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Nano tech. in medicine
Nano tech. in civil engineering
Nano tech. in energy( solar energy)
Nano tech. in military
Future of nanotechnology
Nanotechnology entails the measurement, prediction and construction
of materials on the scale of atoms and molecules. A nanometer is one-
billionth of a meter, and nanotechnology typically deals with particles
and structures larger than 1 nanometer, but smaller than 100
To put this into
perspective, consider that the width of human hair is approximately 80,000
nanometers and a very small fraction of the size of a living cell. Such a
particle can be seen only with the most powerful microscopes.
The application of nanotechnology in the field
of health care has come under great attention in
recent times. There are many treatments today
that take a lot of time and are also very
expensive. Using nanotechnology, quicker and
much cheaper treatments can be developed.
An example ( medical
Nano-devices are nanoparticles that are created for the
purpose of interacting with cells and tissues and
carrying out very specific tasks. The most famous
Nano-devices are the imaging tools. Oral pills can be
taken that contain miniature cameras. These cameras
can reach deep parts of the body and provide high
resolution pictures of cells as small as 1 micron in
width (A red blood cell is 7 microns wide). This makes
them very useful for diagnosis and also during
operations. Figure shows such cameras working with
other nanoparticles to get rid of a disease.
An accelerometer is a very useful Nano-device
that can be attached to the hip, knee or other
joint bones to monitor movements and strain
levels. Dressings can be coated with silver
nanoparticles to make them infection-resistant.
The nanoparticles kill bacteria and therefore
reduce chances of infection.
Civil engineering is directly related to construction and thus
to construction materials, the most important representative of
which are cement, concrete and steel as well as coating.
Monitoring of structure health which may be critical in several
constructions and solutions for healing or preventing damage
are also of interest for Civil- Engineers. Nanotechnology is
related to development of materials since at this scale
materials present different properties from the classical
microscopic materials and their properties as we know them.
Taking advantage of this particularity novel materials
containing nanoparticle have been developed for civil
As concrete is the most usable material in constructions industry it’s
been required to improve its quality, improving concrete properties by
addition of Nano particles have shown the significant improvement than
Nano concrete: a concrete made with Portland cement particles that are
less than 500nm cementing agent. Currently cement particle sizes range
from a few Nano meters to a maximum of about 100 micro meters.
Why Nano tech. for concrete?
1. Improves the materials bulk’s properties.
2. Ability to control or manipulate materials at the atomic scales.
3. To obtain thinner final products and faster setting time.
4. Cost effectiveness.
5. Lowered levels of environment contamination.
Concrete is used globally to build buildings, bridges, roads,
runways, sidewalks, and dams.
Three Gorges Dam in China as the biggest dam the world with
the 26 billion $ cost. Length 2335 m, height 181m, base width
Nanotechnologie For Steel:
The addition of copper nanoparticles reduces the surface
unevenness of steel which then limits the number of stress
risers, leading to increased safety, less need for
monitoring and more efficient materials use in
construction subjected to fatigue issues .Vanadium and
molybdenum nanoparticles improve the delayed fracture
problems associated with high strength bolts, reducing
the effects of hydrogen embrittlement and improving the
steel micro-structure. The addition of nanoparticles of
magnesium and calcium leads to an increase in weld
Nanotechnologies for Fire Protection:
Fire resistance of steel structures is often provided by a
coating produced by a spray-on cementitious process. Nano-
cement (made of Nano sized particles) has the potential to
create a tough, durable, high temperature coatings. This is
achieved by the mixing of carbon nanotubes with the
cementious material to fabricate fiber composites that can
inherit some of the outstanding properties of the nanotubes.
Nanotechnologies for Structural Monitoring:
Nano- and micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors have
been developed and used in construction to monitor and/or control the
environment condition and the materials/structure performance. Nano
sensor ranges from 10–9 to 10–5 m. These sensors could monitor internal
stresses, cracks and other physical forces in the structures during the
structures’ life. . Cement is indispensable for construction activity, so it is
tightly linked to the global economy. Cement production is growing by
2.5% annually, and is expected to rise from 2.55 billion tons in 2006 to 3.7-
4.4 billion tons by 2050.
Nowadays, our main energy sources for human activity are fossil and
mineral fuels, nuclear and hydroelectric sources. They are very harmful
to environment because they cause global warning, ozone layer
depletion, biosphere and geosphere destruction, and ecological
devastation. Consequently, the actual energy production can be
considered a harmful industry both in terms of pollution production and
environmental impact since the industrial revolution in the 18th century.
Around 80% of CO2 emissions in the world are originated by the energy
sector. Contrarily, clean power generation processes are suitable from
renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, ocean
thermal and tidal. Nevertheless, the energy production alternatives are
still limited because combining their high cost (manufacturing cost
versus efficiency) and the implications on the environment (wildlife cost,
hazardous wastes, cooling water, etc.) makes these processes unsuitable.
Focusing on the energy domain, nanotechnology has the potential to
significantly reduce the impact of energy production, storage and use.
Even if we are still far away from a truly sustainable energy system, the
scientific community is looking at a further development of energy
Nano materials in the Energy Sector, the most promising application
fields for the energy conversion domain will be mainly focused on solar
energy (mostly photovoltaic technology for local supply), hydrogen
conversion and thermoelectric devices. This review provides an
overview of the contribution of nanotechnology to the solar and the
hydrogen economies and to sustainable ways to store energy as a step
forward a more sustainable use of energy.
Nano tech. in military:
What can nanotechnology do for the military? Nanotechnology
research in the following areas can help the military:
Military personnel health
The Military Impact of Nanotechnology, the science of designing
microscopic structures in which the materials and their relations are
machined and controlled atom-by-atom, holds the promise of
numerous applications. Lying at the crossroads of
engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology, nanotechnology may
have considerable impact in all areas of science and technology.
However, it is certain that the most significant near term applications
of nanotechnology will be in the military domain. In fact, it is under
the names of 'micromechanical engineering' and
'microelectromechanical systems' (MEMS) that the field of
nanotechnology was born a few decades ago - in nuclear weapons
Nuclear materials are the key ingredients
in nuclear weapons. They include
fissile, fissionable and source materials.
Fissile materials are those which are
composed of atoms that can be split by
neutrons in a self-sustaining chain-
reaction to release energy, and include
plutonium-239 and uranium-235.
Fissionable materials are those in which
the atoms can be fused in order to release
energy, and include deuterium and
tritium. Source materials are those which
are used to boost nuclear weapons by
providing a source of additional atomic
particles for fission. They include
tritium, polonium, beryllium, lithium-6
Effect of nuclear weapon:
Nuclear explosions produce both immediate and delayed
destructive effects. Blast, thermal radiation, and prompt ionizing
radiation cause significant destruction within seconds or minutes
of a nuclear detonation. The delayed effects, such as radioactive
fallout and other environmental effects, inflict damage over an
extended period ranging from hours to years.
FUTURE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
The future of nanotechnology is completely uncharted territory. It
is almost impossible to predict everything that Nano science will
bring to the world considering that this is such a young science.
There is the possibility that the future of nanotechnology is very
bright, that this will be the one science of the future that no other
science can live without. There is also a chance that this is the
science that will make the world highly uncomfortable with the
potential power to transform the world.
dEDICATED TO MAINTAINING A NATURAL,
SAFE AND GREEN ENVIRONMENT…
so that our children can enjoy the same resources
and beauty that we have for generations.