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HIV/ AIDS All Are Including..By Monil Parmar


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HIV/ AIDS All Are Including..By Monil Parmar

  1. 1. HIV/AIDS
  2. 2. HIV….? Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  3. 3. AIDS…..? Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome
  4. 4. HIV/AIDS Are Same….?
  5. 5. ANALYSIS OF HIV What Is HIV? To understand what HIV is, let’s break it down:  H – Human – This particular virus can only infect human beings.  I- Immunodeficiency – HIV weakens your immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. A "deficient" immune system can't protect you.  V – Virus – A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its host.  Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lot like other Viruses, but the difference is that, your immune system can clear most viruses out of your body. But can not get rid of HIV. Scientists are still trying to figure out why.
  6. 6. ANALYSIS OF AIDS What Is AIDS? To understand what AIDS is, let’s break it down: A – Acquired – AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents. You acquire AIDS after birth. I – Immuno – Your body's immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or disease. D – Deficiency – You get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient," or isn't working the way it should. S – Syndrome – A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs of disease. AIDS is a syndrome, rather than a single disease, because it is a complex illness with a wide range of complications and symptoms. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is the final stage of HIV infection. People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems, which put them at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). You will be diagnosed with AIDS if you have one or more specific OIs, certain cancers, or a very low number of CD4 cells. If you have AIDS, you will need medical intervention and treatment to prevent death.
  7. 7. Where Did HIV Come From?  Scientists believe HIV came from a particular kind of chimpanzee in Western Africa. Humans probably came in contact with HIV when they hunted and ate infected animals. Recent studies indicate that HIV may have jumped from monkeys to humans as far back as the late 1800s.
  8. 8. HIV COME FROM In the 1930s HIV semms to have spread out of Africa from the German & Dutch Colonies of Cameroon. The First Cases of HIV were PCP(Pnueumocystis Carinii with CMV. Now Widespread….
  9. 9. Epidemiology HIV-1(Distributed Worldwide ) and HIV2(Mainly endemic in West Africa) were first isolated & associated with the disease in 1982 and 1983. AIDS was First recognized in 1981, although retrospective studies suggest that cases Occurred in Africa in the 1950’s and in the U.S by the 1970’s
  10. 10. How Do you get HIV? Modes of transmission :-  Sexual contact (Heterosexual (most common means in the world) and Homosexual)  Blood or blood product transfusion (before routine tasting)  Transplanted tissue (before routine testing)  IV drug use with shared needsles.  Transplacent (in utero) or by perinatal infection of neonates (Breast milk).
  11. 11. How Do You Get HIV/AIDS?
  12. 12. Which Body Fluids Contain HIV? HIV lives and reproduces in blood and other body fluids. We know that the following fluids can contain high levels of HIV:  Blood  Semen (cum)  Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum)  Breast milk  Vaginal fluids  Rectal (anal) mucous  Other body fluids and waste products—like feces, nasal fluid, saliva, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit—don’t contain enough HIV to infect you, unless they have blood mixed in them and you have significant and direct contact with them.
  13. 13. CON… Healthcare workers may be exposed to some other body fluids with high concentrations of HIV, including Amniotic fluid Cerebrospinal fluid Synovial fluid
  14. 14. How Is HIV Transmitted Through Body Fluids? HIV is transmitted through body fluids in very specific ways:  During sexual contact: When you have anal, oral, or vaginal sex with a partner, you will usually have contact with your partner’s body fluids. If your partner has HIV, those body fluids can deliver the virus into your bloodstream through microscopic breaks or rips in the delicate linings of your vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or mouth. Rips in these areas are very common and mostly unnoticeable. HIV can also enter through open sores, like those caused by herpes or syphilis, if infected body fluids get in them. You need to know that it’s much easier to get HIV (or to give it to someone else), if you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD).
  15. 15. Con…  During pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding: Babies have constant contact with their mother’s body fluids-including amniotic fluid and blood-throughout pregnancy and childbirth. After birth, infants can get HIV from drinking infected breast milk.  As a result of injection drug use: Injecting drugs puts you in contact with blood-your own and others, if you share needles and “works”. Needles or drugs that are contaminated with HIV-infected blood can deliver the virus directly into your body.  As a result of occupational exposure: Healthcare workers have the greatest risk for this type of HIV transmission. If you work in a healthcare setting, you can come into contact with infected blood or other fluids through needle sticks or cuts.  As a result of a blood transfusion with infected blood or an organ transplant from an infected donor: Screening requirements make both of these forms of HIV transmission very rare in the United States.
  16. 16. Repoted Modes of Transmission HIV/AIDS Registry,1984-2012
  17. 17. Ways through which HIV/AIDS is not contacted HIV cannot reproduce outside the human body. It is not spread by:  Air or drinking water from the same pot with an infected person.  Insects: including mosquitoes. Studies conducted by researchers have shown no evidence of HIV transmission from insects.  Saliva, tears, or sweat. There is no documented case of HIV being transmitted by spitting.  Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing dishes.  Closed-mouth or “social” kissing.
  18. 18. How HIV/AIDS not transmitted?
  19. 19. Symptoms and Signs of HIV Within weeks of infection, many people will develop the varied symptoms of primary or acute infection which typically have been described as a "mononucleosis" or "influenza" like illness but can range from minimal fever, aches, and pains to very severe symptoms. The most common symptoms of primary HIV infection are:  fever,  aching muscles and joints,  sore throat and  swollen glands (lymph nodes) in the neck.  Ulcers in the mouth
  20. 20. symptoms of Acute retroviral in hiv infected patients
  21. 21. Swollen parts of the body
  22. 22. Deterioration of the body tissues
  23. 23. How Do You Get AIDS? AIDS is the late stage of HIV infection, when a person’s immune system is severely damaged and has difficulty fighting diseases and certain cancers. Before the development of certain medications, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Currently, people can live much longer - even decades - with HIV before they develop AIDS. This is because of “highly active” combinations of medications that were introduced in the mid 1990s.
  24. 24. Stages of disease development
  25. 25. Stages of disease development  Stage 1:-Acute Viral Infection (1-3 Wks.) No Symptoms, or any or all of the following “Mononucleosis like Symptoms” (Fever,headache,malaise,mya lgia,arthralgia lymphadenopathy hepatosplenomegaly meningitis, encephalitis rash) small pink papules or macules over much of the body.  Stage 1 ends with the production of high titers of anti-HIV antibodies at 2-3 months,postinfection.  Anti-HIV antibodies are usually detectable by ELISA by the 3-4 .Weeks
  26. 26. Stage 2:-Completely Assymptomatic  Lasts for 6 or more years in65-85% of cases.  Patients produce large amounts anti-HIV antibody.  HIV is detectable in blood, semen,& cervical secretions.  New PCR procedures show that as many as 1 in10 peripheral CD4+ cells are infected.  HIV-antibody-complement complexes are trapped nodes,tonsils,spleen,etc. by follicular dendritic cells(FDC). in lymph  CD4+ T cells disappear from the blood because they are sequestered in the lymph nodes(numbers are 5-10X higher then in the peripheral blood).  Follicular Dendritic Cells(FDC) facilitate HIV transmission to uninfected T cells.  when peripheral CD4+ cells number 500-200/hl,the FDC are dying and the internal structure of the lymph node is breaks down;HIV spills over into the blood.
  27. 27. Stage 3- Overt Disease  Severity is directly related to the decline of CD4+ T cells , which causes diminished function by TC,B cells, (Hypogammaglobinemia), macrophages and NK cells, and leads to opportunistic infections and spontaneous neoplasms.
  28. 28. Other disorders of AIDS Patients  Lymphoid organs -Deterioration due to Compromised CD4+ function.  Nervous system -Infection of endothelial cells leads to break-down of the blood –brain barrier & infiltration of infected cells. -encephalitis and dementia  GI system - Tissue macrophages infected—diarrhea and malabsorption “ slim disease”-often combined with CMV infection.  Cancer -Kaposi’s sarcoma and B cell lymphomas (HHV-8 & Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)).  Toxoplasmosis -Reactivation of Toxoplasma cysts in the brain
  29. 29. AIDS: Signs and Symptoms  When HIV infection progresses to AIDS, many people begin to suffer from fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, night sweats, and even wasting syndrome at late stages. Many of the signs and symptoms of AIDS come from opportunistic infections which occur in patients with a damaged immune system.
  30. 30. Effects of HIV/AIDS
  31. 31. Diagnosis Test ELISA Agglutination test Purpose Initial Screening test Western blot Immunofluorescence test Confirmatory test P24 antigen Early marker of Infection Detection of a recent infection To confirm treatment efficacy Detection of recent infection Staging the disease and to confirm treatment efficacy Virion RNA –RT PCR CD4 CD8 ratio Viral Isolation
  32. 32. Testing
  33. 33. the latest stage of the global HIV/AIDS
  34. 34. U.S. Statistics on HIV/AIDS
  35. 35. The Global HIV/AIDS Crisis Today  HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, has become one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges:  33.4 million are currently living with HIV/AIDS.  More than 25 million people have died of AIDS worldwide since the first cases were reported in 1981.  In 2008, 2 million people died due to HIV/AIDS, and another 2.7 million were newly infected.  While cases have been reported in all regions of the world, almost all those living with HIV (97%) reside in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.  According to the World Health Organization (WHO), most people living with HIV or at risk for HIV do not have access to prevention, care, and treatment, and there is still no cure.
  36. 36. PREVENTION OF HIV/AIDS  Safe sex ,safe use of needles and more effective early screening. Treat HIV-1 infected pregnant women as indicated above to prevent infection of the Fetus/Infant.  VACCINES :- No Vaccine is currently approved by FDA. Clinical trials are currently being conducted with a number of different vaccines.