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Modern trends in mobile communication


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Modern trends in mobile communication

  1. 1. Objectives Introduction Communication Devices Wireless System Evolution  1G - 5G Wireless Systems Types of networks  Wireless PAN  Wireless LAN  Wireless MAN  Wireless WAN Communication in India Conclusion
  2. 2. IntroductionTelecommunications - is the key enabler of economic and social development of a nation - increase the efficiency of commercial and administrative activities- improve the effectiveness of social and emergency services- distribute the social, cultural and economic benefits of the process of development more equitably throughout the country- provides universal service for rural and remote communities
  3. 3. Commonly used Devices Tablet PC Handheld device Cell PhoneKindle- e book reader Watch mobile Phone
  4. 4. Communication Devices1)Fixed and Wired (e.g.) desktop uses fixed networks2)Mobile and Wired (e.g.) Laptop connected using telephone and modem3)Fixed and Wireless (e.g.)a network in historical buildings4)Mobile and Wireless (e.g.) Cellular network
  5. 5. Wireless Characteristics Communication without wires Wires are replaced by electromagnetic waves electromagnetic waves carry a signal through atmospheric space use radio frequency RF waves, which ranges from 3 kHz to 300 GHz or infrared IR, which ranges from 3 THz to 430 THz
  6. 6. Electromagnetic SpectrumShowing Radio Frequency
  7. 7. What is mobility? Two types of mobility: i)Device portability ii)User Mobility no mobility high mobilitymobile wireless user, mobile user, mobile user, passingusing same access connecting/ through multiplepoint disconnecting from access point while network maintaining ongoing connections Mobility Spectrum
  8. 8. Degrees of Mobility Walking Users Low speed Small roaming area Usually uses high-bandwidth Vehicles High speeds Large roaming area Usually uses low-bandwidth Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones)
  9. 9. Wireless DevicesWireless Icon Data card Semi Parabolic Antenna Wireless Router
  10. 10. Wireless Network Stakeholders1. Regulatory Authorities2. The operator or the Service Provider3. The user or the subscriber4. Equipment Vendors (network equipment and user device)5. Research Organizations
  11. 11. 1G Wireless Systems-Characteristics Appeared in late 1970s and deployed in early 1980s All based on analog techniques All used FDMA Operates at 450-900 MHz frequency band System capacity is low Data rate is <10 kbps
  12. 12. 1G Wireless Systems The geographical area divided into cells  Each with own antenna  Each with own range of frequencies  Served by base station - Transmitter, receiver, control unit to carry out actual radio communications with the device  Adjacent cells on different frequencies to avoid crosstalk Mobile Switching Center Controls all calls attached to this device, Maintains billing information &Switches calls PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
  13. 13. 1G FDMA cellular system
  14. 14. 1G infrastructure PSTNBase station Mobile Switching Centre
  15. 15. 1G Wireless Systems-Some Standards AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System - by AT&T Bell Labs in 1970s deployed in 1983 -the number of users that can be supported was limited. -used all over the world & popular in South America, China and Australia. ETACS: European Total Access Communication Systems. - channel bandwidth is scaled to 25 kHz instead of 30 kHz as in AMPS.
  16. 16. 2G Wireless Systems - Characteristics Deployed in mid 1990s Fully Digital network elements TDMA/CDMA for spectrum sharing; Circuit switching Operates at 900-1800 MHz frequency band 3-times increase in overall system capacity. supported voice-centric services and limited data-service, like short messages(SMS), FAX, etc. <9.6 kbps data rates
  17. 17. 2G Wireless Systems- Some Standards GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) - TDMA system, serves as the pan-European cellular service, provides a wide range of network service, including phone service, FAX, short message service. Support 24.7 kbps data rate. USDC IS-136 (United States Digital Cellular) -a TDMA system, similar to AMPS, it supports more users (6 times) with improved performance. Provides access to VPN, supports short messages. Support 48.6 kbps data rate. IS-95 (United States Digital Cellular Standard ) -a CDMA standard also designed to be compatible with AMPS through using of CDMA/AMPS dual mode phones and base stations. Capacity is 8~10 times that of AMPS. Support 14.4 kbps data rate.
  18. 18. 2G (voice) network architecture Base station system (BSS) MSC BTS BSC G Public telephone network Gateway MSC Legend Base transceiver station (BTS) Base station controller (BSC) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Mobile subscribers
  19. 19. 2G Wireless Systems - Challenges 2G is developed for voice communications We can send data over 2G channels by using modem Increased data rates are required for internet application
  20. 20. 2.5 G Wireless Systems Compared to 2G systems 2.5G provide high speed data communications and continuous connection to internet Fully Digital <115kbps data rates GSM to GPRS; Analog AMPS to CDPD Services:1.WAP(Wireless Application Protocol) access2.MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service)3.Internet communication service like web,email
  21. 21. 2.5 G Wireless Systems-some standards CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data), a data service for 1st and 2nd generation US cellular systems without additional bandwidth requirement, packet channels are dynamically assigned to idle voice channels. Support 48.6kbps data rate as in IS-136. GPRS(General Packet Radio Service), based on GSM by allowing multiple slots of a GSM radio channel be dedicated to an individual user, promises data rate from 56 kbps to 114kbps---continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users, easy access to VPN (Virtual Private Network). EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), providing 384kbps rate by using improved modulation and relaxed error control. Also referred to as EGPRS. CDMA one (IS-95B): Providing high speed data access on a common CDMA radio channel by dedicating multiple orthogonal user channels for specific users or specific purposes. Support 115.2kbps.
  22. 22. 2.5G (voice+data) network architecture MSC BSC G Public telephone network Gateway MSC G Public SGSN Internet GGSNThe new cellular data network The new cellular data networkvoice network & data network voice network & data network Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)operates in parallel operates in parallel Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
  23. 23. 3G Wireless Systems -Aim Simultanous voice and data transmission Faster Internet access -Interactive web sessions Video calling Multimedia Content - voice, data & video Universal global roaming 384kbps while moving 2Mbps when stationary 3G phones Apple I phone 3G, LG KF 750, Nokia 5800 express music, Blackberry bold 9000
  24. 24. Evolution to 3G Technologies 2G 2.5G 3G IS-95B cdma2000 CDMA FDD GSM W-CDMA TDD GPRS EDGE & 136 HS outdoor IS-136 136 HS UWC-136 TDMA indoor
  25. 25. 3G Wireless Systems Some Standards UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) - 3GPP -A wideband CDMA (5MHz) standard based on the network fundamentals of GSM/EDGE, is designed to provide backward compatibility with GSM, IS-136, GPRS and EDGE. Can support 2Mbps data rate. New RF equipment needed. CDMA 2000 - 3GPP2 Use same bandwidth as IS-95 or 3 adjacent 1.25MHz channels (3-times bandwidth as that of IS-95) to provide instantaneous packet data access at 144kbps or 2Mbps. No additional RF equipment needed, changes are all made in software or baseband hardware. TD-SCDMA (Time-division Synchronous CDMA) A standard proposed by CATT (China Academy and Telecommunications Technology) and Siemens Corporation. Relies on the existing GSM infrastructure and allows 3G data access by adding high data rate equipment (smart antennas) at each GSM station. Support up to 384kbps of packet data
  26. 26. 3G Providers in India
  27. 27. 4G Wireless systems Next G or Beyond 3G Highly integrated High bandwidth / high-speed wireless Highly compatible with wired network infrastructures provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access Integration of multi-networks using IP technology applications include mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D television.
  28. 28. 4G Wireless systems-Some standards commercially deployed: i) the Mobile WiMAX standard & ii)Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard In Australia, Telstra launched the countrys first 4G network (LTE) in September 2011 claiming 2–40 Mbps speeds In India, Bharti Airtel has launched Indias first 4G service using TD-LTE technology in Kolkata on 10 April 2012.
  29. 29. 4G Wireless Devices 4G smart phone4G Modem 4G LTE Tablet
  30. 30. 4G Wireless Service Providers
  31. 31. Types of Networks PAN LAN MAN WAN Personal Local Metropolitan Wide Area Network Area Network Area Network Area NetworkBluetooth-802.15 802.11b 802.11b/a GSM/(E)GPRS Infrared, RFID 802.11a 802.16 UMTS/3G LMDS/MMDS 802.20Low cost Medium cost Medium-High cost High costShort distances Medium distances Med-long Long distances distances < 1 Mbps 2 to 54+ Mbps 22+ Mbps 10 to 384 Kbps+ Computer-computer and to the Full mobility, ubiquitous cov.,Cable Replacement,Cordless telephony in Internet, Low mobility, IT Intensive, Fixed, last-mile, High security, Easy to use security issue, NRT servicesEmerging market low mobility
  32. 32. Personal Area Network (PAN) Bluetoothlower layers are standardized in 802.15 &network and application layers defined by Bluetooth SIG organization
  33. 33. Personal Area Networks(PAN) RFID - Very short range (10 meters) sensor technology used to supplement bar-code reader type applications Infrared - Short range, usually line-of-sight, non-RF technology, - used mostly for wireless remote control, or wire replacement applications Zig bee -Very low power (and low speed) short distance (10m) transmission standard -Operates in 868-918 KHz, and 2.4GHz bands using 802.15.4 PAN standards
  34. 34. Wireless LAN Standards
  35. 35. Wireless LAN Standardization Wi Fi IEEE 802.x Wireless LAN standards are known as WiFi Wireless Fidelity Short range wireless communications Highly utilized and very popular used in offices, airports, coffee shops, universities and schools Two basic modes of operations: i)Ad-hoc networking - computers send data to one another ii)Access point - sending data to the base station
  36. 36. Wireless MAN Standardization Wireless MAN is based on IEEE 802.16 standard. Wi MAX allows user to browse internet from laptop computer without wall jack. Medium high cost Medium to long distance 22 Mbps LMDS -- Local Multipoint Distribution Service MMDS – Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
  37. 37. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WIMAX
  38. 38. Indian Telephony Indian TelephonyTelephone Subscribers (Total) 960.9 million (May 2012)(2012)Fixed lines (May 2012) 31.53 millionMobile phones (2012) 929.37 millionMonthly telephone additions 8.35 million(Net) (May 2012)Teledensity (2012) 79.28 %Rural Teledensity 33%Projected teledensity by 2012 84 % Courtesy:
  39. 39. Internet Access in India Internet accessPercent household access 10.2% of households (137(total), 2012 million))Percent broadband household 1.18% of households (14.31access million)Broadband internet users 14.31 million (May 2012)Internet Service 155Providers (2012)country code top-level domain .in Courtesy:
  40. 40. Communication in India Revenue Revenue (Total) USD 33,350 million Courtesy: