FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

1,080 views

Published on

This file contains material on the various forms of government.
Prepared by PETER D.JOHNSON, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA, SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA.

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,080
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
31
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

  1. 1. FEDERAL GOVERNMENTFEDERAL GOVERNMENT CharacteristicsCharacteristics • A federal state is a union (gabungan) of severalA federal state is a union (gabungan) of several states or provinces. (Example: Malaysia, USA,states or provinces. (Example: Malaysia, USA, India, Australia, Canada)India, Australia, Canada) • There are two levels or sets of government : aThere are two levels or sets of government : a central and several state governments.central and several state governments. •Powers of the government are shared between thePowers of the government are shared between the two sets of government.two sets of government. •The central government has more powers than theThe central government has more powers than the state governments.state governments. •The powers of the two sets of government areThe powers of the two sets of government are clearly spelt out in the constitution to avoidclearly spelt out in the constitution to avoid disputes.disputes. •There is an apex (superior) court to settle disputesThere is an apex (superior) court to settle disputes (pertikaian) that may arise (timbul) between the(pertikaian) that may arise (timbul) between the States and the central government.States and the central government.
  2. 2. UNITARY GOVERNMENTUNITARY GOVERNMENT CharacteristicsCharacteristics  A unitary government is one in which there is onlyA unitary government is one in which there is only one set (level) of government. It is called theone set (level) of government. It is called the national government. (Singapore, Unitednational government. (Singapore, United Kingdom, Japan, New Zealand are examples of aKingdom, Japan, New Zealand are examples of a unitary government)unitary government)  All political power is in the hands of the nationalAll political power is in the hands of the national government.government.  The policies and laws of the government areThe policies and laws of the government are uniform and apply to the whole country.uniform and apply to the whole country.
  3. 3. PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENTPARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT Characteristics • The political party that obtains most seats in parliament during a general election forms the government. • The members of the Executive (Cabinet members) are also members of the Legislature. There is no separation of powers between the Legislature and the Executive.
  4. 4. Parliamentary Government -2Parliamentary Government -2  There is always a dual (two) Executive- one is the headThere is always a dual (two) Executive- one is the head of state and the other is the head of government.of state and the other is the head of government.  The head of state is aThe head of state is a nominalnominal executive – he does notexecutive – he does not exercise any real powers; he acts on the advice of theexercise any real powers; he acts on the advice of the head of government.head of government.  The head of government is theThe head of government is the realreal Executive. HeExecutive. He exercises all powers of the government.exercises all powers of the government.
  5. 5. PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENTPRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT CharacteristicsCharacteristics • The head of state, known as theThe head of state, known as the President, is elected by the people in aPresident, is elected by the people in a separate election.separate election. • The Executive and the Legislature areThe Executive and the Legislature are separate. There is separation of powersseparate. There is separation of powers between the two. This means that thebetween the two. This means that the Executive is not part of the legislatureExecutive is not part of the legislature and therefore is not responsible to it.and therefore is not responsible to it.
  6. 6. Presidential Government -2Presidential Government -2  There is a single Executive- the President is both theThere is a single Executive- the President is both the head of state and the head of government.head of state and the head of government.  The President serves for a fixed period. For example, theThe President serves for a fixed period. For example, the US president is elected for a period of four (4) years (oneUS president is elected for a period of four (4) years (one term). He cannot serve for more than two terms (i.e. 8term). He cannot serve for more than two terms (i.e. 8 years).years).  The President cannot be removed by the legislatureThe President cannot be removed by the legislature (unless he commits a serious crime)(unless he commits a serious crime)  The President cannot dissolve (membubarkan) theThe President cannot dissolve (membubarkan) the legislature.legislature.  Examples of Presidential government: USA; Argentina;Examples of Presidential government: USA; Argentina; Nigeria; the Philippines; Mexico.Nigeria; the Philippines; Mexico.
  7. 7. Differences between Federal & UnitaryDifferences between Federal & Unitary Government- 1Government- 1  In a federal system of government, there areIn a federal system of government, there are two sets of government (central or national andtwo sets of government (central or national and several state governments) whereasseveral state governments) whereas (sedangkan; manakala) in a unitary government(sedangkan; manakala) in a unitary government there is only one set of government ( central orthere is only one set of government ( central or national government).national government).  In a federal government, political power isIn a federal government, political power is shared between the central and stateshared between the central and state governments, but in a unitary form ofgovernments, but in a unitary form of government all political power is held (dipegang)government all political power is held (dipegang) by the central or national government.by the central or national government.
  8. 8. Differences between Federal and UnitaryDifferences between Federal and Unitary Government - 2Government - 2  In a federal government, the constitution isIn a federal government, the constitution is codified (written) whereas in a unitary governmentcodified (written) whereas in a unitary government the constitution is uncodified (unwritten).the constitution is uncodified (unwritten).  A federal government has a rigid constitution, butA federal government has a rigid constitution, but a unitary government has a flexible constitution.a unitary government has a flexible constitution.  In a federal form of government, there are twoIn a federal form of government, there are two different types of laws- central government anddifferent types of laws- central government and state government laws, whereas in a unitraystate government laws, whereas in a unitray government there is only one set of laws (uniformgovernment there is only one set of laws (uniform laws) (seragam) applicable to the whole country.laws) (seragam) applicable to the whole country.
  9. 9. Differences between ParliamentaryDifferences between Parliamentary & Presidential Government-1& Presidential Government-1  In parliamentary government, there are dual (two)In parliamentary government, there are dual (two) Executives – head of state and head of governmentExecutives – head of state and head of government whereas in a presidential government there is onlywhereas in a presidential government there is only a single Executive-the President is both the heada single Executive-the President is both the head of state and head of government.of state and head of government.  The Executive is separate from the legislature in aThe Executive is separate from the legislature in a presidential government, but in a parliamentarypresidential government, but in a parliamentary government the Executive is part of thegovernment the Executive is part of the legislature.legislature.
  10. 10. Differences between ParliamentaryDifferences between Parliamentary & Presidential Government-2& Presidential Government-2  In a parliamentary government the head of governmentIn a parliamentary government the head of government (Prime Minister) is appointed by the head of state whereas(Prime Minister) is appointed by the head of state whereas in a presidential government the head of state (President) isin a presidential government the head of state (President) is elected by the people.elected by the people.  The Prime Minister and his cabinet can be dismissed byThe Prime Minister and his cabinet can be dismissed by the legislature if he loses its confidence, but the Presidentthe legislature if he loses its confidence, but the President cannot be removed by the legislature unless he commits acannot be removed by the legislature unless he commits a serious crime (by a process called ‘Impeachment.’)serious crime (by a process called ‘Impeachment.’)  The Prime minister in a parliamentary government canThe Prime minister in a parliamentary government can advise the head of state to dissolve (membubarkan)advise the head of state to dissolve (membubarkan) parliament, but the President cannot do so.parliament, but the President cannot do so.

×