Anabolic steroids

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Anabolic steroids

  1. 1. Performance Enhancing Drugs
  2. 2. The Word “Steroid” a Primer <ul><li>Adrenal glands just above the kidneys synthesize: </li></ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids (cortisol) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiinflammatory (treat allergic reactions, skin, respiratory, opthalmic, RA, CA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress and CNS mood effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortisone, Prednisone, Hydrocortisone, Prednisolone </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Role of Glucocorticosteroid <ul><li>Inhibit inflammation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause leukocytes to be sluggish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complications with long term use </li></ul><ul><li>Rebound deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Taper </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prednisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Glucocorticoids Adverse Effects
  5. 5. Glucocorticoids Adverse Effects <ul><li>CV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Na retention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PUD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metabolic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redistribution of fat, hyperglycemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dematologic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impair wound healing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Musculoskeletal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuropsychiatric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosis/mood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opthalmic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cataracts/glaucoma </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Mineralcorticoids (primarily aldosterone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of aldosterone stimulated by salt depletion and causes sodium retention in the kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases urinary excretion of potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job is to regulate the balance of Na ++ and K+ in the blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Androgens (primarily dehydroepiandrosterone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance male characteristics and control growth of hair follicles in the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolic-Androgenic steroids are synthetic formulations produced from testosterone, the male hormone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated use by 80% of weightlifters & bodybuilders </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Tissues Targeted by Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids
  8. 8. Major Effects of Anabolic Steroids <ul><li>Androgen Type Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Increased growth of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prostate gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body/facial hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deepening voice </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sexual interest and desire </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of abstract thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Increased aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic Type Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Increased: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ and skeletal muscle mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium in bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention of nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Long Term Adverse Effects <ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oily skin acne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>breast size, ovulation, lactation, menstruation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoarse/deep voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clitoral enlargement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual hair growth +/- male patterned baldness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase penis size, # of erections, & secondary male characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priapism (continuing erections) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gynecomastia (increased breast size) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testicular atrophy, impotence </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. BOTH Genders <ul><li>Gastric ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Liver Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in HDL </li></ul><ul><li>Increased platelet aggregation with increased risk of CV disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercalcemia </li></ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary calculi </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Iron deficiency anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, stomach pains </li></ul>

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