Performance enhancing drugs1. Diuretics Drugs2. Anabolic steroids Are3. Beta Blockers Bad4. Stimulants5. Human growth hormone So6. Erythropoietin Hate Em
Anabolic Steroids“Derivatives of the hormone testosterone“ExogenousSynthetic versions of testosterone. Common examples includeNandrolone and Danazol.EndogenousNaturally occurring substances involved in the metabolic pathways oftestosterone. When testing for drug use, all endogenous steroids havea normal range. Results outside of this normal range are deemedpositive.
Physiological effectsAdvantagesIncreased muscle bulkIncreased muscle strengthFaster muscle recoveryDisadvantagesDecreased sperm production and sex driveIncreased aggression, irritability and mood swingsLiver disordersAcneBaldness (alopecia)Hypertension (high blood pressure)Raised cholesterol
Erythropoietin“Erythropoietin (often shortened to EPO) is a naturally occurringhormone, secreted by the kidneys, whose function is to regulate redblood cell production.”AdvantagesEPO stimulates bone marrow to produce more red blood cells andtherefore haemoglobin.For this reason EPO is most commonly used amongst enduranceathletes as a higher RBC count means better oxygen transportationand so a higher rate of aerobic respiration.The faster the rate of aerobic respiration, the higher the level at whichthe athlete can work without utilising the anaerobic systems whichproduce lactic acid and cause fatigue.
Disadvantages• There is are major side-effects of using erythropoietin which have proven to be fatal in previous cases:• Increased viscosity of the blood (which increases the risk of heart attack and stroke)• Fever• Seizures (fits)• Nausea• Headache• Anxiety• Legarthy
Human Growth Hormone“Human Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland and is essentialfor normal growth and development. It is anabolic, meaning it acceleratesprotein synthesis and also aids the metabolism (breaking down) of fat stores.”Advantages• Increased muscle mass• Decreased fat stores• Accelerated muscle recovery• Commonly combined with anabolic steroids for maximum effect.• Athletes involved in powerful, strength demanding sports are more likely to take Human Growth Hormone.
Disadvantages• Abnormally excessive growth in height, especially in younger athletes.• Growth and swelling of body parts, typically hands, feet and nose.• Low production of the thyroid hormone which disrupts metabolic rate and protein production.• Disease of the cardiac muscle, increasing the risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death.• Cardiac Failure.• High levels of cholesterol in the blood .• Diabetes.• Impotence.• Osteoporosis.
Beta Blockers“Beta blockers are capable of reducing the heart rate andreducing the blood pressure by dilating blood vessels.”Advantages• Reduce nerve-inducing muscle twitches and shaking.• Good for precision sports like archery and darts which require a steady hand• Reduced heart rate
Disadvantages• Drowsiness or fatigue• Reduced circulation through the hands and feet• Dizziness• Dry mouth• Depression• Rarely, more serious side effects, including memory loss and impotence, can result.
Diuretics“Diuretics are drugs including Frusemide, Chlorothiazide andHydrochlorothiazide. Their purpose is to remove excess water from thebody although each type of diuretic does this in a different way.”AdvantagesDiuretics are not used to enhance performance. If anything they havea detrimental effect on performance as they cause dehydration.Diuretics are used for two reasons:• Firstly to lose weight rapidly in sports which require the athlete to be within a set weight limit. For example boxers and jockeys.• Secondly, to dilute the presence of illegal substances and aid their excretion.
Disadvantages• Dehydration• Hypotension (low blood pressure)• Muscle Cramps• Electrolyte disturbances Muscle weakness• Seizures Gout (caused by a build-up of uric acid)• Fatigue