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Australian region.

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Australian region, Fauna of australian region, biogeographical region

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Australian region.

  1. 1. An introduction of Biogeography and detail study of Fauna of Australian Region Prepared and Presented by : Pradip subedi
  2. 2. Biogeography  The branch of biology which deals with the geographical distribution of animals and plants is called Biogeography. Biogeography is a branch of geography that studies the past and present distribution of the world's many species.
  3. 3. History of biogeography  The study of biogeography gained popularity with the work of Alfred Russel Wallace in the mid-to-late 19th Century. Wallace, originally from England, was a naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. He first extensively studied the Amazon River and then the Malaya Archipelago (the islands located between the mainland of Southeast Asia and Australia). During his time there, he examined the flora and fauna and came up with the Wallace Line - a line that divides Indonesia apart and the distribution the animals found there. Those closer to Asia were said to be more related to Asian animals while those close to Australia were more related to the Australian animals. Because of his extensive early research, Wallace is often called the "Father of Biogeography."
  4. 4. Zoogeography  The branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of animal species The branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species. Phytogeography
  5. 5. Six zoogeographical regions -  A. Palaeartic region:- it includes Europe, temperate Asia, North Africa and Arabia  B. Nearctic region:- It includes North America and Greenland.  C. Ethiopian region:- It includes whole of Africa, Arabia, South of the trophic cancer and Madagascar.  D.Neotropical region:- It includes whole of south and central America and West indias.  E. Australian region: It includes New guinea and Neighboring Islands.  F. Oriental region:- It includes India, Srilanka, Indochina Nepal and Malaya.
  6. 6. Zoogeographic realms
  7. 7. Extent  Australian region includes the whole of Australia, New zealand, New Guinea and neighboring islands and practically the whole islands in the pacific ocean. The major islands are: New Zealand and Auckland island, Tasmania and Australia
  8. 8. Climate  The northern part of the region, north Australia and New Guinea lies with in the tropics with high summer temperate and much other the area is covered by rain forest. The interior of Australian continent is also hot but dry. While further south the climate becomes mainly temperate.
  9. 9. Fauna of Australian Region :  Many Zoogeography workers thought that Australia and America might have connected by a landmass. This landmass is called “Gondwana landmass”. Because of this landmass the fauna of Australia and America are similar. But after sometime this Gondwana landmass was submerged, Australia as separated. Hence Australian fauna become isolated. In this region Eutherian mammals were not invaded because of the absence of Carnivorous Eutherians. Marsupials have in- creased in their number. Many important Marsupials were developed.
  10. 10. Zooogical Characteristics  There are 134 families of terrestrial vertebrates among them 30 are peculiar. Mammals- 8 Birds- 17 Reptiles- 3 Amphibians- 2
  11. 11. Mammals  Peculiar families Macropodidae( Kangaroos) Phalangeridae ( Phalangers) Phascolorctidae (Koala) Peramelidae(Bandicoots) Notoryctidae( Marsupial mole) Dasyuridae( Dasyurus) Echidnidae(Echidna) Ornithorhynchidae( Ornithorhynchus)
  12. 12. Other mammals are represented by:- Dendrologous Pteropus (Flying fox), Ratus ratus (Rat), Equs equs (Horse) Equs acinus (Donkey) Sus (Pig).
  13. 13. 1. Kangaroo 2. Dasyrus 3.Phalangers 4. koala
  14. 14. Spiny ant eater Duck Billed Platypus Bandicoot
  15. 15. Fox with wings≠ flying fox
  16. 16. Flying fox
  17. 17. Birds  58 families of birds are present  44 families of birds are more or less widely distributed.  Among them 17 are peculiar .
  18. 18. Peculiar birds of Australian region  Birds of paradise  Bower Birds  Honey eaters  Drepains  Scrub birds  Own parrots  Kagu  Crowned pigeons  Tooth billed pigeon  Kiwis  Emu  Crosso waries
  19. 19. In this region flightless birds are common. 1) Apteryx (Kiwi); It is present only in Newzealand. 2) Dromaeus (Emu) New Guinea.’ 3) Cr0sso waries -Present in Australia.
  20. 20. Common Avian Fauna Shared with Oriental region These flightless birds are common in this region. The other birds can be seen in this region are 1) Pigeon (Columbia livia) 2) Duck 3) Crane 4) Crow 5) Passer domesticus (Sparrow) 6) Tooth billed pigeon.
  21. 21. Birds of Paradise Honey eater Bower bird Kagu Scrub birds
  22. 22. Kiwi Crowned Pigeon Tooth billed Pigeon
  23. 23. Reptiles  Pygopodiae( scale footed lizard)  Hatterridae (Tuatra)  Carettchelydidae (Fly river Turtle) Uniquely, Australia has more venomous than non-venomous species of snakes  Reptiles in Australian Region:  1) In Newzealand snakes are absent.  2) Sphenodon is seen only in this region.  3) Varanus (Monitor Lizard)  4) Chamaeleon  5 Calotes versicolor  6) Mabuya etc  7) Testudo elegans  8) Trionyx  9) Caretta caretta…..Reptiles are seen.
  24. 24. Fly river turtle
  25. 25. Testudo elagans Trionyx Caretta caretta
  26. 26. chaemelon Tautra Mabuya
  27. 27. Amphibians  Ceratobatrachidae (Ceratobatrachus)  Genyophrynidae ( Genophyrne) There are very few amphibians. The common toad and tailed amphibians are absent while Hyla and Rana are the Australian representative frogs. Rana species, Hyla arbouria , Micro hyla, Rhachophorus, Alytes etc., Amphibians are common.
  28. 28. Alytes Microhyla ornata rhachophorus
  29. 29. Fishes in Australian region  : In this region the most important fish is a lung fish.  Ceratodous is seen in this region. It is called “Australian Lung Fish”. In  this region many other fresh water and marine fishes are present.  1) Scoliodon.  2) Macarell.  3) Cynoglosus.  4) Catla catla.  5) Anabas.  6)Saccobranchus.
  30. 30. ceratodus
  31. 31. Subregion of Australian Region  a) Australian subregion.  b) Austromalayan Subregion.  c) Polynesian Subregion.  d) Newzealand Subregion.
  32. 32. a) Australian Subregion  : It includes whole Australia and Tasmania. This region is located towards Southwest of Pacific ocean. In this region very peculiar fauna is seen. It is because this part is separated from the main land by a big stretch of Ocean. It shows tropical and temperate climate. In this subregion 34 genera of marsupials included. Hence it is called “Home of Marsupials”.  Tailed Amphibians are-reported in this region. Flightless birds like Emus are included in this region.
  33. 33. Australian subregion: Home of marsupials
  34. 34. b) Austromalayan Subregion :  It includes all the islands of the Malaya archipelago not included in the oriental region together with New guinea and Solomon islands. In this sub region there are 113 families of terrestrial vertebrates of which 4 are peculiar.  Crowned pigeon Fly river turtle Bower Birds  Honey eaters Loris etc
  35. 35. c) Polynesian Subregion  The rest of the islands as far north as the Tropic of Cancer and including the Sandwich Islands are embraced in the Polynesian sub-region.  Tooth billed Pigeons are common.
  36. 36. d) Newzealand Subregion  In this region Newzealand, Auckland, campbell and Macquaire islands are included   In this subregion Newzealand is included.  1) In this subregion snakes are absent  2) Sphenodon a living fossil is confined to this region only.  3) In this region Kiwi flightless birds are present. Kiwi is the National bird of Newzealand.  4) Rats and Bats are common.  5). Only one frog Liopelma is peculiar.
  37. 37. THANK YOU

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