Intro to ergogenic aids

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Intro to ergogenic aids

  1. 1. Performance enhancing substances  Ergogenic aids are practices or substances – legal or illegal – that improve performance  Because of the huge desire (both intrinsic and extrinsic) to win, there is a huge amount of research into improving performance and recovery
  2. 2. Performance enhancing substances  Pre -1960’s, it was common for athletes to use illegal performanceenhancing drugs (because there was no drug testing)  Coaches, athletes and administrators ignored the potential side effects and ethical considerations.
  3. 3. Performance enhancing substances  The IOC became actively involved in anti-doping initiatives when Tommy Simpson died during the 1967 Tour De France  The medical Commission of the IOC was established in 1967  A list of banned substances was developed  This list includes -
  4. 4. Illegal substances list  beta-blockers, stimulants, narcotics (pain blockers), diuretics, anabolic agents (protein (muscle) building substances), peptide hormones, blood doping,
  5. 5. Anabolic agents  Also known as Anabolic androgenic steroids  Such as: Testosterone  Performance benefits:  Increased lean muscle mass and strength  Reduced fatigue  Increased rate of recovery  Increased aggression
  6. 6. Anabolic agents – Side effects Male  Possible infertility  Increased libido  Female Testicular atrophy  Baldness  Development of breast tissue  Menstrual problems  Body/facial hair  Enlarged clitoris  Deeper voice Both: - Liver damage, diabetes, heart problems, mood swings, acne and more
  7. 7. Anti-oestrogenic agents  Usually used legitimately for hormone replacement therapy (treatment for breast cancers)  Illegally used to counteract undesireable side-effects associated with anabolic steroid use – such as the development of breast tissue. Side effects: - Hot flushes - Gastrointestinal disorders - Fluid retention - Venous thrombosis
  8. 8. Hormones and related substances  EPO (Erythopoietin)  Benefits  Increases RBC production, thus increasing O2 carrying capacity  Side effects  Blood thickening  Blood clots  Increased risk of heart attack/stroke  Dehydration EPO is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the body, therefore when someone is injecting, its use can be difficult to detect.
  9. 9. Hormones and related substances  hGH (human growth hormone)  Benefits  Increases muscle size and strength  Side-effects  Acromegaly (disease of the pituitary gland)  Thickened skin  Increased BP  Hairiness  Cardiac disease Like EPO, hGH is produced naturally via the pituitary gland – and like EPO, it can be difficult to detect synthetic use
  10. 10. Diuretics and masking agents  Medication to treat liver and kidney diseases  Benefits  Increased production of urine to assist in making weight restrictions  Presence of other drugs masked by diluting their urine samples Side effects: - Dehydration - Kidney and heart failure - Headaches - Light-headedness
  11. 11. Stimulants  Types: Amphetamines, cocaine, e phidrine  Benefits  CNS directly effected (speeds up movements/reactions)  Increased alertness, reduced tiredness and increased competitiveness and agression  Prohibited in competition Side effects: - Heat regulation problems, increased breathing rate, aggressive behaviour, dehydration, weight loss, increased HR, heart palpitations, increased BP, insomnia, dependence, depressio n
  12. 12. Narcotic analegsics  EG: Heroin, morphine, pethadi ne  Benefits  Reduced pain from injury  Ability to perform when injured  Side effects  Increased risk of further injury  Balance/coordination  Reduced concentration  Lethargy  Dependence/addiction Narcotics and prohibited in competition
  13. 13. Cannabinoids  Types: Hashish, marijuana  Reduced ability to perform complex tasks  Benefits  Continued use:  None  Loss of motivation  Side effects  Learning difficulties  Respiratory diseases  Dependence/addiction  Impairment  Loss of coordination and concentration  Increased heart rate  Drowsiness  Hallucinations
  14. 14. Glucocortico-steroids  Power anti-inflammation medication  Benefits  Used to treat arthritis, asthma, infla med joints etc  Side effects  Fluid retention  Mood alteration  Musculo-skeletal problems (such as osteoporosis) Illegal in competition
  15. 15. Beta-blockers  Types: Acebutlolo, Esmolol  Benefits  Reduce body tremor  Stop hands shaking  Used in sports where a steady hand is required  Side effects     Lowered BP Decreased HR Tiredness Decreased performance capacity in endurance sports
  16. 16. Beta-blockers  Prohibited in the following sports:         Archery Billiards Bobsleigh Gymnastics Modern pentathlon Ski Jumping Shooting Wrestling
  17. 17. Blood Doping  Involves infusing extra human blood (pre harvested) prior to an event to increase aerobic performance  Can be the athletes or someone else's blood  Benefits  Increased RBC count, thus improved O2 devivery Side effects: - Thickening of the blood (increased viscosity) - Blood clots - Increased risk of heart attack/stroke - Dehydration
  18. 18. Illegal Performance enhancers  Many athletes still try to take an illegal advantage by resorting to illegal strategies  The reason athletes choose to take these illegal methods are to enhance training and recovery  Some other reasons could include:
  19. 19. Reasons for illegal performance enhancement Personal Reasons (intrinsic) Environmental Reasons (Extrinsic)  Ongoing dissatisfaction with their own performance  Friend/peers using and achieving results  Lack of progress  Pressure from a coach/country to win  Psychological dependence  A win-at-all costs mentality  A belief they can get away with it  Financial rewards for winning  Fame
  20. 20. Considerations  Coaches/trainers could be carful when providing different substances (illegal and legal)  Litigation is likely  Athletes should weigh up the benefits and cost of using these enhancers  These medico-legal issues need to be considered
  21. 21. What happens when you’re caught?  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhNjPDg9X5E

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