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What is the placebo effect?
The placebo effect refers to when your body’s
expectations of a substance determine your body’...
The Placebo Effect on Muscular
Strength Gains
Data from G. Ariel and W. Saville, 1972, "Anabolic steroids: The physiologic...
Ergogenic Aids
and Sport
BTEC L4 HNC
Sport & Exercise Science
Categories
• Nutritional
• Psychological
• Physiological
• Mechanical/technological
• Pharmacological
Pharmacological Agents
Beta-blockers
Alcohol
Amphetamines
Beta-Blockers
• Prevent the binding of norepinephrine and decrease
sympathetic nervous system activity
• May improve accur...
Amphetamines
• Increase mental alertness, blood pressure, heart rate,
blood glucose and FFA levels and muscle tension
• De...
Alcohol
http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/what-effect-does-alcohol-have-
on-sports-performance-727
Ergogenic effects
Alcohol...
Physiological Agents
• Blood doping
• Erythropoietin
• Oxygen supplementation
• Bicarbonate loading
Blood Doping
• Artificial increase in total volume of red blood cells
(often via transfusion)
• Improves endurance perform...
Changes in VO2max and Running Time to
Exhaustion After Reinfusion
of Red Blood Cells
Adapted, by permission, from F.J. Bui...
Improvements in Running Times After
Reinfusion of Red Blood Cells
Adapted, by permission, from L.L. Spriet, 1991, Blood do...
Erythropoietin
• Natural hormone produced by the kidneys to stimulate
red blood cell production
• Can be cloned and admini...
Oxygen Supplementation
• Breathed by athletes to increase oxygen content of
blood
• Can improve performance if administere...
OXYGEN SUPPLEMENTATION AND
PERFORMANCE
Bicarbonate
• Naturally part of body’s buffering system to maintain
normal pH
• Loading increases blood alkalinity so that...
Concentrations of (a) Blood Bicarbonate
and (b) Blood Hydrogen Ion With and
Without Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate
Adapte...
Nutritional Agents
• Amino acids
• L-carnitine
• Creatine
Amino Acids
• L-tryptophan and BCAA
• Proposed to increase endurance performance
by delaying fatigue
• Studies are inconcl...
Time to Exhaustion on a Cycle
Ergometer at 70% of VO2max
Adapted, by permission, from G. van Hall et al., 1995, "Ingestion...
Creatine
• Supplement to better maintain muscle ATP levels
• Shown to increase strength and possibly fat-free body
mass
• ...
L-carnitine
• Increased fat metabolism
• Can lower RPE
• Increased total work output
• Enhanced recovery
Hormonal Agents
• Anabolic steroids
• Human growth hormone
• Oral contraceptives
Diuretics
• Increase urine production and excretion
• Used for weight reduction and to mask other drugs
during drug testin...
Caffeine
• Increases mental alertness, concentration,
catecholamine release, and mobilization and use of
FFA by the muscle...
Anabolic Steroids
• Are nearly identical to male sex hormones; synthetic
form maximizes building effects
• Increase muscle...
Human Growth Hormone
• Secreted naturally by pituitary; synthetic form used by
some athletes
• Difficult to detect synthet...
STEROIDS AND STRENGTH GAINS
Percent Changes in Body Size, Body
Composition, and Strength When Athletes
Used Anabolic Steroids and a Placebo
Relationship Between Total Dose of
Steroid and Change in Fat-Free Mass
(in kg)
From an article published in Metabolism, vo...
Phosphate
Loading is thought to increase phosphate levels
throughout the body, which then
• increase potential for oxidati...
Ergogenic Aids
Ergogenic Aids
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Ergogenic Aids

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Ergogenic Aids

  1. 1. What is the placebo effect? The placebo effect refers to when your body’s expectations of a substance determine your body’s response to it. While the effect is psychological in origin, the body’s physical response to the substance is real.
  2. 2. The Placebo Effect on Muscular Strength Gains Data from G. Ariel and W. Saville, 1972, "Anabolic steroids: The physiological effects of placebos," Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4: 124-126.
  3. 3. Ergogenic Aids and Sport BTEC L4 HNC Sport & Exercise Science
  4. 4. Categories • Nutritional • Psychological • Physiological • Mechanical/technological • Pharmacological
  5. 5. Pharmacological Agents Beta-blockers Alcohol Amphetamines
  6. 6. Beta-Blockers • Prevent the binding of norepinephrine and decrease sympathetic nervous system activity • May improve accuracy (for shooting sports) • Decrease aerobic capacity but have no effect on strength, power or muscular endurance • Prolonged use can cause bradycardia, heart blockage, hypotension, bronchospasm, fatigue and decreased motivation.
  7. 7. Amphetamines • Increase mental alertness, blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose and FFA levels and muscle tension • Decrease sense of fatigue • Redistribute blood flow to skeletal muscles • May enhance speed, power, endurance, concentration, and fine motor coordination • May be addictive and can trigger cardiac arrhythmia or death
  8. 8. Alcohol http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/what-effect-does-alcohol-have- on-sports-performance-727 Ergogenic effects Alcohol may influence both psychological and physiological processes related to physical performance, but most of the theoretical ergogenic benefits have been related to psychological effects. Psychologically, alcohol may benefit performance by increasing self-confidence, decreasing sensitivity to pain, or removing psychological barriers to performance. However, the most prevalent use of alcohol in sports competition is related to its ability to reduce excess anxiety and hand tremor, important considerations for athletes involved in precision sports such as pistol shooting. Ergolytic effects Alcohol may also influence psychological and physiological processes in an adverse fashion and may lead to deterioration in physical performance. Obviously, many of the adverse psychomotor effects listed in the table could impair performance in sports requiring great skill, but a number of physiological effects could also be detrimental to other types of performance. For example, alcohol may depress heart function, interfere with liver function to cause hypoglycaemia, and lead to dehydration by suppressing the release of antidiuretic hormone.
  9. 9. Physiological Agents • Blood doping • Erythropoietin • Oxygen supplementation • Bicarbonate loading
  10. 10. Blood Doping • Artificial increase in total volume of red blood cells (often via transfusion) • Improves endurance performance by increasing blood’s O2-carrying capacity • Increases VO2max, time to exhaustion, and measurable performance • Can cause blood clotting, heart failure, and transfusion complications .
  11. 11. Changes in VO2max and Running Time to Exhaustion After Reinfusion of Red Blood Cells Adapted, by permission, from F.J. Buick et al, 1980, "Effect of induced erythrocythemia on aerobic work capacity," Journal of Applied Physiology 48: 636-642. .
  12. 12. Improvements in Running Times After Reinfusion of Red Blood Cells Adapted, by permission, from L.L. Spriet, 1991, Blood doping and oxygen transport. In Ergogenics - Enhancement of performance in exercise and sport, edited by D.R. Lamb and M.H. Williams (Dubugue, IA: Brown & Benchmark), 213-242. Copyright 1991 Cooper Publishing Group, Carmel, IN.
  13. 13. Erythropoietin • Natural hormone produced by the kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production • Can be cloned and administered to increase red blood cell volume • Increases VO2max and time to exhaustion • Can cause blood clotting and heart failure due to increased blood viscosity .
  14. 14. Oxygen Supplementation • Breathed by athletes to increase oxygen content of blood • Can improve performance if administered during exercise, but not before or after • Too cumbersome to be practical • No serious risks known
  15. 15. OXYGEN SUPPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE
  16. 16. Bicarbonate • Naturally part of body’s buffering system to maintain normal pH • Loading increases blood alkalinity so that more lactate can be cleared (delay fatigue) • Ingesting 300 mg per kg body weight can increase performance in all-out exercise bouts between 1 and 7 minutes • Can cause gastrointestinal cramping, bloating, and diaorrhea
  17. 17. Concentrations of (a) Blood Bicarbonate and (b) Blood Hydrogen Ion With and Without Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate Adapted, by permission, from D.L. Costill et al., 1984, "Acid-based balance during repeated bouts of exercise: Influence of HCO3," International Journal of Sports Medicine 5: 228-231.
  18. 18. Nutritional Agents • Amino acids • L-carnitine • Creatine
  19. 19. Amino Acids • L-tryptophan and BCAA • Proposed to increase endurance performance by delaying fatigue • Studies are inconclusive on effects on performance
  20. 20. Time to Exhaustion on a Cycle Ergometer at 70% of VO2max Adapted, by permission, from G. van Hall et al., 1995, "Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: Failure to affect performance," Journal of Physiology 486: 789- 794. .
  21. 21. Creatine • Supplement to better maintain muscle ATP levels • Shown to increase strength and possibly fat-free body mass • Not shown to help endurance performance, sprint running, or sprint swimming performance
  22. 22. L-carnitine • Increased fat metabolism • Can lower RPE • Increased total work output • Enhanced recovery
  23. 23. Hormonal Agents • Anabolic steroids • Human growth hormone • Oral contraceptives
  24. 24. Diuretics • Increase urine production and excretion • Used for weight reduction and to mask other drugs during drug testing • Cause weight loss (water loss) • Can lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and electrolyte imbalances
  25. 25. Caffeine • Increases mental alertness, concentration, catecholamine release, and mobilization and use of FFA by the muscles • Decreases fatigue and lowers perception of effort • Improves endurance performance; may improve sprint and strength performance • Can cause nervousness, insomnia, and tremors and can lead to dehydration
  26. 26. Anabolic Steroids • Are nearly identical to male sex hormones; synthetic form maximizes building effects • Increase muscle mass and strength • Can cause testicular atrophy, reduced sperm count, and prostate and breast enlargement in men • Can cause breast regression, masculinization, and menstrual disruption in women • Cause personality changes, liver damage, and cardiovascular disease
  27. 27. Human Growth Hormone • Secreted naturally by pituitary; synthetic form used by some athletes • Difficult to detect synthetic from natural in drug testing • Proven to increase lipolysis and blood glucose levels • Can cause acromegaly, enlargement of internal organs, muscle and joint weakness, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease
  28. 28. STEROIDS AND STRENGTH GAINS
  29. 29. Percent Changes in Body Size, Body Composition, and Strength When Athletes Used Anabolic Steroids and a Placebo
  30. 30. Relationship Between Total Dose of Steroid and Change in Fat-Free Mass (in kg) From an article published in Metabolism, vol. 34, G.B. Forbes, "The effect of anabolic steroids on lean body mass: The dose response curve," pp. 271-573, Copyright 1985.
  31. 31. Phosphate Loading is thought to increase phosphate levels throughout the body, which then • increase potential for oxidative phosphorylation and PCr synthesis, • enhance oxygen release to the cells, and • improve cardiovascular response to exercise and buffering and endurance capacities. Studies are divided on results of phosphate loading. No risks are yet known.

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