingredient. 49
  49. 49. Advanced technology… • A fast knockdown of target pests • Greater residual activity • A strong UV protectant • Strongly adhere to leaves providing better rain fastness, improve the insecticide’s residual control • Capsules are suspended in a water-based carrier • Each liter Zeon microencapsulated formulation contains about 50 trillion capsules 50
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  51. 51. An overview of nano-formulations of insecticide under development Formulation Product name Manufacture/ Company (Gunasekaran, 2011) Advantage 1. Nano emulsion Citronella oil NC, National Science & Tech Dvpt.,Agency, Thailand. Prolong mosquito protection time. Triazophos Clge. of Chemistry & Environ.Science, China Relatively stable in acidic and neutral solutions and easily hydrolyzed in basic solution 2. Nanosuspension Novaluran Makhteshim chemical works Ltd., Israel Increased penetration through the cuticle. Beta Cypermethrin College of chemistry & Mol. Sci., Wuhan University, China Faster dissolution rate 52
  52. 52. 3.Nanocapsules Pyrethroid nanocapsules Hong Kong Polytech. University Mosquito repellency , quick knock down and higher insecticide retention. Nano imidacloprid Dept. of Life &Sci. China. Prolonged release time Micro encapsulated product Karate® ZEON (lambda-cyhalothrin) Syngenta Quick release, improve residual function, protection from UV Micro encapsulated product Gutbuster Syngenta Open and releases its contents upon contact with alkaline environments (stomach ) Micro encapsulated product Demand 2.5 CS (γ-cyhalothrin) Syngenta Rapid knock down effect. Excellent residual action, mixes quickly and easily Micro encapsulated product ICONET(γ- cyhalothrin) 2.5CS Syngenta Long lasting effect, mosquito repellen5c3y
  53. 53. 4.Nanoparticles PEG coated Nanoparticles Loaded with Garlic Essential Oil Huazhong Agricultural University,Wuhan. Slow and persistent release of the active components Bifenthrin Princeton University, Guangzhou, China Higher efficiency, better uniformity of coverage for highly active compounds and less exposure to workers Avermectin Beijing University of Chem. Tech, China. Slow release of active ingredients, UV protectant. Sugar coated novel particle (Biopesticides) The University of Queensland (UQ) & the Queensland Australia. Protects the particle’s active ingredients from environmental and photo-degradat5i4on
  54. 54. Metallic Nanoparticles55
  55. 55. Silica nanoparticles a potential new insecticide for pest control 56 Bendary et al., 2013
  56. 56. Duration of the larval, pupal, adult longevity (days), number of laid eggs and hatchability (%) of treated and non-treated tomato plants. Temperature 25±1°C., RH: 70±10%, Bendary et al.,527013
  57. 57. 58 DNA-tagged nano gold: A New Tool For The Control Of The Spodoptera litura Fab. (Chakravarthy et al., 2012)
  58. 58. Effect Of Different Concentrations Of DNA-tagged With Nano Particle On 2nd Instar S. litura, Three, Fourth And Fifth Treatment (PPM) Percentage of larval mortality days after treatment 3rd 4th 5th 200 10.0 (16.0)b 27.5 (31.4)c 35.0 (36.0)b 300 22.5 (28.2)a 42.5(40.7)b 62.5(52.3)a 400 25.0(29.7)a 55.0 (47.9)ab 72.5 (58.6)a 500 30.0 (33.2)a 57.5 (49.6) a 75.0(60.6)a Control 0.0 (0.6)c 0.0 (0.6)d 0.0 (0.6)c SEM ± 2.92 2.87 3.05 CD at 5 % 8.81 8.66 9.20 (Chakravarthy et al., 2012) Days After Treatment 59
  59. 59. Three days after treatment four days after treatment five days after treatment six days after treatment 60 seven days after treatment Control
  60. 60. e-Nose • Operates like human nose • Identify different types of odors and their concentrations • Use of ZnO nanoparticles 61
  61. 61. Nanotechnology In Migrational Studies • Quantum dots  Marking insects  Detecting and tracking insects 62
  62. 62. Long lasting pheromones • Nanogel prepared using methyl eugenol (ME) + low-molecular mass gelator. • very Stable at ambient conditions • Works well in rainy season • Last for a month 63 Bhagat et al., 2013
  63. 63. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels 6 4 Bhagat et al., 2013
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  65. 65. Nano particles in insects • It has been observed that ferromagnetic materials are abundant in head, thorax and abdomen of Socenopsis substituta ants Abrocado et al., 2005 • ferromagnetic material has been detected in Apis mellifera Linnaeus abdomens and identified as suitable for magnetic reception Desoil et al., 2005 66
  66. 66. • An array of nano-sized pillars in cicada (100 nm in diameter and 300 nm in height) • Hydrophobic and anti-reflection properties 67 Bhattacharya et al., 2010
  67. 67. Insects Into Flying Cyborgs • HI-MEMS (Hybrid Insect-Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 68 DARPA, US
  68. 68. Application in sericulture • 25 ppm of Silver nanoparticles can be used as growth stimulant to increase the silk yield Prabhu et al., 2011 • Production of Electrospun silk fibroin based fibers using CNT Seth et al., 2007 69
  69. 69. Potential Risks of Nanotechnology  Health issues Nanoparticles could be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin they trigger inflammation and weaken the immune system. And interfere with regulatory mechanisms of enzymes and proteins  Environmental issues Nanoparticles could accumulate in soil, water and plants  New risk assessment methods are needed National and international agencies are beginning to study the risk  Results will lead to new regulations 70
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  71. 71. 72 Nano