From the standpoint of temperature regulation, caffeine’s effect as a potent diuretic could cause unnecessary pre-exercise loss of fluid that negatively affects thermal balance and exercise performance in a hot environment.
Ergogenic AidsAnything used to enhance athletic performance: •increase exercise capacity •enhance physiological processes •depress psychological inhibition •provide mechanical advantage
Performance Enhancing Drugs Abuses and Consequences 1922 Most Perfectly Developed Man
Florence Joyner Arnold John McEnroeJesse Ventura Lyle Alzado
1988 Summer Olympic Games, Ben Johnson testedpositive for anabolic-androgenic steroid stanozolol
Ancient Greece –Early Olympians use mushrooms, herbs, liquor, plant seeds.Roman Period –Chariot racers drug horses and gladiators doped for vigorous and bloody spectacle.Vikings –Psychedelic mushrooms19th Century –Alcohol, caffeine, opium, strychnine, trimethylWorld War II –Amphetamines, testosterone
First Recorded Death Due toPerformance Enhancing Drugs - 1886?Arthur LintonDies of stimulanttrimethyloverdoseOnly two Brits have won Bordeaux-Paris, Arthur Linton won in 1886 and Tom Simpson in1963. Linton overdosed on trimethyl and Simpson died of amphetamines in 1967.
Cycling – Most Doped Sport? • 1960 Danish cyclist Knut Jensen on amphetamine- powered bicycle dies • July 13, 1967 British cyclist Tom Simpson dies on Mt. Ventoux – Amphetamines
1998 Tour De France French team Festina Amphetamines EPO AAS hGH Prescription drugs NarcoticsRichard Virenque
DOPING • Dutch doop – Viscous opium juice • World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) • U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA)“The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’sbodily specimen; use or attempted used of a prohibited substance or method;tampering, or attempting to tamper, with any part of doping control; possession ofprohibited substances and methods, trafficking in any prohibited substance orprohibited method; administration or attempted administration of a prohibitedsubstance or prohibited method to any athlete, assisting, encouraging, aiding,abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving an anti-doping ruleviolation or any attempted violation”
DOPING • Withdrawing and saving red blood cells for later re-infusionDr. Bjorn Ekblominvented “blood packing”in 1972 • Later the term was used to describe taking Erythropoietin • Generic term to describe any illegal performance- enhancing drug
History of Doping in Sport1860’s – Amsterdam swimmers takespeedballs – mix of heroin and cocaine.1904 - Marathoner Thomas Hicks diesat Olympics – “stimulating strychnineand courage-inspiring brandy”1935 - Testosterone was firstsynthesized, and German soldiers werereportedly using it to perform betterand to become more aggressive.1950’s – During the 1952 Olympics theRussian weightlifting team won thegold medal due to synthetic steroid
Historical ControversyThe controversy surrounding steroids began in the 1950’s during the OlympicGames when the athletic community discovered that athletes from Russia andsome East European nations, which had dominated the games, had taken largedoses of steroids. It became evident that they had not been "healthy" due tothe fact that many of the male athletes developed such large prostate glandsthat they needed a tube inserted in order to urinate. The females of thesenations had developed so many male characteristics that chromosome testswere needed to prove that they were still female.
1950’s (cont) – A U.S. pharmaceutical firm develops thefirst anabolic steroids.1952 Amphetamine-related illnesses of speed skaters inOlympics in Oslo, Norway1968 Olympic drug testing begins in Mexico City1975 – The International Olympic Committee officiallybans the use of steroids, just prior to 1976 MontrealGames
1976 Olympics East German Swimmers won 11 out of 13 Olympic events. In 1990 it emerges that they had been on an organized drug program
Detection of Illegal “Nutrition” •Random drug tests during competition (forces athletes to become more sophisticated in use) •Unannounced drug tests year-round •Lie detectors
1. Steroids – Derivatives of Testosterone *Banned by the NCAA and IOC *Illegal to use outside of physician supervision and dosing recommendations A. Anabolic: “to build” -accelerated growth of bone, muscle, red cells, and enhanced neural conduction B. Androgenic: “produce male-like traits” C. Do they work? -How they work: Promote Anabolism: •Intracellular androgen receptors bind to nuclear chromatin toactivate ribonucleic acid-polymerase system •Heavy resistance training is required for beneficial effects Prevent Catabolism: •cross binding with glucocorticoid receptors interferes withglucocorticoid receptor-activated catabolism •faster recovery time *May also decrease fat mass and increase use of fat for energy
How Steroids Work• Exert actions inside cells• Binds to androgen receptors inside the cell• Influences gene transcription and translation to enhance protein production
Psychological Effects • Increased sense of well-being • Irritability • Mania • Depression • Euphoria • Aggressiveness • Enhanced pain tolerance • Sexual arousal • Suicidality
Side Effects• There really aren’t any… • Side effects are real and potentially very severe – Med Sci Sport Exerc 38(9); 1578, 2006 – J Phys Act Health 2; 460, 2005 – Future predictors of AAS use • Alcohol use • Power sports
Side EffectsElevated LDH Prostatic hypertrophyElevated blood pressure Prostate cancerEdema Risk of AIDS/HepAccelerated clotting ↓ immune function↑ cholesterol, TG, and LDL Irregular Heart BeatsDepressed HDL GI distressElevated blood glucose Muscle cramps/spasmsPsychosis Increased nervous tensionAltered electrolyte balance NosebleedsDecreased spermatogenesis Clitoral enlargementLowered testosterone levels Lowered voice↓LH and FSH production AcneIncreased urine production Sore nipplesAltered Libido Increased aggressivenessPremature closure of epiphyses Decreased sperm countAIDS/HIV or TB Cancer
2. Human Chorionic GonadotropinUsed to boost endogenous testosterone and prevent muscle loss after steroid use.*anabolic adjunct – mimics leuteinizing hormone to stimulate testosterone(Pregnancy test)Some reports that HCG may aid in weight loss…
3. Human Growth Hormone hGH •increases lean body mass primarily by hyperplasia and facilitated AA transport into cells -hGH persistently stimulates IGF-1 -reduces fat mass (perhaps by stimulating lipolysis) •side effects: -incorrect usage/dosage -Stimulates the growth of all tissues, not just muscle (including internal organs; resemblesacromegaly) -Left ventricular hypertrophy w/ ↓ SV -Swollen feet and ankles, joint pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, -Development of a diabetic or prediabetic condition
4. “Androgens”Androstenedione and Dehydroepiandrosterone: weak adrenal androgens •1600 mg/day 30% decline in fat mass •300 mg/day increases serum testosterone
Eight Research Findings - Androgens Little or no elevation of plasma testosterone concentrations No favorable effect on muscle mass No favorable effect on muscular performance No favorable alterations in body composition Elevates a variety of estrogen subfractions No favorable effects on muscle protein synthesis or tissue anabolism Impairs the blood lipid profile in apparently healthy men Increases likelihood of testing positive for steroid use
5. Insulin• Promotes anabolism and stimulates IGFs*risks hypoglycemic shock
6. ClenbuterolBeta- adrenoceptor 2 agonist, central stimulant, stimulates protein anabolism, and acts as a thermogen. •endurance athletes •serious side effects: MI, cardiomegally, anorexia, and insomnia.
7. HMBbeta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate: amino acidmetabolite•may boost muscle mass and strength•may decrease protein loss during stress by inhibitingprotein catabolism•increases fatty acid oxidation•The mechanism for HMB’s action on musclemetabolism, strength improvement, and bodycomposition remains unknown.
2g/day for up to 28 days 8. Creatine Monohydrate -Can be derived from protein in foods (but not in same quantity) -Doesn’t improve endurance, strength, or power, not an anabolic, and doesn’t improve lactate tolerance -Can improve short-term high-intensity repetitive exercise, best for improving“burst-type, phasic activity”-body building-skating-sprints-basketball -Significant increases in body weight and musclecross-sectional area.*potent placebo effect•Risks? No long term studies yetMuscle cramps
9. Amphetaminespsychotropic drugs that mask fatigue •do not have a pure physiological effect, mainly improve reaction time and stamina infatigued states (mostly animal studies). •Side effects: numerous deaths in sport are ascribed to amphetamines. arrhythmias hypertension angina hypothermia hallucinations aggressiveness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtAyGvZqiwk • 1960 Danish cyclist Knut Jensen on amphetamine- powered bicycle dies • July 13, 1967 British cyclist Tom Simpson dies on Mt. Ventoux – Amphetamines
Stimulant that increases lipid mobilization and utilization 10. Caffeine•prolongs endurance by increasing fat utilization and reducing COH•may increase speed of muscle contraction•IOC limits caffeine (4-7 cups of coffee 30 min prior to ex)600-800 mg*Effectiveness is reduced as use of caffeine increases
Warnings about Caffeine Effects become less apparent when someone: -Consumes a high-carbohydrate diet -Uses caffeine habitually Can cause restlessness, headaches, insomnia, nervous irritability, muscle twitching, tremulousness, psychomotor agitation, and elevated heart rate and blood pressure and trigger premature left ventricular contractions Acts as a diuretic
11. BuffersPrevent metabolic and lactate acidosis •sodium bicarbonate •sodium citrate *diuresis and gas (extreme gi distress in 50% of users)
12. Anti-Cortisol Compoundsreduce protein breakdown by inhibiting cortisol release. •Phosphatidylserine •Glutamine 13. COH Loading •Prolongs endurance performance •Improves training time •Prevents use of protein for energy •“Supercompensation” after COH depletion -increased water retention -gi problems -compromised training during depletion phase
14. B Vitamin Loading •Folate, B-6 and B-12 for muscle building•Niacin, Riboflavin and Thiamin for endurance performance15. Amino Acid Supplements Protein Shakes •May help prevent catabolism after a hard workout… •Conflicting Reports? 16. L-Carnitine •Carnitine levels correlate well with use of lipids as energy source during exercise. •May improve endurance performance (~6%) •Beware of racemic mixtures (D,L-Carnitine) D-Carnitine causes muscle cramps and weakness.
17. Chromium •May decrease body fat, increase lean mass and reduce LDL •Effect is marginal at best -some studies show placebo works better -some studies show increased muscle mass without increased strength •Competes for iron and zinc binding proteins in gi tract18. Ephedra/Ephedrine/Ma Huang Sympathomimetic, alpha and beta receptor agonist -increases metabolic rate -may enhance mobilization of fats, and suppress appetite -not an ergogenic aid -Risks: Sudden death, Tachycardia, PVC, intracerebral hemorrhage, Increased BP other vascular events
19. Blood Doping: 2 ways Autologous RBC’s or Exogenous Erythropoietin •Improves O2 carrying capacity •Can improve VO2 max •increases viscosity of the blood (increased work of heart)•Erythropoietin: hormone that stimulates RBC production-side effects: hypertension, stroke, heart failure, seizures