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HIV Presentation, prepared & presented by Philomina Arnold, NIMHANS, Bangalore

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  2. 2. HIV • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIVHIV) HIV is a retrovirus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) • It is a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections • Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk
  3. 3. HIV • The four major routes of transmission are unprotected sexual intercourse, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth. HIV infection in humans is now pandemic • As of January 2006, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on December 1, 1981, making it one of the most destructive pandemics in recorded history.
  4. 4. HIV • . HIV primarily infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells.HIV leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells Eventually most HIV-infected individuals develop AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).
  5. 5. HIV • These individuals mostly die from opportunistic infections or malignancies associated with the progressive failure of the immune system. • About 9 out of every 10 persons with HIV will progress to AIDS after 10-15 years.
  6. 6. HIV • Treatment with anti-retrovirals, where available, increases the life expectancy of people infected with HIV. • After the diagnosis of AIDS is made, the current average survival time with antiretroviral therapy (as of 2005) is estimated to be more t therapy, death normally occurs within a year or 5 years Without antiretroviral.
  7. 7. HIV - Testing • enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme- assay (ELISA) to detect HIV- antibodies to HIV-1. • Western blot or, less commonly, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA).
  8. 8. HIV - CLASSIFICATION • HIV is a member Lentiviruses part of the family of Retroviridae that can then infect other cells. • Two species of HIV infect humans: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the virus that was It is initially discovered and termed LAV.
  9. 9. HIV Species Virulence Transmi Prevalen ttability ce HIV- High High Global HIV-1 HIV- Lower Low West HIV-2 Africa
  10. 10. HIV -TRANSMISSION • Since the beginning of the pandemic, three main transmission routes for HIV have been identified • Sexual route. The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations. Sexual transmission can occur when infected sexual secretions of one partner come into contact with the genital, oral, or rectal mucous membranes of another
  11. 11. HIV -TRANSMISSION Blood or blood product route. This • transmission route can account for infections in intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusions. HIV can also be spread through the sharing of needles. Health care workers such as nurses, laboratory workers, and doctors, have also been infected, although this occurs more rarely. People who give and receive tattoos, piercings, and scarification procedures can also be at risk of infection.
  12. 12. HIV -TRANSMISSION Mother-to- Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). • The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero during pregnancy and intrapartum at childbirth. However, where combination antiretroviral drug treatment and Cesarian section are available, this risk can be reduced to as low as 1%.[18] Breast feeding also presents a risk of infection for the baby.
  13. 13. HIV • HIV-2 is transmitted much less frequently by the MTCT and sexual route than HIV-1. • HIV has been found at low concentrations in the saliva, tears and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions and the potential risk of transmission is negligible
  14. 14. HIV • The use of physical barriers such as the latex condom is widely advocated to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV. • Spermicide, when used alone or with vaginal contraceptives like a diaphragm, actually increases the male to female transmission rate due to inflammation of the vagina; it should not be considered a barrier to infection • Saharan Africa indicated that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection.
  15. 15. HIV - The clinical course of infection • HIV infection has basically four stages: incubation period, acute infection, latency stage and AIDS. • The initial incubation period upon infection is asymptomatic and usually lasts between two and four weeks. • The second stage, acute infection, which lasts an average of 28 days and can include symptoms such as fever, lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), pharyngitis (sore throat), rash, myalgia (muscle pain), malaise, and mouth and esophageal sores.
  16. 16. HIV - The clinical course of infection • The latency stage, which occurs third, shows few or no symptoms and can last anywfrom there wo weeks to twenty years and beyond. AIDS, the fourth and final stage of HIV infection shows as symptoms of various opportunistic infections
  17. 17. HIV - Treatment • Abacavir - a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs) • There is currently no vaccine or cure for HIV or AIDS. The only known method of prevention is avoiding exposure to the virus Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART. One study suggests the average life expectancy of an HIV infected individual is 32 years from the time of infection if treatment is started when the CD4 count is 350/ L. The side effects include lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, an increase in cardiovascular risks and birth defects.
  18. 18. HIV - Treatment • Promising new treatments include Cre recombinase and the enzyme Tre recombinase, both of which are able to remove HIV from an infected cell. These enzymes promise a treatment in which a patient's stem cells are extracted, cured, and reinjected to promulgate the enzyme into the body
  19. 19. ANY QUESTIONS ????
  20. 20. THANK YOU