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Intelligent packaging


Published on

Future food packaging : Intelligent Packaging
by Rishab

Published in: Food

Intelligent packaging

  1. 1. Intelligent Packaging
  2. 2. Introduction Food Packaging Packaging include a co-ordinated system of preparing goods for transport, distribution, storage, retailing & end-use, a means of ensuring safe delivery to the ultimate consumer in sound condition at optimum cost, and a techno-commercial function aimed at optimizing the costs of delivery while maximizing sales.
  3. 3. Functions of Food Packaging
  4. 4. Protection Convenience Containment Communication
  5. 5.  Intelligent packaging can be defined as “packaging that contains an external or internal indicator to provide information about aspects of the history of the package and/or the quality of the food”.  Intelligent packaging is an extension of the communication function of traditional packaging, and communicates information to the consumer based on its ability to sense, detect, or record external or internal changes in the product's environment. Intelligent Packaging
  6. 6. A packaging system that is capable of carrying out intelligent functions like  Detecting  Sensing  Recording  Tracing  Communicating  To facilitate decision- making  To extend shelf life  Enhance safety  Improve quality  Provide information  Warn about possible problems
  7. 7. Detecting Sensing Recording Tracing C Communicating
  8. 8. A. Improve product and product value B. Provide more convenience C. Provide protection against theft, counterfeiting and tampering Three types of intelligent packaging systems are used to :
  9. 9. 1) Quality Indicators Kimchi Freshness Indicator RipeSenseTM SensorQTM 2) Time-Temperature Indicators VITSABTM TEMPTIMETM MonitorMarkTM 3) Gas Concentration Indicators A. Improving product quality and product value
  10. 10. Quality or freshness indicators are used to indicate if the quality of the product have become unacceptable during storage, transport, retailing and in consumers home. Indicates the spoilage or lack or freshness of the product, in addition to temperature abuse or package leakage based on the reaction with volatile metabolites produced during ageing of foods and gives a visible colour change as an indicator of : • CO2 • Amines • Ammonia • H2S A.1. Quality Indicators
  11. 11. Specially designed for a commercial product of natural mixed fermentation owing principally to lactic acid bacteria. In optimal conditions the fermented product has a pH 4.2 and titrable acidity 0.6 – 0.8 % Kimchi Freshness Indicator
  12. 12.  Kimchi quality deteriorates from formation of excessive organic acids and loss of texture.  Change in CO2 concentration correlated highly with pH & titrable acidity. A colour indicator has been developed sensitive towards CO2 concentration.  The indicator ingredients consist of Ca(OH)2 as CO2 absorbent and bromocerol purple or methyl red as a chemical dye. How Kimchi works
  13. 13. Kimchi Freshness Indicator
  14. 14.  RipeSense® indicates the ripening of fruits  The label is attached to the inside of a four-piece PET clampshell punnet with a tamper-evident seal. Also protects the fruit from physical damage.  This technology was initially developed for fruits like peas, a fruit whose ripeness consumers have great difficulty in assessing. RipeSense
  15. 15.  There is a good correlation between the amount of aroma that is produced and the actual softening of the fruit. So as the fruit softens, it produces more aroma and sensor changes colour. How RipeSence works
  16. 16. RipeSense
  17. 17. SensorQTM  Beef and poultry  Sulfide gas, by microbial growth
  18. 18.  TTIs are devices that integrate the exposure to temperature over time by accumulating the effect of such exposures and exhibiting a change of colour (or other physical characteristics). Applicable only for temperature sensitive food.  TTIs can be divided into two categories: partial history indicators, which do not respond unless some predetermined threshold temperature is exceeded, and it is intended to identify abusive temperature conditions. And full history indicator, which respond continuously to all temperatures.  Selecting an indicator for a particular product in such a way that the indicator should most closely math the quality of the product as a function of time and temperature. So a Standard Guide for Selection of Time–Temperature Indicators “ASTM F 1416-96 (2003)” is formulated. A.2. Time-Temperature Indicators (TTI)
  19. 19.  The VITSABTM (Visual Indicator Tag System AB) time- temperature monitor is a full history indicator consisting of an inner transparent pouch with two compartments and an outer rectangular casing (62 x 25 mm). VITSAB
  20. 20.  One compartment of the inner pouch contains a proprietary lipase enzyme and a pH indicator dye and other contains a lipase substrate (glycerol trihexanoate) in fluid suspension.  The indicator is activated when barrier separating the two compartments is broken by an external pressure. As the hydrolysis of the substrate by the enzyme starts, the pH irreversibly changes and which is indicated by the gradual colour change of the dye How VITSAB works
  21. 21.  Master Carton Version – Designed as an early warning indicator, is applied to the cartons or pallets in factory, and deliberately activated by the pressure of the labeling machine. The colour change are as follows : 1) Green -> Excellent quality (80% or less of the product’s time-temp tolerance is used up) 2) Yellow -> Good quality (80% is used up) 3) Brown -> Uncertain quality (100% is used up) 4) Red -> Overexposed quality (130% or more is used up)  Consumer Version – The consumer time-temp monitor is designed to place on individual consumer packages and consists of a single ampoule, which is activated at the time of packaging. Its function is to show two colour signals : 1) Green -> Fit for consumption 2) Yellow -> Not fit for consumption Two types of VITSAB
  22. 22. VITSAB - pH change results in a color change
  23. 23.  The TEMPTIMETM like Fresh-Scan® labels provide a full history TTI, showing a response independently of a temperature threshold.  The indicator consists of three distinctive regions : I. An eight- digit no. unique to each indicator II. A two-digit code that identifies the indicator model III. A strip of material known as the indication band that changes colour as a result of accumulated temperature exposure.  The indicators have no means for in-field activation, and are shipped from the manufacturer already activated and responding to the storage temperature. To minimize indicator response prior to use, they are stored at -240C TEMPTIME
  24. 24.  The indication band contains diacetylene monomers (R – C Ξ C – C Ξ C – R), which appear colourless because they absorb light only in UV portion of the spectrum.  They undergo time-temp dependent polymerization to form a polymer with a conjugated backbone on which electrons are delocalized.  The delocalized electrons absorb light in the visible portion of the spectrum and the polymer appears coloured.  A change of the side group ‘R’ cause a dramatic change in the solid-state reaction kinetics. Generally follows Arrhenius-type kinetics over a wide range of temp range.  The colour change and the bar codes are monitored using specially programmed, hand-held microcomputer with an optical wand, which records the decrease in reflection as the indication band darkens. The product shelf life can be calculated from the change in colour, with respect to the prior time-temp experiences fed to the program. How TEMPTIME (Fresh-Scan) works
  25. 25. Fresh-Scan® label
  26. 26. The TEMPTIME Fresh-Check® indicator developed for consumers and consists of a small circle of polymer surrounded by a printed reference ring. TEMPTIME (Fresh-Check ®)
  27. 27.  The 3M MonitorMarkTM TTI is a partial history indicator is 1. a 88 x 19 mm rectangular cardboard containing 2. 28 x 12 mm pad of blue dye with a carrier substance, 3. plastic slip-tab for isolating the dye, 4. 7 mm blotter paper wick, 5. And 88 x 19 mm rectangular cardboard with five window cuts  The bottom piece has a pressure sensitive adhesive backing.  Removal of the slip-tab is needed to activate it. Before activation it is needed to be stored at temp not less than -400C  This indicator has a scale to indicate the length of accumulated exposure time above a predetermined temperature. MonitorMark
  28. 28.  Removal of slip-tab brings the pad (containing dye + carrier compound) and wick (blotter paper wick ) into contact.  The blue dye remaining within the pad until the carrier substance undergoes a phase change due to temperature exposure above a response temperature.  Typical esters are used as carrier compound like octyle octanoate (m.p. = -170C), dimethyle phthalate (m.p. = -1.10C), and butyl stearate (m.p. = 120C).  Indicator response is measured by reading the distance the dye front has migrated past the indicator’s window cuts How MonitorMark works
  29. 29. 3M MonitorMark
  30. 30.  Indicators (either in the form of a small packet or individually packed tablet/label) are available commercially which indicates the presence or absence of gases. For Eg. O2 indicator, water vapor indicator, hydrogen sulphide indicator.  O2 indicators can be included in anoxic packages to indicate the effective absorption of all O2, and to warn if there is a breakdown in the O2 barrier. A.3. Gas Concentration Indicator
  31. 31.  Most common O2 indicator is pink when the ambient O2 concentration is ≤0.1 % , turning blue when the O2 concentration is ≥0.5 %  The presence of O2 will be indicated in 5 minutes or less, while the change from blue to pink may take 3 hrs or more. How O2 indicator works
  32. 32. •Inadequate evacuation •Air enclosed in food and package •Permeabilit y of packaging material •Small leaks due to poor sealing How O2 comes into the package ?
  33. 33. O2 concentration in atmosphere ≤ 0.1 % → indicator is pink O2 concentration in atmosphere ≥ 0.5 % → indicator is blue
  34. 34.  More convenient due to value added function.  Improves lifestyle but high price.  Mainly three parts  B.1. Thermochromic Inks  B.2. Microwave doneness indicators(MDIs)  B.3. Radio frequency identification(RFID) B. Providing more convenience
  35. 35.  Depending on the composition the at specific temperature color will change, which indicates the state of product.  Like “TO HOT” ; “DRINK NOW”  First used for WINE labeling  Normal condition-shelf life 6 months or more  Mainly affected by  UV light  Temperature excess 1210 C  Aggressive solvent like Chlorine. B.1. Thermochromic Inks
  36. 36. Drink now Not ready
  37. 37.  Devices that detect and visually indicate state of readiness, when heated in micro oven.  Doneness indicator used to indicate product uniform heating  Temperature indicating papers and levels that would give a visual indication when the temperature reached, heated by microwave leading to false indications.  “Shielding doneness indicator(SHI)” are used to avoid the above problem.  In which an aluminum foil label on plastics lid.  Major disadvantage of SHI –observing whether or not color change without opening the MICROWAVE OVEN.  To overcome this problem INNOVTION HEATING are used. B.2. MDIs
  38. 38. Product covered with aluminum foil MIDs
  39. 39.  Used to radio frequencies to read information on a small device known tag.  Like microchip, look like banknote security ribbon  tags can applied to products and packaging in the form label.  RFID terms indicated device that can sensed at a distance by radio frequencies.  To date, RFIDs have been used to increase convenience and efficiency in supply chain management and traceability.  Normally applied to secondary or tertiary packaging. B.3 Radio frequency identification
  40. 40.  Protection against theft and counterfeiting is highly used for high valuable product. So not found widespread application.  To reduced the incident holograms, special inks and dyes, laser labels and electronic tags have been introduced.  Tampering is used to detect the major contamination.  Now a day intelligent tamper-evident technologies are being developed based on “LABELs” or ”SEALS” that is transparent until the package is opened or tampered,  Indicate by written “STOP” or “OPENED” which color permanently changed. C. Providing Protection against Theft, Counterfeiting and Tampering
  41. 41. The used of some types of intelligent packaging raised safety issues because of potential effect on the microbial effects.  Migration regulatory point of view ,intelligent packaging divided into three groups  Group 1. systems in which no chemical substances are deliberately transferred into the atmosphere inside the package. Not intended to come in contact with the foods.  Group 2. Systems that emit quality preserving agent such as CO2 or ethanol . They can only functions when the agents come to direct contact with the surface of food which influence microbial growth  Group 3. Systems from which preserving agents are deliberately transferred onto the surface of food. In order to function, there has to be direct contact between the active ingredient and the food. D. Safety and Regulatory
  42. 42.  1. There is possibility that the components making up absorbed or emitted in group 1 and group 2 will migrates to the food  2.There are the inherent toxicological properties of the agents in group 3 which deliberately contact with the food.  3. A unique regulatory issue arises with ethanol emits used on foods intended to be consumed without further cooking  4. If the ethanol residual in the foods exceeds threshold level(2%)not legally advise to sold it or commercial it . Possible regulatory issues
  43. 43. Due to high Cost , high environment safety purpose intelligent packaging are less used in food industry. Intelligent packaging concepts are already in commercial use in many countries U.S. and Japan.  In Europe , legislative restriction, fear of consumer, lack of knowledge about the effectiveness and economics and environment limited the application many types of intelligent.  Many companies are developing thin film transistor(TFTCs) that can deposited paper or plastics which enhance quality.  The used of intelligent packaging systems for food will become increasingly popular and new, innovations that deliver enhance the shelf life and greater assurance of safety will eventually become commonplace. Conclusion
  44. 44.  Robertson, G. L. 2006. Active and intelligent packaging. In Food packaging: principles and practice2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Rat on, Fl. Chap. 14.  De Jong, A.R., Boumans, H., Slaghek, T., Van Veen, J., Rijk, R. an d Van Zandvoort, M. 2005. Activeand intelligent packaging f or food: is it the future?. Food Additives & Contamina nts: Part A. 22:975979  Anonymous. 2007. Smart packaging: coming to a store near y ou. Food Engineering & Ingredients. 32:2023  Yam, K. L., Takhistov, P. T., and Miltz, J. 2005. Intelligent packag ing: concepts and applications. Journal of Food Science. 70: R1- R10  Internet & wiki-pedia. References
  45. 45. THANK YOU