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What is HIV/AIDS?

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This was a presentation for an Anatomy & Physiology class.
It breezily looks at the HIV/AIDS virus and how it attaches and duplicates cells.

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What is HIV/AIDS?

  1. 1. What is HIV/AIDS? Disease Presentation Project Molly Browne & Jeremia Squires Bryant & Stratton College – Buffalo Campus AHLT 125 Anatomy & Physiology I Dr. Cote 30th of July 2014
  2. 2. Famous Person
  3. 3. What is HIV & AIDS?  HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus  Lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive  AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system  caused by human immunodeficiency virus, known as HIV
  4. 4. HIV History • HIV is thought to have entered into humans somewhere between 1914 and 1940. • In 1983, a retrovirus, now called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was identified as the cause of AIDS. • The HIV antibody test has be used to screen all blood supplies in the U.S. since 1985. • People receiving blood or blood products before 1985 may have been infected.
  5. 5. Graph of HIV/AIDS 1980-2003 (CDC.gov, 2006)
  6. 6. Two Common Forms of HIV  HIV-1  more common and stronger one.  has spread through out the world.  HIV-2  not as strong as HIV-1 found predominantly in West Africa.  more closely related to HIV 1 that is like the viruses found in monkeys.
  7. 7. (CDC.gov, 2006)
  8. 8. What does HIV look like? (CDC.gov, 2006)
  9. 9. Stages of HIV  Initial Infection  flu like symptoms a few weeks after infection.  Stage I – HIV+ with no symptoms  can stay at this stage for up to 10 years, but still can pass on the virus. Many are now living up to 20+ years.  Stage II – HIV+ with symptoms  at this point the person is said to have AIDS. Symptoms include: swollen glands, chronic diarrhea, loss of weight and appetite, fever, fatigue, skin rashes (lesions), night sweats, oral thrush. Life expectancy: 2 to 5 years.
  10. 10. How is HIV Spread  ANY type of sexual activity (highest risk)  Sharing used drug needles  Pregnancy - from mother to child  Sharing razors - if blood is present  Kissing - if even the smallest amount of blood is present. (Membranes of mouth are thin enough for HIV to enter straight into the body.)  Tattoos/body piercing if equipment is not clean.
  11. 11. Body Fluids with High Concentrations of HIV (CDC.gov, 2006)  Blood  Semen/Vaginal fluids (as high as blood)  Breast milk  Pus from sores
  12. 12. AFFECTS (CDC.gov, 2006)
  13. 13. Can HIV be cured?  NO! Drugs are available to manage the disease, but HIV stays in the body forever!  PROBLEM: RNA viruses mutate at a very high rate. A person with HIV under control can evolve resistance to the drug treatments.  Some infected persons have several strains of HIV in their bodies.
  14. 14. Treatment History  1987  AZT became the first approved treatment for HIV disease. Since then, approximately 30 drugs have been approved  Many Names  "The Cocktail"  Antiretroviral (ARVs)  Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART or ART)  Five Different “Classes"  Each class of drug attacks the virus at different points in its life cycle – so if a patient is taking HIV meds, patient will generally take 3 different antiretroviral drugs from 2 different classes.
  15. 15. “Class” Action  Each HIV medication is pretty powerful by itself and the key to treating HIV disease successfully is to pick the right combination of drugs from the different classes of HIV meds.  Antiretroviral are separated into different classes by the way an individual drug stops HIV from replicating in your body. Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) Protease Inhibitors (PIs) Entry/Fusion Inhibitors Fixed-dose combinations
  16. 16. TREATMENTS for HIV (AIDS.gov, 2014)
  17. 17. KAPOSI’S Sarcoma Kaposi's sarcoma on the skin of an AIDS patient. Normally a rare cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma is common among people with AIDS. Date: Tuesday, 1 January, 1985 (Avert, 2014)
  18. 18.  AIDS NOTES (CDC.gov, 2006)
  19. 19. What Causes AIDS?  HIV is a type of virus called retrovirus (ehealthmd.com pg. 1 2013).  This virus invades the cells of the other organisms to survive and reproduce.  HIV multiplies in the human immune system’s CD4+T cells and kills vast numbers of the cells it infects.  The results is the disease symptoms.
  20. 20. Signs and Symptoms  Signs and symptoms of AIDS are caused by the deterioration of the immune system and the decline of CD4 + T cells (UCSF Medical Center, pg. 1, 2014 ucsfhealth.org).  Diarrhea for more that a week  Dry cough  Memory loss  Pneumonia  Profound, unexplained fatigue  Rapid weight loss  Recurring fever or profuse night sweats  Red, brown, pink or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose or eyelids  Swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin or neck  White spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or throat.
  21. 21. AFFECTS (CDC.gov, 2006)
  22. 22. END RESULTS (Malik, 2014) (Cabral, n.d.)
  23. 23. REFERENCE AIDS.Answers.com. (2014). Understanding CBC blood testing for HIV: a procedural overview. Retrieved from aids.answers.com/diagnosis/understanding-cbc-blood-testing-a-procedural-overview. AIDS.gov. (2014). Overview of HIV treatments. Retrieved from http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/treatment- options/overview-of-hiv-treatments/. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS --- United States, 1981-2005. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5521a2.htm. Dillman, S. (2014). How is AIDS transmitted? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4968085_how-aids-transmitted.html. Oncology. Eyelid Tumors. (2014). Retrieved from jcabral.info/gooo/05onc/1Pal/05Onc1PalKaposi.html. Slowik, G. (2013). What causes AIDS? Retrieved from http://ehealthmd.com/content/what-causes-aids. UCSF Medical Center. (20140. AIDS signs and symptoms. Retrieved from http://www.ucsfhealth.org/conditions/aids/signs_and_symptoms.html. Zuger, A. (2014). AIDS, at 25, offers no easy answers. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/aids/overview.html.

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