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Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology in engineering,medical,Military....

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  1. 1. Nanotechnology KARDAN UNIVERSITY
  2. 2.  Definition  Nano tech. in medicine  Nano tech. in civil engineering  Nano tech. in energy( solar energy)  Nano tech. in military  Future of nanotechnology Contents:
  3. 3. Definition  Nanotechnology entails the measurement, prediction and construction of materials on the scale of atoms and molecules. A nanometer is one- billionth of a meter, and nanotechnology typically deals with particles and structures larger than 1 nanometer, but smaller than 100 nanometers. To put this into perspective, consider that the width of human hair is approximately 80,000 nanometers and a very small fraction of the size of a living cell. Such a particle can be seen only with the most powerful microscopes.
  5. 5.  The application of nanotechnology in the field of health care has come under great attention in recent times. There are many treatments today that take a lot of time and are also very expensive. Using nanotechnology, quicker and much cheaper treatments can be developed.
  6. 6. An example ( medical tools):  Nano-devices are nanoparticles that are created for the purpose of interacting with cells and tissues and carrying out very specific tasks. The most famous Nano-devices are the imaging tools. Oral pills can be taken that contain miniature cameras. These cameras can reach deep parts of the body and provide high resolution pictures of cells as small as 1 micron in width (A red blood cell is 7 microns wide). This makes them very useful for diagnosis and also during operations. Figure shows such cameras working with other nanoparticles to get rid of a disease.
  7. 7.  An accelerometer is a very useful Nano-device that can be attached to the hip, knee or other joint bones to monitor movements and strain levels. Dressings can be coated with silver nanoparticles to make them infection-resistant. The nanoparticles kill bacteria and therefore reduce chances of infection.
  8. 8. Mri checking the tumor tumor
  9. 9. Nano tech. in civil engineering
  10. 10.  Civil engineering is directly related to construction and thus to construction materials, the most important representative of which are cement, concrete and steel as well as coating.  Monitoring of structure health which may be critical in several constructions and solutions for healing or preventing damage are also of interest for Civil- Engineers. Nanotechnology is related to development of materials since at this scale materials present different properties from the classical microscopic materials and their properties as we know them. Taking advantage of this particularity novel materials containing nanoparticle have been developed for civil engineering application.
  11. 11. Construction main materials steel coating concrete
  12. 12. Concrete:  As concrete is the most usable material in constructions industry it’s been required to improve its quality, improving concrete properties by addition of Nano particles have shown the significant improvement than conventional concrete.  Nano concrete: a concrete made with Portland cement particles that are less than 500nm cementing agent. Currently cement particle sizes range from a few Nano meters to a maximum of about 100 micro meters.  Why Nano tech. for concrete? 1. Improves the materials bulk’s properties. 2. Ability to control or manipulate materials at the atomic scales. 3. To obtain thinner final products and faster setting time. 4. Cost effectiveness. 5. Lowered levels of environment contamination.
  13. 13.  Concrete is used globally to build buildings, bridges, roads, runways, sidewalks, and dams.  Three Gorges Dam in China as the biggest dam the world with the 26 billion $ cost. Length 2335 m, height 181m, base width 115m.
  14. 14. Nanotechnologie For Steel:  The addition of copper nanoparticles reduces the surface unevenness of steel which then limits the number of stress risers, leading to increased safety, less need for monitoring and more efficient materials use in construction subjected to fatigue issues .Vanadium and molybdenum nanoparticles improve the delayed fracture problems associated with high strength bolts, reducing the effects of hydrogen embrittlement and improving the steel micro-structure. The addition of nanoparticles of magnesium and calcium leads to an increase in weld toughness.
  15. 15. Nanotechnologies for Fire Protection:  Fire resistance of steel structures is often provided by a coating produced by a spray-on cementitious process. Nano- cement (made of Nano sized particles) has the potential to create a tough, durable, high temperature coatings. This is achieved by the mixing of carbon nanotubes with the cementious material to fabricate fiber composites that can inherit some of the outstanding properties of the nanotubes.
  16. 16. Nano cements
  17. 17. Nanotechnologies for Structural Monitoring:  Nano- and micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors have been developed and used in construction to monitor and/or control the environment condition and the materials/structure performance. Nano sensor ranges from 10–9 to 10–5 m. These sensors could monitor internal stresses, cracks and other physical forces in the structures during the structures’ life. . Cement is indispensable for construction activity, so it is tightly linked to the global economy. Cement production is growing by 2.5% annually, and is expected to rise from 2.55 billion tons in 2006 to 3.7- 4.4 billion tons by 2050.
  19. 19.  Nowadays, our main energy sources for human activity are fossil and mineral fuels, nuclear and hydroelectric sources. They are very harmful to environment because they cause global warning, ozone layer depletion, biosphere and geosphere destruction, and ecological devastation. Consequently, the actual energy production can be considered a harmful industry both in terms of pollution production and environmental impact since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. Around 80% of CO2 emissions in the world are originated by the energy sector. Contrarily, clean power generation processes are suitable from renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, ocean thermal and tidal. Nevertheless, the energy production alternatives are still limited because combining their high cost (manufacturing cost versus efficiency) and the implications on the environment (wildlife cost, hazardous wastes, cooling water, etc.) makes these processes unsuitable.
  20. 20.  Focusing on the energy domain, nanotechnology has the potential to significantly reduce the impact of energy production, storage and use. Even if we are still far away from a truly sustainable energy system, the scientific community is looking at a further development of energy nanotechnologies.  Nano materials in the Energy Sector, the most promising application fields for the energy conversion domain will be mainly focused on solar energy (mostly photovoltaic technology for local supply), hydrogen conversion and thermoelectric devices. This review provides an overview of the contribution of nanotechnology to the solar and the hydrogen economies and to sustainable ways to store energy as a step forward a more sustainable use of energy.
  21. 21. Nano tech. in military:  What can nanotechnology do for the military? Nanotechnology research in the following areas can help the military:  Fabrics/Materials  Robotics  Security  Weapons  Vehicles  Military personnel health
  22. 22. Nuclear weapons  The Military Impact of Nanotechnology, the science of designing microscopic structures in which the materials and their relations are machined and controlled atom-by-atom, holds the promise of numerous applications. Lying at the crossroads of engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology, nanotechnology may have considerable impact in all areas of science and technology. However, it is certain that the most significant near term applications of nanotechnology will be in the military domain. In fact, it is under the names of 'micromechanical engineering' and 'microelectromechanical systems' (MEMS) that the field of nanotechnology was born a few decades ago - in nuclear weapons laboratories.
  23. 23. Nuclear materials:  Nuclear materials are the key ingredients in nuclear weapons. They include fissile, fissionable and source materials. Fissile materials are those which are composed of atoms that can be split by neutrons in a self-sustaining chain- reaction to release energy, and include plutonium-239 and uranium-235. Fissionable materials are those in which the atoms can be fused in order to release energy, and include deuterium and tritium. Source materials are those which are used to boost nuclear weapons by providing a source of additional atomic particles for fission. They include tritium, polonium, beryllium, lithium-6 and helium-3
  24. 24. Effect of nuclear weapon:  Nuclear explosions produce both immediate and delayed destructive effects. Blast, thermal radiation, and prompt ionizing radiation cause significant destruction within seconds or minutes of a nuclear detonation. The delayed effects, such as radioactive fallout and other environmental effects, inflict damage over an extended period ranging from hours to years.
  25. 25. FUTURE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY  The future of nanotechnology is completely uncharted territory. It is almost impossible to predict everything that Nano science will bring to the world considering that this is such a young science. There is the possibility that the future of nanotechnology is very bright, that this will be the one science of the future that no other science can live without. There is also a chance that this is the science that will make the world highly uncomfortable with the potential power to transform the world.
  26. 26. dEDICATED TO MAINTAINING A NATURAL, SAFE AND GREEN ENVIRONMENT… so that our children can enjoy the same resources and beauty that we have for generations.