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Super Strategies for Teaching Paraphrasing and Summarizing!<br />Cristin A. Boyd <br />Studies in American Language, San J...
Some ‘slightly Random’ thoughts<br /> Little to no research about teaching paraphrasing <br />Limited resources for actual...
terms & meaning for this presentation<br />Paraphrase:<br />A restatement of an author’s idea.<br />Usually a shorter piec...
Challenges for ESL/EFL Students  <br />Ownership of ideas varies between cultures. <br />Memorized sections of Confucianis...
More Challenges <br />Reading skills <br />Ss misunderstand original<br />Ss depend on lower-level reading skills (decodin...
The most pressing challenge (in my experience/opinion). . .<br />a misplaced focus <br />on the word <br />
Why is this a misplaced focus?  <br />Meaning in English is not character/word-level<br />Sentences and paragraphs carry m...
Why do some students focus on words?<br />Desire to understand everything<br />Low-level reading/learning  skills <br />Wo...
L1 Influence on Word focus <br />   mu ('tree') shows a trunk and two leafless branches of a tree. The bottom half of the ...
Where is Meaning?<br />In English . . . <br />	--  a collection of words (groups of sentences and paragraphs)<br />	--  “d...
Problems with Grammar-based paraphrase activities  <br />Some combination of changes to original: <br />compliment and sub...
	To To overcom<br />To overcome these challenges & resulting problems:<br />all paraphrase work in my classes <br />is bas...
Where to begin: Good Reading Skills (understanding ideas)<br />Pre-read to get overall gist of article/section<br />Read f...
Focus on content words (vs. function)
Scan for main ideas</li></ul> In paragraphs and sentences<br /><ul><li>Avoid getting side tracked on individual words</li>...
Reading Skills (continued) <br />R<br />Mmyading Skills <br />Work through ambiguity.<br />Avoid translation.  <br />Use d...
#1 paraphrasing resource! <br />Steps for paraphrasing Well<br />Introduced and regularly practiced & reviewed. . . <br />...
Steps for Paraphrasing well <br />1) Read the section repeatedly  to understand the main idea.<br />2) List  important key...
As the teacher…I consistently walk the talk and <br />focus mainly on Ss’ restated ideas <br />I address grammar only afte...
Paraphrase “on the run” <br />
Paraphrase “on the run” <br />A fun, active activity for practice with word meanings from context (definitions)<br />Origi...
Verbal Restatement<br /> do activity <br />
Verbal Restatement<br />Ss retell main idea verbally<br />  Speaking = less worry about grammar, sentence structure, perf...
Magazine Blubs <br />Do activity <br />
Magazine Blubs <br />Use short blurbs from magazines.<br />Provide a context for paraphrase. <br />Ss work in pairs<br /> ...
Summary Resources <br />“Finding main ideas” handout   <br />Summary Grid<br />How to Write a Summary handout (on wiki) <b...
Integration work<br />To integrate paraphrased source into a paragraph<br /> Sentence 1: introduces topic (topic sentence)...
Source list <br />1: New York Times Up Front Nov 22, 2010<br />2: New York Times Up Front Oct 25, 2010<br />3: Health June...
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Tesol 2011 cristin boyd

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Tesol 2011 cristin boyd

  1. 1. Super Strategies for Teaching Paraphrasing and Summarizing!<br />Cristin A. Boyd <br />Studies in American Language, San Jose State University, San Jose/Silicon Valley California USA <br />superteach@cristinanderic.com<br />http://boydsteachingresources.pbworks.com/<br />
  2. 2. Some ‘slightly Random’ thoughts<br /> Little to no research about teaching paraphrasing <br />Limited resources for actual “how to” (most grammar focused)<br />Activities based on 17+ years of teaching reading & writing (and a search for resources)<br />Not an exhaustive collection (share ideas) <br />How-to/what of citation is not black & white <br />Accessible readings = soft sources (popular magazines)<br />Justification: build skills & confidence <br />Today’s Outline <br />Challenges, activity, practice, variations, repeat <br />End: more Q & A and create resources <br />
  3. 3. terms & meaning for this presentation<br />Paraphrase:<br />A restatement of an author’s idea.<br />Usually a shorter piece of text -- sentence or two. <br />Length of restatement can be as long as or longer than original.<br />Attribution is required for every paraphrase.<br />Paraphrasing is a fundamental part of writing a summary. <br />Summary:<br />A series of restatements about an article, essay, etc.<br />Restatements work together as a whole.<br />Summary is much shorter than original.<br />Generally requires one attribution. <br />
  4. 4. Challenges for ESL/EFL Students <br />Ownership of ideas varies between cultures. <br />Memorized sections of Confucianism <br />Mother: Person I admire (Yongfang 2003)<br />Paraphrasing may be interpreted differently.<br /> Restating words of scholars = bad news<br /> Common knowledge in collectivist cultures<br />Some cultures are reader (vs. writer) responsible.<br />Assumptions re: reader knowledge<br />http://boydsteachingresources.pbworks.com/<br />
  5. 5. More Challenges <br />Reading skills <br />Ss misunderstand original<br />Ss depend on lower-level reading skills (decoding)<br />Ss lack vocabulary<br />Ss are preoccupied with grammar/sentence structure. <br />Teacher feedback/learning focus on grammar/ sentence structure <br />Grammar = mastery of language<br />Textbooks don’t explain “how” to paraphrase.<br />Teachers don’t explain “how” either. <br />
  6. 6. The most pressing challenge (in my experience/opinion). . .<br />a misplaced focus <br />on the word <br />
  7. 7. Why is this a misplaced focus? <br />Meaning in English is not character/word-level<br />Sentences and paragraphs carry meaning<br />Cited source info used to support paragraph-level ideas<br />1 paragraph = 1 idea (topic sentence, supporting, conclusion) <br />Paraphrase = restatement of an idea (that is used to support another idea) <br />
  8. 8. Why do some students focus on words?<br />Desire to understand everything<br />Low-level reading/learning skills <br />Words are tangible; ideas often elusive <br />Native country learning (lang = math)<br /> Grammar-based paraphrase activities <br />Heavy reliance on bottom-up processing<br />Memorization-focused learning <br />Word-focused L1 <br />Example <br />
  9. 9. L1 Influence on Word focus <br /> mu ('tree') shows a trunk and two leafless branches of a tree. The bottom half of the character may be hanging branches or the roots of a tree .… the character doubles to represent "forest" and triples to represent "dense forest." It joins with the character for "person" to represent "rest,” . . . <br />mo ('last' or 'top') shows a tree in which the top is marked with a horizontal stroke, while <br />ben ('source' or 'origin') shows a tree in which the root is marked with a horizontal stroke.<br />Relationships between characters complex also <br />From: http://www.mmtaylor.net/Literacy_Book/DOCS/pt1.html<br />
  10. 10. Where is Meaning?<br />In English . . . <br /> -- a collection of words (groups of sentences and paragraphs)<br /> -- “discourse blocks” (Christensen 1963, Pitkin 1969) -- paragraphs (Kaplan 1972) <br />By focusing on Words, Ss = <br />Miss & Misunderstand main ideas when reading <br />Worry too much about individual words, grammar & sentence structure <br />Paraphrase slowly & laboriously <br />End up with stilted, awkward, incorrect paraphrases (plagiarized content?)<br />http://boydsteachingresources.pbworks.com/<br />
  11. 11. Problems with Grammar-based paraphrase activities <br />Some combination of changes to original: <br />compliment and subject positions <br />verb from positive to negative <br />verb from active to passive <br />Focuses too much on words<br />Result: <br />Missed/misunderstood idea<br />Poor/Jumbled/Stilted Restatement<br />Examples<br />Problems <br />
  12. 12. To To overcom<br />To overcome these challenges & resulting problems:<br />all paraphrase work in my classes <br />is based on . . .<br />First understanding an idea <br />then restating it. <br />
  13. 13. Where to begin: Good Reading Skills (understanding ideas)<br />Pre-read to get overall gist of article/section<br />Read fast, multiple times <br /><ul><li>Focus on IDEA/s
  14. 14. Focus on content words (vs. function)
  15. 15. Scan for main ideas</li></ul> In paragraphs and sentences<br /><ul><li>Avoid getting side tracked on individual words</li></ul>http://boydsteachingresources.pbworks.com/<br />
  16. 16. Reading Skills (continued) <br />R<br />Mmyading Skills <br />Work through ambiguity.<br />Avoid translation. <br />Use dictionaries very rarely<br />Use context for meaning<br />Look up: <br /> important & repeated keys words <br /> only when main idea truly can’t be deciphered.<br />Embrace a new style of reading!<br />Resource: What good readers do handout <br />
  17. 17. #1 paraphrasing resource! <br />Steps for paraphrasing Well<br />Introduced and regularly practiced & reviewed. . . <br /> on board, <br /> in quizzes <br /> & front page of class wiki <br /> Resource: “Paraphrase Well” handout <br />
  18. 18. Steps for Paraphrasing well <br />1) Read the section repeatedly  to understand the main idea.<br />2) List  important key words. <br />3) Cover original & restate the main idea in your different words. <br />4) Don’t worry about grammar! Restate idea first!<br />5) Check restatement for clarity of original idea (& original structure)<br />6) Check grammar & edit as needed. <br />7) Check attribution.<br />
  19. 19. As the teacher…I consistently walk the talk and <br />focus mainly on Ss’ restated ideas <br />I address grammar only after the idea is clear. <br />
  20. 20. Paraphrase “on the run” <br />
  21. 21. Paraphrase “on the run” <br />A fun, active activity for practice with word meanings from context (definitions)<br />Original text posted outside class<br />‘Runner’ reads a definition outside (2 minutes)<br />‘Scribe’ is told meaning inside classroom <br />Collaboratively write a new definition<br />Same activity with steps/list article<br />Ss can exchange and check others’ work <br />Limit Time! Don’t allow Ss time to memorize!<br />
  22. 22. Verbal Restatement<br /> do activity <br />
  23. 23. Verbal Restatement<br />Ss retell main idea verbally<br /> Speaking = less worry about grammar, sentence structure, perfection<br /> T can draw out some missing points/details; walk S toward main idea. <br />“You almost have it, but isn’t there something about X ?”<br />
  24. 24. Magazine Blubs <br />Do activity <br />
  25. 25. Magazine Blubs <br />Use short blurbs from magazines.<br />Provide a context for paraphrase. <br />Ss work in pairs<br /> Limited time – about 5 minutes. <br /> Makes Ss focus on idea, can’t get side tracked w/ vocabulary, no time to look up words, pressure to report main idea.<br />Short blurbs focus students on one idea<br />Context makes paraphrasing more realistic <br />Context focuses reading on using an idea for support<br />
  26. 26. Summary Resources <br />“Finding main ideas” handout <br />Summary Grid<br />How to Write a Summary handout (on wiki) <br />Debate in Costco Connection magazine <br />
  27. 27. Integration work<br />To integrate paraphrased source into a paragraph<br /> Sentence 1: introduces topic (topic sentence)<br /> Sentence 2: introduces paraphrase <br /> Sentence 3: connects/integrates source & main idea.<br />Resource: integration handout<br />
  28. 28. Source list <br />1: New York Times Up Front Nov 22, 2010<br />2: New York Times Up Front Oct 25, 2010<br />3: Health June 2009<br />4: Mothering Jan 2010<br />
  29. 29. Thank You!<br /> http://boydsteachingresources.pbworks.com/<br />
  30. 30. What is sentence-level Paraphrasing?Where does it fit into steps for restating main ideas?<br />Using synonyms<br />Changing sentence from active to passive and vice versa.<br />Changing parts of speech.<br />Combining sentences.<br />Inverting complement and predicate.<br /> See grammar toolbox web link/handout on wiki page. <br />Only after main idea has been restated.<br />Word level focus = lost main idea.<br />Back to L1 reading skills.<br />Only as a means to fine-tune a paraphrase; make it less like original.<br />In some classes I never give out a sentence-based handout! <br />Sentence-level paraphrase work <br />When and where? <br />

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