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Democratizing higher education

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Summarizes the key findings of the book, Democratizing Higher Education.

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Democratizing higher education

  1. 1. Democratizing Higher Education: International Comparative Perspectives Presented by Dr. Patrick Blessinger HETL Association & St. John’s University (NYC) THE GLOBAL CLASSROOM: ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 9TH ANNUAL GLOBAL BUSINESS FORUM BAYLOR UNIVERSITY, WACO, TEXAS, USA MARCH 18-19, 2015 HTTP://WWW.BAYLOR.EDU/BUSINESS/GLOBALBUSINESSFORUM/
  2. 2. Purpose of Book An edited book by educational scholars around the world. Examines the emerging trends taking place in higher education systems around the world. Focuses on the most salient political and social forces that underlie these trends, as well as economic and technological forces. Understand the commonalities across all higher education systems around the world. In a fast-changing, knowledge-intensive, democratic society, it explores the question: how can higher education systems be developed to provide access, affordability, participation, and quality lifelong learning for all?
  3. 3. Global Demand for Higher Education http://www.oecd.org/edu/Education-at-a-Glance-2014.pdf Total Number of Students Participating in Higher Education Worldwide The publication covers educational data spanning 34 OECD countries as well as the following non-OECD states: Brazil, Russia, Argentina, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Latvia, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa
  4. 4. Global Demand for Higher Education Higher education continues to expand rapidly as supply tries to catch up to demand. Increasing demand for higher education is a worldwide phenomenon. Participation in higher education is becoming the norm in most countries. Three-quarters of young adults in OECD countries will participate in higher education (academic programs or occupational programs) in their lifetimes. Many OECD countries have now reached “universal participation rates” as defined and predicted by Professor Martin Trow. http://www.oecd.org/edu/Education-at-a-Glance-2014.pdf OECD countries http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/03/02_trow.shtml
  5. 5. Internationalization of Higher Education http://www.oecd.org/edu/Education-at-a-Glance-2014.pdf Total Number of International Students Worldwide The publication covers educational data spanning 34 OECD countries as well as the following non-OECD states: Brazil, Russia, Argentina, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Latvia, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa
  6. 6. Trends in International Higher Education Globalization has fueled the internationalization of higher education. Over half of international students come from Asia (mainly from China, India, and South Korea). 75% of international students study in OECD countries (mainly in USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, and Australia). Among international students, about 48% study in Europe, 21% in North America, and 18% in Asia. However, the traditional leaders in international higher education are losing share (e.g., the USA share dropped from 23% in 2000 to 16% in 2012). Oceania, Latin America, Africa, and the Caribbean are emerging as major destination areas for international students. http://www.oecd.org/edu/Education-at-a-Glance-2014.pdf
  7. 7. Key Findings of Book A better understanding of these trends allows us to make better theoretical sense of the changing landscape, which in turn, allows us to make more informed policy decisions, which in turn, puts us in a better position to improve and adapt professional practices relative to the changes occurring. System-wide and institutional changes need to be proactively implemented to better suit the learning needs of an increasingly diverse society. DEMOCRATIC THEORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION: In a modern democratic society higher education has become the primary means by which all people are able to exercise political self- determination, economic self-sufficiency, social mobility, and personal empowerment, leading to the increased development of personal agency. Higher education can serve as a powerful catalyst and vehicle to help achieve these goals. Blessinger, P. and Anchan, J.P. (2015). Democratizing Higher Education: International Comparative Perspectives. New York: Routledge.
  8. 8. Key Findings of Book Globalization and internationalization are interdependent - two sides of the same coin called a “hyperconnected world”. More internalization leads to more globalization and vice versa - they are mutually reinforcing phenomena, which helps explain the accelerating pace of change of the two. Increasing demand for higher education across all demographic sectors of society. Growing diversity in the make-up of student populations. Growing diversification in the types and number of higher educational institutions. Increasing shift towards reduced public financing. Increasing pressure of higher education institutions to respond to the needs of society. Blessinger, P. and Anchan, J.P. (2015). Democratizing Higher Education: International Comparative Perspectives. New York: Routledge.
  9. 9. Key Findings of Book Blessinger, P. and Anchan, J.P. (2015). Democratizing Higher Education: International Comparative Perspectives. New York: Routledge.
  10. 10. Key Findings of Book In light of these findings, we are confronted with the following core questions: ◦ How can we make higher education available to all who want to participate in it? ◦ How can higher education provide meaningful opportunities for lifelong learning? ◦ How can higher education help prepare students to live and work in a globalized world? Blessinger, P. and Anchan, J.P. (2015). Democratizing Higher Education: International Comparative Perspectives. New York: Routledge.
  11. 11. Democratizing Higher Education: International Comparative Perspectives Thank you for your time! Questions?
  12. 12. Appendix: Key Terms and Definitions Globalization is the process of growing worldwide interconnectedness and interdependence of people, institutions, societies, and nations as a result of increasing worldwide integration and interaction of political, economic, social, technological, and ecological (PESTE) forces and systems. In short, globalization is a set of globally integrated systems (e.g., global political organization like the UN or a global economic trade organization like the WTO or, some would argue, a global social and business language like English or a global technological communication system like the internet or a global ecological system like global climate systems). Globalization examines the effect of global phenomena like international politics, trade, education, and migration as well global warming and deforestation, have on the local. Thus, a globalized world is one where: what happens in one part of the world is likely to impact other parts of the world, and vice versa. Globalization implies the growing homogenization of political, economic, social, technological, and ecological (PESTE) aspects of life.
  13. 13. Appendix: Key Terms and Definitions Internationalization is the strategic response of people, institutions, societies, and nations to the process of globalization. In part, internationalization is the process of developing goods and services (e.g., higher education offerings) to enable them to be adapted to local contexts. Within the context of higher education, this naturally involves first looking at higher education systems around the world (comparative higher education systems) in order to understand the global context and then develop a strategic plan about how to develop and implement international educational offerings (e.g., overseas branch campuses, overseas academic exchange programs, joint degree programs, collaborative research, recruiting and enrolling international students). In short, internationalization is the integration of internationalization into the tripartite mission (teaching, research, service) of the educational institution. Since globalization and internationalization are so closely intertwined, this relationship might also help explain the growing marketization and diversification (and some would argue the commoditization) of higher education course offerings.

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