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Nanotechnology in the Food Sector_2015

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Presentation from the Food Processing and Technology Conference held in 2015

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Nanotechnology in the Food Sector_2015

  1. 1. 20 nm Nanotechnology in the Food Sector – Tiny Particles, Big Effects Ralf Greiner Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Karlsruhe, Germany
  2. 2. Nanomaterials in the Food Sector Ø  nanotechnology applications are expected to bring changes to the food sector: §  improved production and processing techniques §  improved food contact materials §  modification of taste, texture and sensation §  monitoring food quality and freshness §  reduced fat and salt content §  enhanced nutrient absorption §  improved traceability and security of food 6/12/16 2MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  3. 3. Creation of Nanomaterials Top Down Ø  use of mechanical or thermal energy §  plant material, mineral materials Bottom Up Ø  creation of nanoparticles from singles molecules §  by chemical reactions (e.g. enzymatic cross-linking of proteins) §  molecular self association / self aggregation (e.g. micelles) 6/12/16 3MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  4. 4. Creation of Nanomaterials Nanotechnology versus Nanomaterials Ø  nanotechnologies result in nanoparticles Most do Not !!! Ø  nanoparticles derive from nanotechnologies Most do Not !!! 6/12/16 4MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  5. 5. Food Processing raw material Food Processing huge variety of food products naturally occurring nanostructures naturally occurring nanostructures + nanostructures introduced through processing proteins, starches, fats undergo structural changes at the nm and µm scales 6/12/16 5MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  6. 6. Ø  many food proteins are globular structures between 1 and 10 nm in size (true nanoparticles) Ø  structure of meat (myofibrils) Ø  the majority of polysaccharides and lipids are linear polymers less than one nm in thickness (1 dimensional nanostructures) Ø  the planer assemblies of cellulose fibrils in plant cell walls (2 dimensional nanostructure) Naturally Occurring Nanostructures 6/12/16 6MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  7. 7. Ø  many food processing operations such as coagulation, emulsifying or homogenising produce new nanostructures Ø  milk §  fat globules of about 100 nm in size are produced through homogenisation Ø  foams §  their creation and stabilisation requires the production of two dimensional nanostructures (e.g. the head on a glass of beer, ice cream, whipped cream, sauces, butter, margarine) Ø  custard / yogurt §  involves creation of three dimensional networks Nanostructures Introduced Through Processing 6/12/16 7MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  8. 8. Potential Applications of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Food Sector Nano outside Nano inside Nanotechnology/ Nanomaterials in the Food Sector Novel Food Structures e.g. nano- emulsions Food Supplements e.g. minerals Food Processing e.g. nanofilters Food Analysis e.g. nano-sensors Food Contact Materials e.g. packaging Agri- culture e.g. pesticides 6/12/16 8MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  9. 9. 6/12/16 9MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering Food Structures Properties Ø  texture Ø  consistency Ø  mouth feeling Ø  sensation Ø  energy density Ø  .... fat-reduced ice cream
  10. 10. Structuring of Foods Meat Substitute Alternative Protein Source Ø  calcium caseinate / fat 6/12/16 10 Kampers, 2011 MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  11. 11. Structuring of Foods Fat-reduced Mayonnaise 6/12/16 11 Emulsifier Water Oil Emulsifier Water Oil MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  12. 12. Food Additives and Supplements Silicon dioxide (E 551) Ø  dietary supplement (source of silicon) Ø  to improve technical properties §  nano-scale amorphous SiO2 è agglomerated particles §  anti-caking agent for powdery ingredients (e.g. whole egg powder, dried spices, tomato powder, coffee creamer) §  addition in the single-digit percentage range §  widely used since the 60ties 6/12/16 12MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  13. 13. Food Additives and Supplements Titanium dioxide (E 171) Ø  white pigment, icing material, flavour enhancer §  candies, confectionaries §  chewing gum §  food icing §  dried vegetables, nuts, seeds, soups, mustard, beer, wine Weir et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 2242−2250 (2012) 6/12/16 13MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  14. 14. Food Additives and Supplements Nano-lycopene (Lycovit®, since 2009 approved as a novel food) Ø  BASF produces a synthetic form of the tomato carotenoid lycopene Ø  mean particle diameter in the range of 300 nm Ø  nanoparticles in powders or in oil Ø  additive for beverages and other foods Ø  addition not only for health purposes, but also for colouring BASF, 2006powder particle 0.3 mm nanoparticles 300 nm 6/12/16 14MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  15. 15. Food Supplements Ø  bioavailability (nano-Se, nano-Pt, nano-Mg, nano-Zn, nano-Ca, nano-Fe) Nano-encapsulation Ø  bioavailability (e.g. fat-soluble vitamins) Ø  protection / stabilisation (e.g. acid-labile compounds) Ø  masking (e.g. omega-3 fatty acids) Ø  controlled release Food Additives and Supplements 6/12/16 15MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  16. 16. Organic Carrier Systems Ø  coenzyme Q10 / α-lipoic acid Ø  benzoic acid Ø  citric acid Ø  ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Ø  vitamin A, D, E, K Ø  soybean isoflavones Ø  ß-Carotene Ø  lycopene Ø  lutein Ø  omega-3 fatty acids Ø  phytosterols Examples: §  NovaSOL® solubilisates (Aquanova AG, Germany) §  NutraleaseTM (NutraLease Ltd., Israel) §  VESIsorb® (Vesifact AG, Switzerland) 6/12/16 16MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  17. 17. Organic Carrier Systems Slim Shake Vanilla RBC Life Sciences® Inc. (USA) §  silicon dioxide particles (4-6 nm) coated with flavour molecules Easy Iron, Sunactive FeTM Taiyo International, Inc. (Japan) §  iron supplemented milk (Maeil, Korea) Shemen Industries (Israel) §  active canola oil contains phytosterols 6/12/16 17MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  18. 18. Food Processing Nano-filtration Ø  nano-ceramics for restaurant deep-frying machines Ø  treatment of effluents from the food industry Ø  food industry §  global market for nanofiltration membranes should reach USD 310.5 million by 2012 §  the water treatment sector was projected to account for 72.7% of total revenues in 2007 §  the main applications of nanofiltration in food production are in the dairy and sugar industry §  around 300,000 m2 of nanofiltration membranes are assumed to be currently applied in the food nano-ceramic for deep-frying machines commercial air filter cartridge using nanofibre filter media 6/12/16 18MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  19. 19. 6/12/16 19MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering Food Analysis: Process- and Product Control Nano-sensors / Nano-indicators Ø  detection of food-borne pathogens Ø  detection of toxins, allergens etc. Ø  quality control (freshness etc.) Ø  traceability Ø  .... electronic tongue
  20. 20. Food Contact Materials Packaging / Surfaces Ø  anti-microbial coatings (e.g. nano-Ag) FresherLonger Miracle Food Storage, The Sharper Image (USA) Nano Silver Spray, Nanogist Co. Ltd. (South Korea) Anti-bacterial Kitchen Utensils, Nano Care Technology Ltd. (Hong Kong) Baby Milk Bottles with Nano-Silver-Soother, Baby Dream Co. Ltd. (South Korea) 6/12/16 20MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  21. 21. Food Contact Materials Packaging Ø  anti-microbial coatings (e.g. nano-Ag, nano-MgO, nano-ZnO, release-systems) Ø  improved mechanical and technical properties (e.g. nano-clay, nano-titanium nitride) Ø  improved barrier properties for gas and moisture (e.g. nano-clay) 6/12/16 21MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering ketchup bottle with a non-stick coating to improve emptying
  22. 22. Food Packaging composite of polyamide (nylon) + nano-clay •  used for: Ø  bottles (multi-layer) Ø  wraps, films Ø  containers •  trade names: Ø  Imperm® (Nanocor® Inc., USA)) Ø  AegisTM NC (Honeywell Specialty Polymers, USA) 6/12/16 22MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  23. 23. Food Packaging - Imperm® Ø  reduced entrance of oxygen (80%) and minimized loss of carbon dioxide Ø  lighter and stronger Ø  used in plastic beer bottles, films and multilayer bottles, could replace EVOH layer in ketchup bottles Nanoclay particle-based nanocomposite of Nanocor 6/12/16 23MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  24. 24. 6/12/16 24MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering Food Packaging composite of polyamide (nylon) + nano-clay •  used for: Ø  bottles (multi-layer) Ø  wraps, films Ø  containers •  trade names: Ø  Imperm® (Nanocor® Inc., USA) Ø  AegisTM NC (Honeywell Specialty Polymers, USA) composite of starch and / or cellulose + nano-clay •  used for: Ø  fruit bowls
  25. 25. Packaging Ø  anti-microbial coatings (e.g. nano-Ag, nano-MgO, nano-ZnO, release-systems) Ø  improved mechanical and technical properties (e.g. nano-clay, nano-titanium nitride) Ø  improved barrier properties for gas and moisture (e.g. nano-clay) Ø  UV-protection in transparent wraps, films or containers (e.g. nano-titanium dioxide) Ø  non-stick coating Ø  active and intelligent materials (e.g. nano-clay with metal oxides) Ø  .... 6/12/16 25MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering ketchup bottle with a non-stick coating to improve emptying Food Contact Materials
  26. 26. 6/12/16 26MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering Food Packaging Active Packaging Ø  actively changes the condition of the packaged food to extend shelf- life or to improve safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the food Intelligent Packaging Ø  monitor the conditions of packed foods to give information about the quality of the packed food during transport and storage ethylene scavenging foils for packaging of fruit products to prevent early ripening hydrogen sulphide indictor
  27. 27. Active Food Packaging composite of polyamide (nylon) + nano-clay + oxygen scavenger •  used for: Ø  bottles (multi-layer) •  trade names: Ø  AegisTM OX (Honeywell Specialty Polymers, USA) 6/12/16 27MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  28. 28. Intelligent Food Packaging nano-particle based intelligent inks •  used as „Printed Digital Content“ for: Ø  Food Packaging •  nano-scale pigments, colours, gravures: Ø  Inkbyte®, Finland reactive nano-layers •  used as a hydrogen sulphide indicator for: Ø  Food Packaging •  Raflatac® Pro Label: Ø  UPM Raflatac, Finland 6/12/16 28MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  29. 29. Food Contact Materials Surfaces Ø  anti-microbial properties (e.g. Nano-Ag) Ø  improved mechanical properties Ø  water- and dirt-repellent surfaces Ø  .... refrigerator with a nano-silver coating, Daewoo (South Korea) 6/12/16 29MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  30. 30. Ø  virtually all known applications of nanotechnology in food and food packaging are currently outside the EU, mainly in the USA, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan, China and Israel Ø  reservation on the EU market Market Situation Ø  market situation unclear §  no register existing (in France from 2013, in Belgium from 2014 on) §  up to now no labelling required (in the EU from December 2014 on) §  the presence of engineered nanomaterials could not be clearly established in many products Source: Chaudhry et al., 2008 6/12/16 30MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  31. 31. Thank You Very Much For Your Attention !! Ralf Greiner Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering Max Rubner-Institut Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9 • D-76131 Karlsruhe Tel.: ++49 (0)721 6625 300 • Fax: ++49 (0)721 6625 303 ralf.greiner@mri.bund.de • www.mri.bund.de Nanos (Greek) - dwarf 6/12/16 31MRI – Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering
  32. 32. Asian Food Regulation Information Service is a resource for the food industry. We have the largest database of Asian food regulations in the world – and it’s FREE to use. We publish a range of communication services (free and paid), list a very large number of food events and online educational webinars and continue to grow our Digital Library. Feel free to contact us anytime to talk about your specific requirements, offer comments, complaints or to compliment us. We look forward to hearing from you soon! www.asianfoodreg.com admin@asianfoodreg.com

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