Ergogenic AidsAnything used to enhance athletic performance:          •increase exercise capacity           •enhance physi...
Performance Enhancing Drugs           Abuses and Consequences                    1922 Most Perfectly                      ...
Florence Joyner   Arnold                John McEnroeJesse Ventura                               Lyle Alzado
1988 Summer Olympic Games, Ben Johnson testedpositive for anabolic-androgenic steroid stanozolol
Ancient Greece  –Early Olympians use mushrooms, herbs, liquor, plant seeds.Roman Period  –Chariot racers drug horses and...
First Recorded Death Due toPerformance Enhancing Drugs - 1886?Arthur LintonDies of stimulanttrimethyloverdoseOnly two Brit...
Cycling – Most Doped Sport?            • 1960 Danish cyclist              Knut Jensen on              amphetamine-        ...
1998 Tour De France                   French team Festina                                          Amphetamines         ...
DOPING                     • Dutch doop                          – Viscous opium juice                     • World Anti-Do...
DOPING       • Withdrawing and saving red         blood cells for later re-infusionDr. Bjorn Ekblominvented “blood packing...
History of Doping in Sport1860’s – Amsterdam swimmers takespeedballs – mix of heroin and cocaine.1904 - Marathoner Thomas ...
Historical ControversyThe controversy surrounding steroids began in the 1950’s during the OlympicGames when the athletic c...
1950’s (cont) – A U.S. pharmaceutical firm develops thefirst anabolic steroids.1952 Amphetamine-related illnesses of speed...
1976 Olympics     East German Swimmers won 11 out of 13     Olympic events.     In 1990 it emerges that they had been     ...
Newer agents  –Erythropoietin (EPO)  –Growth hormone (hGH)  –Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG)
Avoiding Detection            Weightlifters Machine
1992• German sprinters Katrin Krabbe, Silke Muller  and Grit Breuer submit identical urine samples                Later su...
Scientific Milestones becoming        Sports Millstone
Future Performance             Enhancing Techniques?Perfluorocarbon (PFC)  –Synthetic blood  –Enormous O2 carrying capaci...
Myostatin Inhibitors?                            Belgian Blue CowMyostatin knock-out mouse                             Fle...
Insulin-Like Growth Factor –           1 (IGF-I)
Detection of Illegal “Nutrition”   •Random drug tests during competition              (forces athletes to become more soph...
1. Steroids – Derivatives of Testosterone     *Banned by the NCAA and IOC     *Illegal to use outside of physician supervi...
How Steroids Work• Exert actions inside cells• Binds to androgen receptors  inside the cell• Influences gene transcription...
Psychological Effects    •   Increased sense of well-being    •   Irritability    •   Mania    •   Depression    •   Eupho...
Side Effects• There really aren’t any…          • Side effects are real and                                      potential...
Side EffectsElevated LDH                          Prostatic hypertrophyElevated blood pressure               Prostate canc...
Side Effects• Cardiovascular  – Elevates “bad” LDL cholesterol  – Elevates blood pressure  – Promotes blood clots  – Left ...
Side Effects• Hepatic   – Elevated liver enzymes       • Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases   – Formation of blood fi...
Side Effects• Dermatologic  – Acne: propionibacteria acnes  – Hair loss: alopecia  – Excessive hair growth: hirsutism  – S...
Side Effects• Endocrine/Reproductive   – Men      •   Libido changes      •   Testicular atrophy      •   Impotence      •...
Side Effects• Behavioral   –   Depression   –   Mania   –   Psychosis   –   Aggression   –   Withdrawal syndrome        • ...
Derrick Whitsett Died Jan 2004Sonny Schmidt – Died at 509 years after being Master’sOlympia Champion
Detecting Steroid Use
Detecting Steroid Use       • Appearance          – Muscular hypertrophy          – Gynecomastia       • Skin          – A...
2. Human Chorionic GonadotropinUsed to boost endogenous testosterone and prevent muscle loss after steroid use.*anabolic a...
3. Human Growth Hormone hGH      •increases lean body mass primarily by hyperplasia and facilitated AA transport into cell...
4. “Androgens”Androstenedione and Dehydroepiandrosterone: weak adrenal androgens          •1600 mg/day 30% decline in fat ...
Eight Research Findings - Androgens   Little or no elevation of plasma testosterone concentrations   No favorable effect...
5. Insulin• Promotes anabolism and stimulates IGFs*risks hypoglycemic shock
6. ClenbuterolBeta- adrenoceptor 2 agonist, central stimulant, stimulates protein anabolism, and acts as a thermogen.     ...
7. HMBbeta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate: amino acidmetabolite•may boost muscle mass and strength•may decrease protein loss ...
2g/day for up to 28 days                        8. Creatine Monohydrate      -Can be derived from protein in foods (but no...
9. Amphetaminespsychotropic drugs that mask fatigue            •do not have a pure physiological effect, mainly improve re...
Stimulant that increases lipid mobilization and utilization                                 10. Caffeine•prolongs enduranc...
Warnings about Caffeine Effects become less apparent when  someone:    -Consumes a high-carbohydrate diet    -Uses caffei...
11. BuffersPrevent metabolic and lactate acidosis           •sodium bicarbonate           •sodium citrate           *diure...
12. Anti-Cortisol Compoundsreduce protein breakdown by inhibiting cortisol release.           •Phosphatidylserine         ...
14. B Vitamin Loading •Folate, B-6 and B-12 for muscle building•Niacin, Riboflavin and Thiamin for endurance performance15...
17. Chromium  •May decrease body fat, increase lean mass and reduce LDL •Effect is marginal at best             -some stud...
19. Blood Doping: 2 ways           Autologous RBC’s or Exogenous Erythropoietin           •Improves O2 carrying capacity  ...
Section+6+ergogenic+aids
Section+6+ergogenic+aids
Section+6+ergogenic+aids
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  • From the standpoint of temperature regulation, caffeine’s effect as a potent diuretic could cause unnecessary pre-exercise loss of fluid that negatively affects thermal balance and exercise performance in a hot environment.
  • Section+6+ergogenic+aids

    1. 1. Ergogenic AidsAnything used to enhance athletic performance: •increase exercise capacity •enhance physiological processes •depress psychological inhibition •provide mechanical advantage
    2. 2. Performance Enhancing Drugs Abuses and Consequences 1922 Most Perfectly Developed Man
    3. 3. Florence Joyner Arnold John McEnroeJesse Ventura Lyle Alzado
    4. 4. 1988 Summer Olympic Games, Ben Johnson testedpositive for anabolic-androgenic steroid stanozolol
    5. 5. Ancient Greece –Early Olympians use mushrooms, herbs, liquor, plant seeds.Roman Period –Chariot racers drug horses and gladiators doped for vigorous and bloody spectacle.Vikings –Psychedelic mushrooms19th Century –Alcohol, caffeine, opium, strychnine, trimethylWorld War II –Amphetamines, testosterone
    6. 6. First Recorded Death Due toPerformance Enhancing Drugs - 1886?Arthur LintonDies of stimulanttrimethyloverdoseOnly two Brits have won Bordeaux-Paris, Arthur Linton won in 1886 and Tom Simpson in1963. Linton overdosed on trimethyl and Simpson died of amphetamines in 1967.
    7. 7. Cycling – Most Doped Sport? • 1960 Danish cyclist Knut Jensen on amphetamine- powered bicycle dies • July 13, 1967 British cyclist Tom Simpson dies on Mt. Ventoux – Amphetamines
    8. 8. 1998 Tour De France French team Festina  Amphetamines EPO AAS hGH Prescription drugs NarcoticsRichard Virenque
    9. 9. DOPING • Dutch doop – Viscous opium juice • World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) • U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA)“The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’sbodily specimen; use or attempted used of a prohibited substance or method;tampering, or attempting to tamper, with any part of doping control; possession ofprohibited substances and methods, trafficking in any prohibited substance orprohibited method; administration or attempted administration of a prohibitedsubstance or prohibited method to any athlete, assisting, encouraging, aiding,abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving an anti-doping ruleviolation or any attempted violation”
    10. 10. DOPING • Withdrawing and saving red blood cells for later re-infusionDr. Bjorn Ekblominvented “blood packing”in 1972 • Later the term was used to describe taking Erythropoietin • Generic term to describe any illegal performance- enhancing drug
    11. 11. History of Doping in Sport1860’s – Amsterdam swimmers takespeedballs – mix of heroin and cocaine.1904 - Marathoner Thomas Hicks diesat Olympics – “stimulating strychnineand courage-inspiring brandy”1935 - Testosterone was firstsynthesized, and German soldiers werereportedly using it to perform betterand to become more aggressive.1950’s – During the 1952 Olympics theRussian weightlifting team won thegold medal due to synthetic steroid
    12. 12. Historical ControversyThe controversy surrounding steroids began in the 1950’s during the OlympicGames when the athletic community discovered that athletes from Russia andsome East European nations, which had dominated the games, had taken largedoses of steroids. It became evident that they had not been "healthy" due tothe fact that many of the male athletes developed such large prostate glandsthat they needed a tube inserted in order to urinate. The females of thesenations had developed so many male characteristics that chromosome testswere needed to prove that they were still female.
    13. 13. 1950’s (cont) – A U.S. pharmaceutical firm develops thefirst anabolic steroids.1952 Amphetamine-related illnesses of speed skaters inOlympics in Oslo, Norway1968 Olympic drug testing begins in Mexico City1975 – The International Olympic Committee officiallybans the use of steroids, just prior to 1976 MontrealGames
    14. 14. 1976 Olympics East German Swimmers won 11 out of 13 Olympic events. In 1990 it emerges that they had been on an organized drug program
    15. 15. Newer agents –Erythropoietin (EPO) –Growth hormone (hGH) –Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG)
    16. 16. Avoiding Detection Weightlifters Machine
    17. 17. 1992• German sprinters Katrin Krabbe, Silke Muller and Grit Breuer submit identical urine samples Later suspended for + clenbuterol test
    18. 18. Scientific Milestones becoming Sports Millstone
    19. 19. Future Performance Enhancing Techniques?Perfluorocarbon (PFC) –Synthetic blood –Enormous O2 carrying capacity –X-country skiers and skaters in Nagano?
    20. 20. Myostatin Inhibitors? Belgian Blue CowMyostatin knock-out mouse Flex Wheeler
    21. 21. Insulin-Like Growth Factor – 1 (IGF-I)
    22. 22. Detection of Illegal “Nutrition” •Random drug tests during competition (forces athletes to become more sophisticated in use) •Unannounced drug tests year-round •Lie detectors
    23. 23. 1. Steroids – Derivatives of Testosterone *Banned by the NCAA and IOC *Illegal to use outside of physician supervision and dosing recommendations A. Anabolic: “to build” -accelerated growth of bone, muscle, red cells, and enhanced neural conduction B. Androgenic: “produce male-like traits” C. Do they work? -How they work: Promote Anabolism: •Intracellular androgen receptors bind to nuclear chromatin toactivate ribonucleic acid-polymerase system •Heavy resistance training is required for beneficial effects Prevent Catabolism: •cross binding with glucocorticoid receptors interferes withglucocorticoid receptor-activated catabolism •faster recovery time *May also decrease fat mass and increase use of fat for energy
    24. 24. How Steroids Work• Exert actions inside cells• Binds to androgen receptors inside the cell• Influences gene transcription and translation to enhance protein production
    25. 25. Psychological Effects • Increased sense of well-being • Irritability • Mania • Depression • Euphoria • Aggressiveness • Enhanced pain tolerance • Sexual arousal • Suicidality
    26. 26. Side Effects• There really aren’t any… • Side effects are real and potentially very severe – Med Sci Sport Exerc 38(9); 1578, 2006 – J Phys Act Health 2; 460, 2005 – Future predictors of AAS use • Alcohol use • Power sports
    27. 27. Side EffectsElevated LDH Prostatic hypertrophyElevated blood pressure Prostate cancerEdema Risk of AIDS/HepAccelerated clotting ↓ immune function↑ cholesterol, TG, and LDL Irregular Heart BeatsDepressed HDL GI distressElevated blood glucose Muscle cramps/spasmsPsychosis Increased nervous tensionAltered electrolyte balance NosebleedsDecreased spermatogenesis Clitoral enlargementLowered testosterone levels Lowered voice↓LH and FSH production AcneIncreased urine production Sore nipplesAltered Libido Increased aggressivenessPremature closure of epiphyses Decreased sperm countAIDS/HIV or TB Cancer
    28. 28. Side Effects• Cardiovascular – Elevates “bad” LDL cholesterol – Elevates blood pressure – Promotes blood clots – Left ventricular hypertrophy – Cardiac arrhythmia *Operative Risk
    29. 29. Side Effects• Hepatic – Elevated liver enzymes • Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases – Formation of blood filled cysts • Peliosis hepatis – Liver cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma – Impaired bile flow: cholestasis *Orally administered steroids
    30. 30. Side Effects• Dermatologic – Acne: propionibacteria acnes – Hair loss: alopecia – Excessive hair growth: hirsutism – Stretch marks: striae
    31. 31. Side Effects• Endocrine/Reproductive – Men • Libido changes • Testicular atrophy • Impotence • Prostatic hypertrophy – Women • Masculinization • Menstrual irregularities • Reduced breast size • Clitoral enlargement
    32. 32. Side Effects• Behavioral – Depression – Mania – Psychosis – Aggression – Withdrawal syndrome • Fatigue • Depression • Reduced libido • Craving next cycle
    33. 33. Derrick Whitsett Died Jan 2004Sonny Schmidt – Died at 509 years after being Master’sOlympia Champion
    34. 34. Detecting Steroid Use
    35. 35. Detecting Steroid Use • Appearance – Muscular hypertrophy – Gynecomastia • Skin – Acne, stretch marks, needle marks, baldness • Behavioral changes *enlarged nipples
    36. 36. 2. Human Chorionic GonadotropinUsed to boost endogenous testosterone and prevent muscle loss after steroid use.*anabolic adjunct – mimics leuteinizing hormone to stimulate testosterone(Pregnancy test)Some reports that HCG may aid in weight loss…
    37. 37. 3. Human Growth Hormone hGH •increases lean body mass primarily by hyperplasia and facilitated AA transport into cells -hGH persistently stimulates IGF-1 -reduces fat mass (perhaps by stimulating lipolysis) •side effects: -incorrect usage/dosage -Stimulates the growth of all tissues, not just muscle (including internal organs; resemblesacromegaly) -Left ventricular hypertrophy w/ ↓ SV -Swollen feet and ankles, joint pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, -Development of a diabetic or prediabetic condition
    38. 38. 4. “Androgens”Androstenedione and Dehydroepiandrosterone: weak adrenal androgens •1600 mg/day 30% decline in fat mass •300 mg/day increases serum testosterone
    39. 39. Eight Research Findings - Androgens Little or no elevation of plasma testosterone concentrations No favorable effect on muscle mass No favorable effect on muscular performance No favorable alterations in body composition Elevates a variety of estrogen subfractions No favorable effects on muscle protein synthesis or tissue anabolism Impairs the blood lipid profile in apparently healthy men Increases likelihood of testing positive for steroid use
    40. 40. 5. Insulin• Promotes anabolism and stimulates IGFs*risks hypoglycemic shock
    41. 41. 6. ClenbuterolBeta- adrenoceptor 2 agonist, central stimulant, stimulates protein anabolism, and acts as a thermogen. •endurance athletes •serious side effects: MI, cardiomegally, anorexia, and insomnia.
    42. 42. 7. HMBbeta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate: amino acidmetabolite•may boost muscle mass and strength•may decrease protein loss during stress by inhibitingprotein catabolism•increases fatty acid oxidation•The mechanism for HMB’s action on musclemetabolism, strength improvement, and bodycomposition remains unknown.
    43. 43. 2g/day for up to 28 days 8. Creatine Monohydrate -Can be derived from protein in foods (but not in same quantity) -Doesn’t improve endurance, strength, or power, not an anabolic, and doesn’t improve lactate tolerance -Can improve short-term high-intensity repetitive exercise, best for improving“burst-type, phasic activity”-body building-skating-sprints-basketball -Significant increases in body weight and musclecross-sectional area.*potent placebo effect•Risks? No long term studies yetMuscle cramps
    44. 44. 9. Amphetaminespsychotropic drugs that mask fatigue •do not have a pure physiological effect, mainly improve reaction time and stamina infatigued states (mostly animal studies). •Side effects: numerous deaths in sport are ascribed to amphetamines. arrhythmias hypertension angina hypothermia hallucinations aggressiveness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtAyGvZqiwk • 1960 Danish cyclist Knut Jensen on amphetamine- powered bicycle dies • July 13, 1967 British cyclist Tom Simpson dies on Mt. Ventoux – Amphetamines
    45. 45. Stimulant that increases lipid mobilization and utilization 10. Caffeine•prolongs endurance by increasing fat utilization and reducing COH•may increase speed of muscle contraction•IOC limits caffeine (4-7 cups of coffee 30 min prior to ex)600-800 mg*Effectiveness is reduced as use of caffeine increases
    46. 46. Warnings about Caffeine Effects become less apparent when someone: -Consumes a high-carbohydrate diet -Uses caffeine habitually Can cause restlessness, headaches, insomnia, nervous irritability, muscle twitching, tremulousness, psychomotor agitation, and elevated heart rate and blood pressure and trigger premature left ventricular contractions Acts as a diuretic
    47. 47. 11. BuffersPrevent metabolic and lactate acidosis •sodium bicarbonate •sodium citrate *diuresis and gas (extreme gi distress in 50% of users)
    48. 48. 12. Anti-Cortisol Compoundsreduce protein breakdown by inhibiting cortisol release. •Phosphatidylserine •Glutamine 13. COH Loading •Prolongs endurance performance •Improves training time •Prevents use of protein for energy •“Supercompensation” after COH depletion -increased water retention -gi problems -compromised training during depletion phase
    49. 49. 14. B Vitamin Loading •Folate, B-6 and B-12 for muscle building•Niacin, Riboflavin and Thiamin for endurance performance15. Amino Acid Supplements Protein Shakes •May help prevent catabolism after a hard workout… •Conflicting Reports? 16. L-Carnitine •Carnitine levels correlate well with use of lipids as energy source during exercise. •May improve endurance performance (~6%) •Beware of racemic mixtures (D,L-Carnitine) D-Carnitine causes muscle cramps and weakness.
    50. 50. 17. Chromium •May decrease body fat, increase lean mass and reduce LDL •Effect is marginal at best -some studies show placebo works better -some studies show increased muscle mass without increased strength •Competes for iron and zinc binding proteins in gi tract18. Ephedra/Ephedrine/Ma Huang Sympathomimetic, alpha and beta receptor agonist -increases metabolic rate -may enhance mobilization of fats, and suppress appetite -not an ergogenic aid -Risks: Sudden death, Tachycardia, PVC, intracerebral hemorrhage, Increased BP other vascular events
    51. 51. 19. Blood Doping: 2 ways Autologous RBC’s or Exogenous Erythropoietin •Improves O2 carrying capacity •Can improve VO2 max •increases viscosity of the blood (increased work of heart)•Erythropoietin: hormone that stimulates RBC production-side effects: hypertension, stroke, heart failure, seizures

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