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Applications of Nanotechnology in food science



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Applications of Nanotechnology in food science

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Applications of Nanotechnology in food science

  1. 1. Presented by Iniyalakshimi, B.R. Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, TNAU
  2. 2. The term ‘nanofood’ describes food which has been cultivated, produced, processed or packaged using nanotechnology techniques or tools, or to which manufactured nanomaterials have been added . Examples of nano-ingredients and manufactured nanomaterial additives include nanoparticles of iron or zinc, and nanocapsules containing ingredients like co-enzyme Q10 or Omega 3.
  3. 3. NANOFOODSNOTNEWTOUS Our food already contains certain natural nanostructures. The three basic food constituents are proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Many food proteins and carbohydrate starches exist naturally in the nanoscale and simple triglyceride lipids are about 2 nm long. Food substances are also metabolised in the body at a nanoscale.
  4. 4. New tastes, flavors , and textures of food Less amount of fat, salt, sugar and preservatives Enhanced uptake and bioavailability of nutrients and supplements Increased nutritional value Maintenance of food quality and freshness, ‘Improved’, ‘Active’, ‘Intelligent’, and ‘Smart ’ packaging Better traceability and safety of food
  5. 5. Over 800 products already available Nanotechnology analysts estimate that between 150- 600 nanofoods and 400-500 nano food packaging applications are already on the market.
  6. 6. Nanofood Food / Beverage Ingredients Shelf life Technologies packaging Processing
  7. 7. Foods: Nanoemulsification Nanoencapsulation Food package Food packaging: Nanocomposites Smart/ intelligent packaging Antimicrobial/ self-cleaning packaging Monitoring product condition: Nanosensors
  8. 8. NANO EMULSION • Nano emulsion –particles for better availability and dispersion of nutrients. • Nano-emulsions consist of fine oil-in-water dispersions, having droplets covering the size range of 100–600 nm.
  9. 9. - nanocapsules with tuna fish oil - nanocapsules break only in the stomach ‘Tip-Top Up’ - Omega 3 Bread Canola Active Oil - nanoencapsulation of fortified phytosterols - reduce cholesterol intake by 14% Nano Encapsulation Nano-encapsulation in the form of anomicelles, liposomes or protein-based arrier systems has been used to develop delivery systems for additives and supplements in food and beverage products.
  10. 10. NANO ENCAPSULATION • ENHANCED NUTRIENT DELIVERY Nano-encapsulating improves solubility of vitamins, antioxidants, healthy omega oils and other ‘nutraceuticals’. • Nano capsules containing tuna fish oil (a source of omega 3 fatty acids) in “Tip-Top" Up bread.
  11. 11. Nano capsules It is a nano particle that consist of a shell and a space ,in which desired substance may be placed.  nano capsules are sub microscopic colloidal drug carrier systems composed of an oily or an aqueous core surrounded by a thin polymer membrane .
  12. 12. Nutraceuticals • Nutraceuticals must not only supplement the diet but should also aid in the prevention and/or treatment of disease and/or disorder. • Nutraceuticals are represented for use as a conventional food or as the sole item of meal or diet.
  13. 13. EDIBLE NANO COATINGS Most of us are familiar with the waxy coatings often used on apples. Now nanotechnology is enabling the development of nanoscale edible coatings as thin as 5nm wide, which are invisible to the human eye
  14. 14. Edible nano coatings could be used on meats, cheese, fruit and vegetables, confectionery, bakery goods and fast food. They could provide a barrier to moisture and gas exchange, act as a vehicle to deliver colours, flavours, antioxidants, enzymes and anti-browning agents, and could also increase the shelf life of manufactured foods, even after the packaging is opened . United States company Sono-Tek Corp. announced in early 2007 that it has developed an edible antibacterial nano coating which can be applied directly to bakery goods; it is currently testing the process with its clients .
  15. 15. PACKAGING Developing smart packaging to optimise product and increse shelf life Such packaging systems would be  Able to repair small holes/tears, Respond to environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and moisture changes), and Alert the customer if the food is contaminated. Nanofibers and Nanotubes
  16. 16. Nanofibers have only a few potential applications in the food industry. Produced by a manufacturing technique using electrostatic force, nanofibers which makes them ideal for serving as a platform for bacterial cultures. In addition, nanofibers could also serve as the structural matrix for artificial foods and environmentally friendly food- packaging material.
  17. 17. Nano composites • It is a polymer or co-polymer having dispersed in its nano particles .these may be different shape , but only one dimension • This technology was developed to improve barrier performance pertaining to gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. • It also enhances the barrier performance to • UV-rays, • Adding strength, stiffness, dimensional stability and heat resistance. Lighter Minimizes loss of C &STRONGER from Beer
  18. 18. • High barrier properties against the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavour compounds, and water vapour. Decreasing water vapour permeability is a critical issue in the development of biopolymers as sustainable packaging materials. The nano scale plate morphology of clays and other fillers promotes the development of gas barrier properties.
  19. 19. Intelligent packaging  printed indicators based on intelligent inks active tags, disposable power sources (logistics) product identification & anticounterfeiting (nano barcodes, nano taggants)
  20. 20. Smart packaging e.g. • hourglass-shaped freshness label for meat products . The label contains special ink that changes its color based on the amount of ammonia emitted by the meat (the older the meat, the more ammonia it releases). Like an hourglass, the bottom half of the label “fills up” as the meat ages. Consumers can judge the product’s freshness at a glance. • When the meat is no longer suitable for sale, the ink blocks the barcode at the bottom so that it cannot be scanned at the cash register.
  21. 21. Antimicrobial packaging • beneficial to the food industry • they can extend product shelf life • maintain food safety by reducing the growth rate of microorganisms. • The packaging system can both inhibit microbial growth on non-sterilized foods and maintain the sterility of pasteurized foods, thus preventing post-contamination.
  22. 22. Antimicrobial pack • Chemical nature of the anti-microbial agents; • Physical chemistry characteristics of foods; • Micro flora of foods and physiology of target microorganism; • Migration mechanisms of anti- microbial agents into foods; • Storage environments; • Film or container manufacturing processes and their influence on efficiency of anti-microbial additives; • Toxicity and regulatory issues;
  23. 23. • Organoleptical property of the anti-microbial agents. • Mach inability and process ability of the anti- microbial packaging on the packaging line materials. Research and development trends in anti-microbial packaging systems may progress to achieving more effectiveness and better anti- microbial activity within a broader spectrum, utilizing natural extracts, and creating new applications for non-food uses.
  24. 24. Contd….. • potassium sorbate on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) - cheese packaging; • calcium sorbate in CMC/paper constructions -bread wraps; • benzoic acid anhydride in LDPE - fish packages; imazalil in LDPE - bell peppers and cheeses; • grapefruit seed extract in LDPE -lettuce and soy bean sprouts.
  25. 25. Table I Short List of Anti-Microbial Agents for Use in Films Anti-Microbial Category Examples Organic Acids Salt, Acid, Anhydride Natural Derivatives Spice Extracts Enzymes Lysozyme, Glucose Oxidase Bacteroicins Nisin, Pediocin Chelators EDTA, Citric Acid Gases Carbon Dioxide, Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide Silver Ions, Salts
  26. 26. Nano Sensors used in Grain Storage Humidity Sensor Odour Sensor Acoustic Sensors Carbon dioxide Sensor Pressure Sensor Temperature Sensor Grain Bin
  27. 27. Contd.. SENSORS Physical Temperature, pressure Chemical O2, CO2, moisture, toxins Biological Enzyme activity, microbial contamination Imaging Tags
  28. 28. NOW STEP INTO FOOD INDUSTRY In Industry it takes a vital role in following Processing Packaging Safety and quality maintenance
  29. 29. Nanotechnology in the Food Market • Nanotechnology offers considerable opportunities for the development of innovative products and applications for agriculture, water treatment, food production, processing, preservation and packaging • It is expected that nanotechnology-derived food products will be increasingly available to consumers worldwide in the coming years.
  30. 30. A key application area of nanotechnology for food processing is the development of certain nano-structured (also termed as nano-textured) foodstuffs, such as spreads, mayonnaises, creams, yoghurts and ice creams. The nano-structuring of food materials has been claimed for new tastes, improved textures, consistency and stability of emulsions, compared to equivalent conventionally processed products.
  31. 31. The main advantage is said to be a better dispersability of water-insoluble additives in foodstuffs without the use of additional fat or surfactants, and enhanced tastes and flavours due to enlarged surface area of nano-sized additives over conventional forms A range of consumer products containing nano-sized additives is already available in the supplements, nutraceuticals and (health)food sectors. These include minerals, antimicrobials, vitamins, antioxidants, etc. Virtually all of these products also claim enhanced absorption and bioavailability in the body compared to their conventional equivalents
  32. 32. Beverages The advantage of nano-beverages is their higher concentration and high absorption characteristics. The colour of the herbal beverages is often unstable and nanotechnology may hold the key to this problem. thai-based beverage company is actively developing a set of dietary fruit drinks that contain nanoparticles. beverage 'shots' with botanical extracts are being developed from the extracts of natural plants such as curcuma, mangosteen, chili and roselle
  33. 33. wax-like nanocoating to extend shelf-life
  34. 34. Nano-nonstick coatings to make it easier to get the last drops of ketchup out of the bottle. Nano-nonstick coatings
  35. 35. "One new application for us is spraying nanomaterial suspensions onto biodegradable plastic food wrapping materials to preserve the freshness of food products," says its chairman and CEO. I
  36. 36. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM The US FDA has listed the following pathogens or pathogen products that could be used in biological warfare: • Smallpox (variola) • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) • Plague (yersinia pestis) • Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) • Brucellosis (Brucella abortus) • Q fever (Coxiella burnellii) • Botulism toxin (produced by clostridium botulinun) • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B New products to diagnose, counter and treat these public health threats Creation of civil emergency group to tackle emergencies. Create awareness among food handlers and follow practices of basic food safety handling
  37. 37. FOOD CONTACT WITH SUBSTANCES Packaging innovation to ensure food safety as certain components of packing like printing inks, labels, colours, seals can affect food quality. Innovative packaging like vaccum packaging, controlled atmosphere or modified atmospheric packaging (CAP or MAP). MAP involves sealing package under vaccum or one time gas flushing and sealing. Three types of gases may be used singly or in combination namely nitrogen, carbondioxide and oxygen.
  38. 38. NANO FILTERS Nano-filters will allow you to choose the amount of caffeine you want to remove from your coffee. Making tap water sterile should be possible too. Nano-filters - screens so small they can filter out micro-organisms and even viruses are used in the brewing and diary industry. • Lactose can now be filtered from milk, and replaced with another.
  39. 39. Plastic films • Plastic films -allow the food to stay fresher longer. These films are packed with silicate nanoparticles to reduce the flow of oxygen into the package and the leaking of moisture out of the package,
  40. 40. General applications • Ice cream-nano materials to make their products "look richer and better textured. • " Bread makers are spraying nanomaterials on their loaves "to make them shinier and help them keep microbe-free longer."
  41. 41. • Food storage bins with silver nanoparticles embedded in the plastic. The silver nanoparticles kill bacteria from any food previously stored in the bins, minimizing harmful bacteria. Food storage bins
  42. 42. Nano Bioluminescence Detection Spray Source: AgroMicron Ltd. Nanoengineered luminescent protein emits a visible glow to the surface of Salmonella and E.Coli
  43. 43. Not for human alone In theory, the nano-sized supplements, e.g. vitamins and minerals, developed for human (health)food applications can equally be used for animal feed. Some feed-grade nano-vitamin mixes are also available for use in poultry and livestock feed. Examples of the nano-sized additives specifically developed for animal feed include a natural biopolymer from yeast cell wall that is intended to bind mycotoxins to protect animals against mycotoxicosis,and the possible use of an aflatoxin binding nano-additive for animal feed, which is derived from modified nanoclay.
  44. 44. • Available Soon • Teeth cleaning chewing gum • Self-cleaning cutlery • Programmable drinks. Nano-scale sensors are in development that will monitor toxins and bacteria at all stages of food processing. • 'Smart' food packaging that will warn when oxygen has got inside, or if food is going off. • Reductions in fats and salts in processed foods. Unilever believes it can reduce the fat content of ice cream from 15 per cent to one per cent.
  45. 45. There are no warming labels on foods that contain nano foods because health officials believe there is no reason for caution of cancer Hundreds of peer-reviewed studies have shown that nanoparticles poes potential risks to human health The amount of nanomaterial in food may be small, but it can accumulate with repeated consumption Even non-nanomaterial may contain nanaparticles as those uaed in food packaging maight leach into food or beverages Nanoparticles have many properties that can make them potentially dangerous and hard to control. Scary Facts About “Nano Foods”
  46. 46. MAJOR FOOD AND NUTRITION COMPANIES INTEGRATING NANOTECHNOLOGY  Ajinomoto  Bayer  Nestle  Unilever  Cadbury Schweppes  Nichirei  Campbell Soup, etc  Friesland Food  Nestlé  Kraft Foods  Cargill  Pepsi-Cola Company  ConAgra Foods
  47. 47. Nestlé and Unilever are reported to be developing a nanoemulsion based ice cream with a lower fat content that retains a fatty texture and flavour .