Type of Definition ExampledevianceDeviance Behaviour that falls outside the norms or outside what is deemed to be acceptableRelative Deviant behaviour that is not Punching somebody is unacceptabledeviance acceptable in wider society but may in society but accepted in boxing. be deemed as acceptable in the sporting context.Positive Behaviour which is outside the Overtraining leading to an injury.deviance norms but with no intention to harm or break rules.Negative Behaviour that is outside the Intentionally fouling someone indeviance norm, and has a detrimental effect football. on individuals and society.
Causes of deviance• Lack of appropriate training• Adopting a career pattern of deviance• No other way to win• Poor rule enforcement• Crowd mentality
Contract to compete Within characteristics of Allowing fair the activity opportunity to win Contract to compete Performers agree to Within the strive against each rules/ethics of the other to win contestFeatures of the contract to compete:• To accept fair play• Commitment to the sport• Play to maximum ability• Commitment to others• Allow demonstration of skill by others
ViolenceEither prevalent in:• Participants• Spectators Two types: • Planned – Organised action, usually fighting in a desolate area away from policing. Usually between gangs from rival teams. • Spontaneous – Something which just happens, for example: throwing a coin at a rival player who just scored. Causes 1. Genetic Inheritance 2. Frustration 3. Loss of self identity 4. Social Learning
Hooliganism“The behaviour of those who engage inunruly, destructive or violent behaviour”Takes place Causes of hooliganismFootball grounds and stadiums Seen as a rite of passage into a social groupStreets near the ground Acts as an outlet for aggressive malesCity centres A territorial defence where a group a perceived to be protecting their local areaLocal pubs Tension/violence on the pitch which can trigger a reaction from the crowdPublic transport Close rivalry between certain teams can make the game more intense – therefore increasing crowd interaction and aggressiveness with the game
Combating hooliganism• Prevention of known hooliganisms from travelling to games• Control of alcohol which can affect those kind of behaviour• Segregation of rival fans• High police presence• All-seater stadiums to restrict movement• CCTV
DrugsErythropoietin Anabolic Human Beta blockers Diuretics Stimulants Steroids growth hormone Why do performers take performance enhancing drugs? • Lack the moral boundaries to stay with the rules and avoid cheating • May be lacking the physiological/psychological attributes to win • May not be fully aware they are doing so. Could be the work of a coach. • The rewards for winning are so great then it is worth it. • May aid recovery time. • May believe that “everybody is doing it” so they take it so they don’t left behind. • Pressured by coaches or team managers
Implications for those who take drugsDrug Advantage DisadvantageErythropoietinAnabolic Steroids Increased muscle bulk Hypertension (high blood pressure)Human growth hormone Increased levels of Headaches and depression testosteroneBeta blockers Slow down heart rate Heart palpitations which is good for precision sportsDiuretics Allow for any drugs to Can cause dehydration leave the systemStimulants Allow for longer training Can cause injury if you train too much
Fighting against the use of PED’sNational governing bodies attempt to scan all athletes for any PED presence.• Providing test regimes to test• Taking extreme actions against those who do take drugs to send a message• Trying to educate young performers of the moral and physical disadvantages of taking drugs• Ensuring that it is clear to performers what is allowed and what isnt.WADAThe foremost international body involved in promoting, coordinating and monitoringthe use of drugs in sport.
How Ped’s are dealt withPunishmentsLong term bans from the sport (Rio Ferdinand )Lifetime bans from the Olympics (Dwain Chambers)Testing• Can turn up unannounced for a random drugs screening. This prevents the athlete from using diuretics to get the drugs out the system.• Notification from the performers to their whereabouts for a certain period of time• Taking sample pots from the performer• Keeping the performer’s identity secret so it couldn’t be tampered with.
Sport and the lawRelation to the performer Relation to the officials Relation to managers/agents/directorsEmployment protection of the They are open to investigation Any agent corruption, where anBosman ruling where a player if it is believed they have been agent takes a bung to ensure acan move from one club to bribed. player moves somewhere cananother for free. be prosecutedCannot take bribes to If a player has been injured Owners of clubs have ainfluence a game a certain way through the faulty of the responsibility towards anyone(The Pakistan cricket players) referee then they could be who enters their stadium liable to prosecutionIf they take illegal drugs, they Organisers of events have acould be prosecuted by the duty of care towardslaw competitors and should give a warning of any risk involved.If found guilty then they wontbe allowed to compete in theOlympicsPlayers are not allowed to beton their own matches