General Management

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General Management

  1. 1. General Management By Prashant Mehta Assistant Professor National Law University, Jodhpur Email: prashantmehta1@rediffmail.com
  2. 3. MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Management comprises planning , organizing , staffing , leading or directing, facilitating and controlling or manipulating an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. </li></ul>
  3. 4. MANAGEMENT MODELS <ul><li>TRADITIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Managing Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Command and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Blame Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Averse </li></ul><ul><li>MODERN </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Resources & Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Creating Value </li></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging Radical Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Taking </li></ul>
  4. 5. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT (FAYOL)
  5. 6. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
  6. 7. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
  7. 8. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Planning A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities. / It is first function of management Planning Concept What is Goal / Where are we in Relation to Plan / Which Factor will help or hinder us in reaching the Goal / What alternatives are available to us to reach goal / Which is best alternative Planning Achieves By Determination of Resource Requirement / Identification of Number of Type of Personnel / Development of foundation of Organizational Environment / Determination of Standards against which the progress is measured
  8. 9. TYPES OF PLANS <ul><li>SINGLE USE PLANS </li></ul><ul><li>GOALS (SMART) </li></ul><ul><li>S – SPECIFIC, STRETCHABLE / M – MEASURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>A – ACHIEVABLE, ATTAINABLE / R – REALISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>T – TIME BOUND </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Action orientation , Open Ended – Maximize, Optimize, Minimize, Level / Division based </li></ul><ul><li>STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific path to achieve objectives and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product / Market, Future growth, Competitive Advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinction competence, Synergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy Formulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External – Internal Analysis , Alternatives, Evaluation, Choice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STANDING PLANS </li></ul><ul><li>POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency of decisions, Recurrent decisions, Compatible decisions, Decisions over time, Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>Specific method and sequence of performing activity </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>Activities derived from Policy </li></ul>
  9. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF PLANNING
  10. 11. STRATEGIC PLANNING
  11. 12. TACTICAL PLANNING
  12. 13. OPERATIONAL PLANNING UNCERTAIN FACTORS Political Event s of Far Reaching Nature Government Policies and Programmes General Economic Events & Conditions Technological Change Market Conditions International Events
  13. 14. ORGANIZING <ul><li>Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four Distinct Activities in Organizing: </li></ul><ul><li>To determine what work activities have to be done to accomplish organizational objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>To classify the type of work and group needed. </li></ul><ul><li>To assign work to individuals and delegate appropriate authority </li></ul><ul><li>To design a hierarchy of decision making relationship </li></ul>
  14. 15. WHAT ORGANIZING DOES CLARIFIED WORK ENVIRONMENT A COORDINATED ENVIRONMENT A FORMAL DECISION MAKING STRUCTURE
  15. 16. ORGANIZING PROCESS
  16. 17. STAFFING
  17. 18. STAFFING Selecting and training individuals for specific job functions , and charging them with the associated responsibilities . Number of employed personnel in an organization or program . Also called workforce .
  18. 19. STAFFING PROCESS <ul><li>Manpower Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Induction, Orientation, and Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Remuneration </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion and Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Separations </li></ul>
  19. 20. DIRECTING <ul><li>DIRECTING is said to be a process in which the managers instruct, guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve predetermined goals. Directing is said to be the heart of management process. Planning , organizing , staffing have got no importance if direction function does not take place. </li></ul>
  20. 21. GUIDELINES FOR DIRECTING <ul><li>DONT MAKE IT A STRUGGLE FOR POWER </li></ul><ul><li>AVOID AND OFFHAND MANNER </li></ul><ul><li>WATCH OUT FOR YOUR WORDS </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T ASSUME THAT THE WORKER UNDERSTANDS </li></ul><ul><li>BE SURE TO GET FEEDBACK RIGHT AWAY </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T GIVE TOO MANY ORDERS </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDE JUST ENOUGH DETAIL </li></ul><ul><li>WATCH OUT FOR CONFLICTING INSTRUCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T CHOOSE ONLY THE WILLING WORKER </li></ul><ul><li>TRY NOT TO PICK ON ANYONE </li></ul><ul><li>ABOVE ALL DON’T PLAY THE “BIG SHOT” </li></ul>
  21. 22. DIRECTION CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Pervasive Function - Directing is required at all levels of organization. Every manager provides guidance and inspiration to his subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Activity - Direction is a continuous activity as it continuous throughout the life of organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Human Factor - Directing function is related to subordinates and therefore it is related to human factor. Since human factor is complex and behaviour is unpredictable, direction function becomes important. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Activity - Direction function helps in converting plans into performance. Without this function, people become inactive and physical resources are meaningless. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Function - Direction function is carried out by all managers and executives at all levels throughout the working of an enterprise, a subordinate receives instructions from his superior only. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate Function - Direction is supposed to be a function dealing with human beings. Human behaviour is unpredictable by nature and conditioning the people’s behaviour towards the goals of the enterprise is what the executive does in this function. Therefore, it is termed as having delicacy in it to tackle human behaviour. </li></ul>
  22. 23. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS AT VARIOUS LEVELS
  23. 24. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership has been described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you boil it down, contemporary leadership seems to a matter of aligning people toward common goals and empowering them to take the actions needed to reach them.” </li></ul>
  24. 25. MANAGERS VS LEADERS <ul><li>Manager Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Administers </li></ul><ul><li>A copy </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on systems and structures </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on control </li></ul><ul><li>Short range view </li></ul><ul><li>Asks how and when </li></ul><ul><li>Eye on bottom line </li></ul><ul><li>Imitates </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Classic good soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Does things right </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Innovates </li></ul><ul><li>An original </li></ul><ul><li>Develops </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on people </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires trust </li></ul><ul><li>Long range perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Asks what and why </li></ul><ul><li>Eye on horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Originates </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Own person </li></ul><ul><li>Does the right thing </li></ul>
  25. 26. LEADERSHIP TRAITS
  26. 27. FUNCTIONS OF LEADER
  27. 28. LEADERSHIP AUTOCRATIC STYLES Having an autocratic leadership style is when a leader dominantly tells their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their team. Studies show that if used predominantly, employees resist, productivity declines and turnover increases.
  28. 29. LEADERSHIP DEMOCRATIC STYLES Having an democratic leadership style is when This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority.
  29. 30. LEADERSHIP FREE REIN STYLES Having an Free Rein leadership style is In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it.
  30. 32. TIPS FOR GOOD LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Prioritize request from superiors & keep them informed of progress . </li></ul><ul><li>Handle official paper only once. This shows efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and Follow up on status of work and your staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent in behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Be Predictable and Reliable. This shows more confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan your work and then work your plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Educate, and train young people. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate your people to accomplish goals you have said. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept new responsibility willingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a role model. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a person who could be counted on to get the job done. </li></ul>
  31. 33. MANAGEMENT STYLES <ul><li>Managers have to perform many roles in an organization and how they handle various situations will depend on their style of management. A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager. There are two sharply contrasting styles that will be broken down into smaller subsets later: </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic - Leader makes all decisions unilaterally. </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive - Leader permits subordinates to take part in decision making and also gives them a considerable degree of autonomy in completing routine work activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Combining these categories with democratic (subordinates are allowed to participate in decision making) and directive (subordinates are told exactly how to do their jobs) styles gives us four distinct ways to manage: </li></ul><ul><li>Directive Democrat: Makes decisions participatively; closely supervises subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Directive Autocrat: Makes decisions unilaterally; closely supervises subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive Democrat: Makes decisions participatively; gives subordinates latitude in carrying out their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive Autocrat: Makes decisions unilaterally; gives subordinates latitude in carrying out their work. </li></ul>
  32. 36. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP <ul><li>In what situations would each style be appropriate? Inappropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Managers must also adjust their styles according to the situation that they are presented with. Below are four quadrants of situational leadership that depend on the amount of support and guidance needed: </li></ul><ul><li>Telling: Works best when employees are neither willing nor able to do the job (high need of support and high need of guidance). </li></ul><ul><li>Delegating: Works best when the employees are willing to do the job and know how to go about it (low need of support and low need of guidance). </li></ul><ul><li>Participating: Works best when employees have the ability to do the job, but need a high amount of support (low need of guidance but high need of support). </li></ul><ul><li>Selling: Works best when employees are willing to do the job, but don’t know how to do it (low need of support but high need of guidance). </li></ul><ul><li>The different styles depend on the situation and the relationship behavior (amount of support required) and task behavior (amount of guidance required). </li></ul>
  33. 37. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

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