Objectives Introduction Communication Devices Wireless System Evolution 1G - 5G Wireless Systems Types of networks Wireless PAN Wireless LAN Wireless MAN Wireless WAN Communication in India Conclusion
IntroductionTelecommunications - is the key enabler of economic and social development of a nation - increase the efficiency of commercial and administrative activities- improve the effectiveness of social and emergency services- distribute the social, cultural and economic benefits of the process of development more equitably throughout the country- provides universal service for rural and remote communities
Commonly used Devices Tablet PC Handheld device Cell PhoneKindle- e book reader Watch mobile Phone
Communication Devices1)Fixed and Wired (e.g.) desktop uses fixed networks2)Mobile and Wired (e.g.) Laptop connected using telephone and modem3)Fixed and Wireless (e.g.)a network in historical buildings4)Mobile and Wireless (e.g.) Cellular network
Wireless Characteristics Communication without wires Wires are replaced by electromagnetic waves electromagnetic waves carry a signal through atmospheric space use radio frequency RF waves, which ranges from 3 kHz to 300 GHz or infrared IR, which ranges from 3 THz to 430 THz
Electromagnetic SpectrumShowing Radio Frequency
What is mobility? Two types of mobility: i)Device portability ii)User Mobility no mobility high mobilitymobile wireless user, mobile user, mobile user, passingusing same access connecting/ through multiplepoint disconnecting from access point while network maintaining ongoing connections Mobility Spectrum
Degrees of Mobility Walking Users Low speed Small roaming area Usually uses high-bandwidth Vehicles High speeds Large roaming area Usually uses low-bandwidth Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones)
Wireless Network Stakeholders1. Regulatory Authorities2. The operator or the Service Provider3. The user or the subscriber4. Equipment Vendors (network equipment and user device)5. Research Organizations
1G Wireless Systems-Characteristics Appeared in late 1970s and deployed in early 1980s All based on analog techniques All used FDMA Operates at 450-900 MHz frequency band System capacity is low Data rate is <10 kbps
1G Wireless Systems The geographical area divided into cells Each with own antenna Each with own range of frequencies Served by base station - Transmitter, receiver, control unit to carry out actual radio communications with the device Adjacent cells on different frequencies to avoid crosstalk Mobile Switching Center Controls all calls attached to this device, Maintains billing information &Switches calls PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
1G infrastructure PSTNBase station Mobile Switching Centre
1G Wireless Systems-Some Standards AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System - by AT&T Bell Labs in 1970s deployed in 1983 -the number of users that can be supported was limited. -used all over the world & popular in South America, China and Australia. ETACS: European Total Access Communication Systems. - channel bandwidth is scaled to 25 kHz instead of 30 kHz as in AMPS.
2G Wireless Systems - Characteristics Deployed in mid 1990s Fully Digital network elements TDMA/CDMA for spectrum sharing; Circuit switching Operates at 900-1800 MHz frequency band 3-times increase in overall system capacity. supported voice-centric services and limited data-service, like short messages(SMS), FAX, etc. <9.6 kbps data rates
2G Wireless Systems- Some Standards GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) - TDMA system, serves as the pan-European cellular service, provides a wide range of network service, including phone service, FAX, short message service. Support 24.7 kbps data rate. USDC IS-136 (United States Digital Cellular) -a TDMA system, similar to AMPS, it supports more users (6 times) with improved performance. Provides access to VPN, supports short messages. Support 48.6 kbps data rate. IS-95 (United States Digital Cellular Standard ) -a CDMA standard also designed to be compatible with AMPS through using of CDMA/AMPS dual mode phones and base stations. Capacity is 8~10 times that of AMPS. Support 14.4 kbps data rate.
2G (voice) network architecture Base station system (BSS) MSC BTS BSC G Public telephone network Gateway MSC Legend Base transceiver station (BTS) Base station controller (BSC) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Mobile subscribers
2G Wireless Systems - Challenges 2G is developed for voice communications We can send data over 2G channels by using modem Increased data rates are required for internet application
2.5 G Wireless Systems Compared to 2G systems 2.5G provide high speed data communications and continuous connection to internet Fully Digital <115kbps data rates GSM to GPRS; Analog AMPS to CDPD Services:1.WAP(Wireless Application Protocol) access2.MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service)3.Internet communication service like web,email
2.5 G Wireless Systems-some standards CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data), a data service for 1st and 2nd generation US cellular systems without additional bandwidth requirement, packet channels are dynamically assigned to idle voice channels. Support 48.6kbps data rate as in IS-136. GPRS(General Packet Radio Service), based on GSM by allowing multiple slots of a GSM radio channel be dedicated to an individual user, promises data rate from 56 kbps to 114kbps---continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users, easy access to VPN (Virtual Private Network). EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), providing 384kbps rate by using improved modulation and relaxed error control. Also referred to as EGPRS. CDMA one (IS-95B): Providing high speed data access on a common CDMA radio channel by dedicating multiple orthogonal user channels for specific users or specific purposes. Support 115.2kbps.
2.5G (voice+data) network architecture MSC BSC G Public telephone network Gateway MSC G Public SGSN Internet GGSNThe new cellular data network The new cellular data networkvoice network & data network voice network & data network Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)operates in parallel operates in parallel Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
3G Wireless Systems -Aim Simultanous voice and data transmission Faster Internet access -Interactive web sessions Video calling Multimedia Content - voice, data & video Universal global roaming 384kbps while moving 2Mbps when stationary 3G phones Apple I phone 3G, LG KF 750, Nokia 5800 express music, Blackberry bold 9000
3G Wireless Systems Some Standards UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) - 3GPP -A wideband CDMA (5MHz) standard based on the network fundamentals of GSM/EDGE, is designed to provide backward compatibility with GSM, IS-136, GPRS and EDGE. Can support 2Mbps data rate. New RF equipment needed. CDMA 2000 - 3GPP2 Use same bandwidth as IS-95 or 3 adjacent 1.25MHz channels (3-times bandwidth as that of IS-95) to provide instantaneous packet data access at 144kbps or 2Mbps. No additional RF equipment needed, changes are all made in software or baseband hardware. TD-SCDMA (Time-division Synchronous CDMA) A standard proposed by CATT (China Academy and Telecommunications Technology) and Siemens Corporation. Relies on the existing GSM infrastructure and allows 3G data access by adding high data rate equipment (smart antennas) at each GSM station. Support up to 384kbps of packet data
4G Wireless systems Next G or Beyond 3G Highly integrated High bandwidth / high-speed wireless Highly compatible with wired network infrastructures provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access Integration of multi-networks using IP technology applications include mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D television.
4G Wireless systems-Some standards commercially deployed: i) the Mobile WiMAX standard & ii)Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard In Australia, Telstra launched the countrys first 4G network (LTE) in September 2011 claiming 2–40 Mbps speeds In India, Bharti Airtel has launched Indias first 4G service using TD-LTE technology in Kolkata on 10 April 2012.
Types of Networks PAN LAN MAN WAN Personal Local Metropolitan Wide Area Network Area Network Area Network Area NetworkBluetooth-802.15 802.11b 802.11b/a GSM/(E)GPRS Infrared, RFID 802.11a 802.16 UMTS/3G LMDS/MMDS 802.20Low cost Medium cost Medium-High cost High costShort distances Medium distances Med-long Long distances distances < 1 Mbps 2 to 54+ Mbps 22+ Mbps 10 to 384 Kbps+ Computer-computer and to the Full mobility, ubiquitous cov.,Cable Replacement,Cordless telephony in Internet, Low mobility, IT Intensive, Fixed, last-mile, High security, Easy to use security issue, NRT servicesEmerging market low mobility
Personal Area Network (PAN) Bluetoothlower layers are standardized in 802.15 &network and application layers defined by Bluetooth SIG organization
Personal Area Networks(PAN) RFID - Very short range (10 meters) sensor technology used to supplement bar-code reader type applications Infrared - Short range, usually line-of-sight, non-RF technology, - used mostly for wireless remote control, or wire replacement applications Zig bee -Very low power (and low speed) short distance (10m) transmission standard -Operates in 868-918 KHz, and 2.4GHz bands using 802.15.4 PAN standards
Wireless LAN Standardization Wi Fi IEEE 802.x Wireless LAN standards are known as WiFi Wireless Fidelity Short range wireless communications Highly utilized and very popular used in offices, airports, coffee shops, universities and schools Two basic modes of operations: i)Ad-hoc networking - computers send data to one another ii)Access point - sending data to the base station
Wireless MAN Standardization Wireless MAN is based on IEEE 802.16 standard. Wi MAX allows user to browse internet from laptop computer without wall jack. Medium high cost Medium to long distance 22 Mbps LMDS -- Local Multipoint Distribution Service MMDS – Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WIMAX
Indian Telephony Indian TelephonyTelephone Subscribers (Total) 960.9 million (May 2012)(2012)Fixed lines (May 2012) 31.53 millionMobile phones (2012) 929.37 millionMonthly telephone additions 8.35 million(Net) (May 2012)Teledensity (2012) 79.28 %Rural Teledensity 33%Projected teledensity by 2012 84 % Courtesy: wikipedia.org
Internet Access in India Internet accessPercent household access 10.2% of households (137(total), 2012 million))Percent broadband household 1.18% of households (14.31access million)Broadband internet users 14.31 million (May 2012)Internet Service 155Providers (2012)country code top-level domain .in Courtesy: wikipedia.org
Communication in India Revenue Revenue (Total) USD 33,350 million Courtesy: wikipedia.org