Unit 1 sentence structures


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Unit 1 sentence structures

  1. 1. Unit 1: Sentence structures & Types of Sentences
  2. 2. Are these sentences? <ul><li>Made in China </li></ul><ul><li>Do you like? </li></ul><ul><li>Ready? </li></ul><ul><li>How to cook Tom Yam Koong. </li></ul><ul><li>Jane jogs every evening. </li></ul><ul><li>I do. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a sentence? <ul><li>A sentence contains at least one main clause (subject + verb) and a complete idea . </li></ul><ul><li>Clauses = Subject + verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main clause expresses a complete idea . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinate clause does not express a complete idea. It begins with a subordinator (or subordinate conjunction). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Example <ul><li>Although he seldom plays , Raymond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S1 V1 S2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is an excellent golfer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raymond is an excellent golfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S1 V1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>although he seldom plays . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S2 V2 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>There is an implicit assumption that </li></ul><ul><li>leaders make a difference . </li></ul><ul><li>subordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Main clause </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate clause </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The ability to work collaboratively with others is becoming an essential component of contemporary school reform. </li></ul><ul><li>How many clauses? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the verb? And the subject? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The theory and research on collaboration have offered definitions of the term that have included several key components. </li></ul><ul><li>How many clauses are there? </li></ul><ul><li>What is/ are the verb(s)? And the subject (s)? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Parts of Speech
  9. 9. Nouns <ul><li>Proper nouns : Thaksin University, </li></ul><ul><li>Kanchanawanit Road, James Bond </li></ul><ul><li>Common Nouns: a computer, a table, mother, a student, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns can be used as a subject (in front of a verb) or an object (after a verb or a preposition). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns can be used as a subject (in front of a verb) or as an object (after a verb or a preposition). </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different kinds of pronouns. (details in handouts) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Verbs <ul><li>There are 2 kinds of verbs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action verbs : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transitive verbs – followed by a noun (object) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John made an apple pie for me. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S V O </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Intransitive verbs – no objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hans ran all the way home after the game. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking verbs : followed by an adjective or a noun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helen is a student in our school. </li></ul><ul><li>S V N = complement </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adjectives <ul><li>Modify and describe a noun or a pronoun: a small round table </li></ul><ul><li>Adj. may come after a linking verb or be placed in front of the noun. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A poisonous plant is dangerous . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Example <ul><li>Where reflection is absent , there </li></ul><ul><li>is the constant risk of making poor </li></ul><ul><li>decisions and bad judgments . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Adverbs <ul><li>Modify verbs, adjectives or adverbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The president walked across the room quickly . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thelma almost always arrives on time for work. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Leaders actively shape and construct </li></ul><ul><li>their experience by selectively attending </li></ul><ul><li>to particular situations. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Prepositions <ul><li>Links a noun or a pronoun to the rest of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepo. + Noun = prepositional phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cat from next door caught a rat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The burglar jumped from the window of our bedroom . </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The role of the teacher is to encourage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N adj . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the learners to develop their skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The creative leaders exemplify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creatively in their own behaviour . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adv. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conjunctions <ul><li>Co-ordinating conjunctions: </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking is an important and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vital topic in modern education so now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all educators are interested in teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical thinking to their students. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When people perceive the locus of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control to reside within themselves , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they are more creative and productive. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Review: Parts of speech <ul><li>Needs analysis is a useful tool to </li></ul><ul><li>adj. + noun </li></ul><ul><li>understand students’ needs and to help </li></ul><ul><li>noun </li></ul><ul><li>the implementation of educational </li></ul><ul><li>adj. </li></ul><ul><li>policies . </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Needs analysis can be done before the </li></ul><ul><li>course, during the course or with a </li></ul><ul><li>adv. of time (When?) </li></ul><ul><li>combination of both . </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Basic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sentence structures </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 1. Subject + verb . <ul><li>The students work in two groups. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2. Subject + linking verb + subj complement . <ul><li>Education leadership is a complexity </li></ul><ul><li>of practices. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 3. Subject + verb + direct object . <ul><li>Motivation affects the amount of time </li></ul><ul><li>that people are willing to devote to </li></ul><ul><li>learning. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 4. Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object . <ul><li>The shared learning gives students an </li></ul><ul><li>opportunity to engage in discussion, take </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility for their own learning, and </li></ul><ul><li>thus become critical thinkers. </li></ul>
  28. 28. 5. Subject + verb + direct object + object complement . <ul><li>Learning in a group setting often helps </li></ul><ul><li>each member achieve more. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Passive voice pattern . ( be + V.3) <ul><li>Passive Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the research </li></ul><ul><li>studies on collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>learning have been done </li></ul><ul><li>at the primary and </li></ul><ul><li>secondary levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have done most of the research studies on collaborative learning at the primary and secondary levels. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Types of sentences <ul><li>A simple sentence contains only one main clause (one subject + predicate). </li></ul><ul><li>Predicate / predicative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>action verb (+object) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linking verb + complement (= adjective or noun) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Examples <ul><li>Learning English is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Predicative </li></ul><ul><li>Deaf people use their eyes very well. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Subject + verb (SV): </li></ul><ul><li>Different parts of the brain may </li></ul><ul><li>be ready to learn at different </li></ul><ul><li>times. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Subject + subject + verb (SSV): <ul><li>Processes of learning and the </li></ul><ul><li>transfer of learning are central to </li></ul><ul><li>understanding people’s development of their important competencies. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Subject + verb + verb (SVV): <ul><li>The subjects were given 30 minutes to discuss the solutions within the group and were told to present their ideas in front of the class. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Subject + subject + verb + verb (SSVV): <ul><li>T wo or more groups work on the same </li></ul><ul><li>task independently and then come </li></ul><ul><li>together to compare strategies. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Compound Sentences <ul><li>Deaf people use their eyes very well, so they do not need help driving. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people use their ears for hearing the car motor, but deaf people feel vibrations. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Complex Sentences <ul><li>Although there are some quite diverse definitions of critical thinking, nearly all emphasize the ability and tendency to gather, evaluate, and use information effectively (Beyer, 1985). </li></ul>
  38. 38. Complex Sentences <ul><li>Main clause + subordinator + subordinate clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinator + subordinate clause , + main clause. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Adverb clauses <ul><li>After the task was explained, group members pulled chairs into close circles and started working on the worksheet. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Adjective clauses <ul><li>The term “collaborative learning” refers to an instruction method in which students at various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Noun clauses <ul><li>Proponents of collaborative learning claim that the active exchange of ideas within small groups not only increases interest among the participants but also promotes critical thinking . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Compound-complex sentences <ul><li>Many teachers find that authentic assessment is most successful when students know what teachers expect , so teachers should always clearly define standards and expectations. </li></ul>