What is HIV & AIDS?
HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a condition in humans
in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic
infections and cancers to thrive
AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system
caused by human immunodeficiency virus, known as HIV
• HIV is thought to have entered into humans somewhere between 1914 and 1940.
• In 1983, a retrovirus, now called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was identified as
the cause of AIDS.
• The HIV antibody test has be used to screen all blood supplies in the U.S. since 1985.
• People receiving blood or blood products before 1985 may have been infected.
Two Common Forms of HIV
more common and stronger one.
has spread through out the world.
not as strong as HIV-1
found predominantly in West Africa.
more closely related to HIV 1
that is like the viruses found in monkeys.
Stages of HIV
flu like symptoms a few weeks after infection.
Stage I – HIV+ with no symptoms
can stay at this stage for up to 10 years, but still can pass on
the virus. Many are now living up to 20+ years.
Stage II – HIV+ with symptoms
at this point the person is said to have AIDS. Symptoms
swollen glands, chronic diarrhea, loss of weight and
appetite, fever, fatigue, skin rashes (lesions), night sweats,
Life expectancy: 2 to 5 years.
How is HIV Spread
ANY type of sexual activity (highest risk)
Sharing used drug needles
Pregnancy - from mother to child
Sharing razors - if blood is present
Kissing - if even the smallest amount of blood is
present. (Membranes of mouth are thin enough for
HIV to enter straight into the body.)
Tattoos/body piercing if equipment is not clean.
Body Fluids with High Concentrations of HIV
Semen/Vaginal fluids (as high as blood)
Pus from sores
Can HIV be cured?
NO! Drugs are available to manage the disease, but HIV
stays in the body forever!
PROBLEM: RNA viruses mutate at a very high rate. A
person with HIV under control can evolve resistance to the
Some infected persons have several strains of HIV in their
AZT became the first approved treatment for HIV disease. Since
then, approximately 30 drugs have been approved
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART or ART)
Five Different “Classes"
Each class of drug attacks the virus at different points in its life
cycle – so if a patient is taking HIV meds, patient will generally
take 3 different antiretroviral drugs from 2 different classes.
Each HIV medication is pretty powerful by itself and the key to
treating HIV disease successfully is to pick the right combination of
drugs from the different classes of HIV meds.
Antiretroviral are separated into different classes by the way an
individual drug stops HIV from replicating in your body.
Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Protease Inhibitors (PIs)
What Causes AIDS?
HIV is a type of virus called retrovirus
(ehealthmd.com pg. 1 2013).
This virus invades the cells of the other organisms to
survive and reproduce.
HIV multiplies in the human immune system’s
CD4+T cells and kills vast numbers of the cells it
The results is the disease symptoms.
Signs and Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of AIDS are caused by the deterioration of the
immune system and the decline of CD4 + T cells (UCSF Medical
Center, pg. 1, 2014 ucsfhealth.org).
Diarrhea for more that a week
Profound, unexplained fatigue
Rapid weight loss
Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
Red, brown, pink or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside
the mouth, nose or eyelids
Swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin or neck
White spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or
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