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+
Latest Trends in Wireless
Technology
Dr. Mazlan Abbas
[Seminar, UTHM, 28 August, 2013]
+
Summary
!  Introduction to the Digital Natives
!  DNA - The Key Drivers
!  The Key Challenges
!  The Traffic Demand
!  T...
+Digital Natives - Webciety
Create Use Live
“We create the Internet” “We live and
breathe in the
Internet”
“We use the Int...
+
1st
Screen
2nd
Screen
3rd
Screen
4th
Screen
5th
Screen
Cinema
Television
Computer
Smartphone
Tablet
Digital
Native
Scree...
+
Overview
!  3G Service
!  14.6 M subscriptions [Dec. 2012]
!  82% pop coverage [June 2012]
!  Cellular phone subscriptio...
+
4G (LTE)
+
Key Drivers
+
Driver #1
MOBILE
+
Future Wireless Access – Key
Challenges
Data Tsunami is coming
•  Currently an exponential growth of mobile data is observed*
•  More advanced devices with more c...
+
First 20 Quarters Since Launch
Note AOL subscribers data not available before CQ3:94; Netscape users limited to US only....
+
Global Mobile vs. Desktop Internet User Projection, 2007 – 2015E
Internet Users(MM)
400
800
1,200
1,600
2,000
0
2007E 20...
+
Annual global IP traffic will surpass the
zettabyte threshold (1.4 zettabytes) by the
End of 2017
+
Global IP traffic has increased more than fourfold in
the past 5 years, and will increase threefold over
the next 5 year...
+
Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) will
carry over half of Internet traffic in 2017.
+
Nearly half of all IP traffic will originate
with non-PC devices by 2017
16%
PC
24%
TV
79%
Mobile
Phones
82%
M2M
104%
Ta...
+
10GBAverage'data'usage'per'month'
548GBHighest'user'consump4on'record''in'1'month'
600Concurrent'users'per'site''
1,700T...
+
Traffic Equivalents*
1 Laptop= 15 Smartphones = 450 Voice Handsets
A Network Optimized for Mobile Voice
Cannot Handle Hi...
+
Smartphones Unleashed
+
20!
Create
High-Performance
UMPCLaptop
Laptop DIGI-Cam
Carry&Edit
TV
UMPC
UMD
eBook
Navigation
Dual Mode
HandsetPMPUMPC
...
+
The Habits of Online Newspaper
Readers
[http://online.wsj.com]
+
User Interface Transformation
+
What’s the Next UI?
Leap Motion Air Gesture
Moto-X Touchless Control
+
Driver #2
APPLICATIONS
Android Market
App Store
Blackberry App
World
Ovi Store -
Nokia
PlayNow Arena
– Sony Ericsson
PocketGear
App Store
Samsung...
+
Data ARPU increase
Consumers increasingly want to
access the same Internet
content and services on their
mobile phones t...
+
Social MediaMay 2011
+
Impact of Facebook
+
Impact of Twitter
+
Impact ofYouTube
800 Million+ Monthly Unique Visitors
•  That’s more than the entire population of
Europe!
72 Hours+ Vid...
+
The Social Media Effect
User
Generated
Contents
+
The Social Currency
+YouTube Phenomenon
1% Rule
(Internet Culture)
One will create content, 10 will
"interact" with it (commenting or
offering...
+
Driver #3
NETWORKS
+
Never Ending Battle for “Networks Superiority”
Which is More Superior?
+
The Future is Heterogeneous
Spectrum
Deployment
Technology
GSM, HSPA,
LTE,WiFi
Macro – Outdoor
Micro / Pico - Indoor
3G ...
+
Key Challenges
+
Source: Morgan Stanley Mobile Internet Report Dec ‘09
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
100
10
1
1000
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 20...
+
Traffic Grows Explosively But Not
the Revenue
Mobile data traffic will increase
1000 times in 10 years
Profit per bit wi...
+
Disruptive Transformation
The Changing World of Mobile
Internet
Bandwidth Applications
• Higher quality-of-experience
• ...
+
To Design Wireless Network of The Future
We Need to Understand the Traffic
Requirements
+
Unbalanced Traffic Distribution
!  Imbalance between the terminal type: in 2010, smart
phone’s global penetration rate i...
+
Information Access
!  The “paperless society” will
have a huge impact on
networks:
•  media will be
consumed in portable...
+
Devices of Tomorrow are Wearable
Location Awareness
•  Location based services are being introduced these days, upon user
demand.
•  The opposite way may b...
+
Internet of Things
!  Today’s systems are based on a person being the end user
!  Future systems must consider machine-t...
+
Power Consumption Plays an
Important Role in OPEX
High CAPEX/OPEX of RAN result
from BS equipment room
+
Challenges and Requirements for
Future
!  Explosive growth of mobile
data traffic
!  Unbalanced DL and UL traffic
!  Hug...
+
Key Requirements and Technology
Directions to be Considered
!  Significant gain in spectrum efficiency per area (bps/Hz/...
+
Requirements from User
Perspective
!  Higher data rate and user-experienced throughput
!  Data rate competitive to that ...
+
Requirements from Operator
Perspective
!  Flexible, easy, and cost-efficient operation
!  For diverse spectrum allocatio...
+
© 3GPP 2012
© 3GPP 2012
•  1G: analogue systems from 1980s (e.g.
NMT, AMPS,TACS, C-Netz)
•  2G: first digital systems of...
+
Evolution of Wireless Technologies
+
© 3GPP 2012
© 3GPP 2012
1999
Release 99
Release 5
Release 6
HSDPA
W-CDMA
Release 4 LCR TDD
HSUPA, MBMS
Release 7 HSPA+ (...
+
•  REL-9: mainly addition of LCS (Location service) & MBMS
(Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service) & enhancement of oth...
+
E-UTRA
Operating
band
Uplink (UL)
Operating
Band
BS Receive
UE
Transmit
Downlink
(DL)
Operating
Band
BS
Transmit
UE Rece...
+
Release 12
3GPP time plan for REL-12 (decided in TSG #56 in June 2012):
•  Start: Sept. 2012 (TSG #57)
•  Stage 1 (requi...
+
Requirements for RAN in REL-12
!  Capacity increase to cope with
traffic explosion
!  Energy savings
!  Cost efficiency
...
+Potential Technologies identified by REL-12
Workshop
!  A great majority showed interest in Small Cell Enhancement
for LT...
+Potential Technologies identified by REL-12
Workshop
!  Very clear interest related to LTE Multi-Antenna/site
technologie...
+
Summary
•  Envisaged REL-12 topics (to be completed by June 14):
•  main topic: small cell enhancements cope with data t...
+
THANKYOU
EMAIL: mazlan@gmail.com
TWITTER: mazlan_abbas
FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/drmazlanabbas
LINKEDIN: www.linkedin.c...
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Latest trends in wireless technology

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This is my first talk to the staffs and postgraduate students of FKEE, UTHM during my Adjunct Prof visit. @Aug. 28, 2013

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Latest trends in wireless technology

  1. 1. + Latest Trends in Wireless Technology Dr. Mazlan Abbas [Seminar, UTHM, 28 August, 2013]
  2. 2. + Summary !  Introduction to the Digital Natives !  DNA - The Key Drivers !  The Key Challenges !  The Traffic Demand !  The Network Requirements !  The Technology Trends !  Summary
  3. 3. +Digital Natives - Webciety Create Use Live “We create the Internet” “We live and breathe in the Internet” “We use the Internet”
  4. 4. + 1st Screen 2nd Screen 3rd Screen 4th Screen 5th Screen Cinema Television Computer Smartphone Tablet Digital Native Screen Evolution
  5. 5. + Overview !  3G Service !  14.6 M subscriptions [Dec. 2012] !  82% pop coverage [June 2012] !  Cellular phone subscriptions !  41.1 M !  141.6% per pop [Dec. 2012] !  Cellular coverage at populated areas !  96.8% [Dec. 2012] !  Internet users !  17.7 M [June 2012] !  Mobile broadband subscriptions !  3.3 M [Jan. 2013] !  Broadband subscriptions !  6.2 M [Jan. 2013] !  In 2013, our digital eco-system will welcome two new service, Hybrid TV – Digital Terrestrial TV with Internet and Mobile 4G-LTE
  6. 6. + 4G (LTE)
  7. 7. + Key Drivers
  8. 8. + Driver #1 MOBILE
  9. 9. + Future Wireless Access – Key Challenges
  10. 10. Data Tsunami is coming •  Currently an exponential growth of mobile data is observed* •  More advanced devices with more capabilities (smartphones, tablets, etc), as well as increased importance of machine generated data result in increased traffic generation •  Multi-device ownership, resulting in synchronization of data between devices •  Mobile Social Networking and User Generated Contents * The data amount is doubling annually resulting in 1000× increase in the current decade, for the individual devices this means performance will increase 100×
  11. 11. + First 20 Quarters Since Launch Note AOL subscribers data not available before CQ3:94; Netscape users limited to US only. Source: Morgan Stanley Research Estimates, April 2010 Subscribers (MM) Q1 Q3 Q5 Q7 Q9 Q11 Q13 Q15 Q17 Q19 20 40 60 80 100 0 Mobile Internet Quarters Since Launch Desktop Internet It’s Happening Fast !
  12. 12. + Global Mobile vs. Desktop Internet User Projection, 2007 – 2015E Internet Users(MM) 400 800 1,200 1,600 2,000 0 2007E 2008E 2009E 2010E 2011E 2012E 2013E 2014E 2015E Mobile Internet Users Desktop Internet Users Source: Morgan Stanley Research Estimates, April 2010 The Trend is Irreversible
  13. 13. + Annual global IP traffic will surpass the zettabyte threshold (1.4 zettabytes) by the End of 2017
  14. 14. + Global IP traffic has increased more than fourfold in the past 5 years, and will increase threefold over the next 5 years.
  15. 15. + Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) will carry over half of Internet traffic in 2017.
  16. 16. + Nearly half of all IP traffic will originate with non-PC devices by 2017 16% PC 24% TV 79% Mobile Phones 82% M2M 104% Tablets
  17. 17. + 10GBAverage'data'usage'per'month' 548GBHighest'user'consump4on'record''in'1'month' 600Concurrent'users'per'site'' 1,700TBAverage'monthly'network'traffic' Over 57%Rich'Media'ac4vi4es'on'P1’s'network' Beyond Email. Beyond Voice [SOURCE: Michael Lai Keynote Speech,WiMAX Forum SEA Regional Focus Conference 2010]
  18. 18. + Traffic Equivalents* 1 Laptop= 15 Smartphones = 450 Voice Handsets A Network Optimized for Mobile Voice Cannot Handle High Numbers of Mobile Internet Users [ Source: Cisco, 2009] KDDI Confirms LTE Migration Plan But Will Use WiMAX and WIFI too KDDI’s&President&and&Chairman,&Tadashi& Onodera&stated&at&GSMA&Mobile&Asia&Congress& 2010 && TeleGeography,Comms, Update, Wed,,17,Nov,2010, LTE will not be sufficient to cope with such huge data demands so we also need to use other technologies such as WiMAX and WiFi Mobile Data Crunch
  19. 19. + Smartphones Unleashed
  20. 20. + 20! Create High-Performance UMPCLaptop Laptop DIGI-Cam Carry&Edit TV UMPC UMD eBook Navigation Dual Mode HandsetPMPUMPC Navigation Modem View In-Car Entertainment Gateway MP3 Player Palm Pocket Game PMP Fixed & In Vehicle Briefcase Handbag Backpack Information ConsumerCreator Device Ecosystem
  21. 21. + The Habits of Online Newspaper Readers [http://online.wsj.com]
  22. 22. + User Interface Transformation
  23. 23. + What’s the Next UI? Leap Motion Air Gesture Moto-X Touchless Control
  24. 24. + Driver #2 APPLICATIONS
  25. 25. Android Market App Store Blackberry App World Ovi Store - Nokia PlayNow Arena – Sony Ericsson PocketGear App Store Samsung App Store Symbian Apps Telus Mobility App Store Verizon Media Store Windows Marketplace Mobile App Stores
  26. 26. + Data ARPU increase Consumers increasingly want to access the same Internet content and services on their mobile phones that they can from fixed access/PCs
  27. 27. + Social MediaMay 2011
  28. 28. + Impact of Facebook
  29. 29. + Impact of Twitter
  30. 30. + Impact ofYouTube 800 Million+ Monthly Unique Visitors •  That’s more than the entire population of Europe! 72 Hours+ Video Uploaded Per Minute •  That’s over a decade of content every day! 4 Billion Hours of Video Viewed Each Month •  That’s over 450,000 years of video viewed each month!
  31. 31. + The Social Media Effect User Generated Contents
  32. 32. + The Social Currency
  33. 33. +YouTube Phenomenon 1% Rule (Internet Culture) One will create content, 10 will "interact" with it (commenting or offering improvements) and the other 89 will just view it. 90-9-1 Principle 1% of people create content, 9% edit or modify that content, and 90% view the content without contributing. [Sysomos analyzed over 2.5 million YouTube videos that were embedded in blog posts between July and December 2009.] Net Traffic Exponential Growth!
  34. 34. + Driver #3 NETWORKS
  35. 35. + Never Ending Battle for “Networks Superiority” Which is More Superior?
  36. 36. + The Future is Heterogeneous Spectrum Deployment Technology GSM, HSPA, LTE,WiFi Macro – Outdoor Micro / Pico - Indoor 3G WiFi LTE
  37. 37. + Key Challenges
  38. 38. + Source: Morgan Stanley Mobile Internet Report Dec ‘09 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 100 10 1 1000 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Devices/Users Mainframe Minicomputer PC Desktop Internet 10B+ Connected Devices+1B +100M +10M +1M Mobile Internet Source: Rysavy Research Feb;10 Mobile Internet CapacityGbytes 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Capacity, Demand, Capacity,, Supply, The Mobile Internet Creating New Challenges For Carriers
  39. 39. + Traffic Grows Explosively But Not the Revenue Mobile data traffic will increase 1000 times in 10 years Profit per bit will continuously decrease in the future years
  40. 40. + Disruptive Transformation The Changing World of Mobile Internet Bandwidth Applications • Higher quality-of-experience • Higher sessions and session rates • New monetization models “Pipe Provider” “Value-Added Provider”
  41. 41. + To Design Wireless Network of The Future We Need to Understand the Traffic Requirements
  42. 42. + Unbalanced Traffic Distribution !  Imbalance between the terminal type: in 2010, smart phone’s global penetration rate is 13%, while it contribute 78% traffic load from the mobile device !  Geographic imbalance: in 2009, more than 50% mobile service happened at home/office; while this percentage is 63% in China. Most of the data service happens in low mobility indoor and dense urban !  Monthly basic mobile phone data traffic !  Smartphone = 24 x phone !  Handheld Gaming Console = 60 x phone !  Tablet = 122 x phone !  Laptop = 515 x phone
  43. 43. + Information Access !  The “paperless society” will have a huge impact on networks: •  media will be consumed in portable devices; •  daily commuters will need a lot of information on an instantaneous basis.
  44. 44. + Devices of Tomorrow are Wearable
  45. 45. Location Awareness •  Location based services are being introduced these days, upon user demand. •  The opposite way may be introduced, i.e., the environment being aware that the user is present.
  46. 46. + Internet of Things !  Today’s systems are based on a person being the end user !  Future systems must consider machine-to-machine (M2M) communications as being potentially more important !  Sensor networks are emerging as one of the “killer” network structures of the future. “By 2020,You'll Own 50 Internet- Connected Devices”
  47. 47. + Power Consumption Plays an Important Role in OPEX High CAPEX/OPEX of RAN result from BS equipment room
  48. 48. + Challenges and Requirements for Future !  Explosive growth of mobile data traffic !  Unbalanced DL and UL traffic !  Huge power consumption !  Spectrum Fragmentation !  Low-band spectrum used !  Higher data rate / Higher spectrum Efficiency !  Flexible adaptation of DL/UL traffic !  Better energy savings !  Efficient utilization of un- paired spectrum !  More usable spectrum Challenges Requirements
  49. 49. + Key Requirements and Technology Directions to be Considered !  Significant gain in spectrum efficiency per area (bps/Hz/m2) with significant reduction in cost per bit (500 – 1000x traffic by 2020’s) !  Emerging solutions to deal with traffic explosion !  Traffic offloading !  Offloading strategies tuned to applications and scenarios !  Network density !  Technical trends such as multi-layer cell deployment !  Network architecture to reduce cost per bit
  50. 50. + Requirements from User Perspective !  Higher data rate and user-experienced throughput !  Data rate competitive to that of future wired networks !  Gbps-order everywhere !  Low latency for improving user experience !  Fairness of user throughput !  In a cell !  Improve cell-edge throughput !  Among cells !  Urban to rural !  Digital divide !  Among users !  Light-weight users impact from few heavy users
  51. 51. + Requirements from Operator Perspective !  Flexible, easy, and cost-efficient operation !  For diverse spectrum allocation !  Efficient utilization of higher/wider frequency bands !  For diverse environments and network nodes/devices with different types of backhauling !  Femto, Mesh, Relay, etc. !  For diverse types of services, user devices, and communication methodologies !  Thin client, Cloud, etc. !  Energy saving (Green) !  Reduction in joule per bit !  System robustness
  52. 52. + © 3GPP 2012 © 3GPP 2012 •  1G: analogue systems from 1980s (e.g. NMT, AMPS,TACS, C-Netz) •  2G: first digital systems of 1990s (e.g. GSM, CDMA One, PDC, D-AMPS) •  3G: IMT-2000 family defined by ITU-R (e.g. UMTS, CDMA2000) •  4G: fulfilling requirements of IMT- Advanced defined by ITU-R (e.g. LTE-A, WiMAX) •  5G: ? •  too early to be a topic in standardization, further 4G enhancements expected before driven by requirements from customers & network operators restricted by spectrum limitations often influenced by new technologies/applications Evolution of Mobile Communication Systems
  53. 53. + Evolution of Wireless Technologies
  54. 54. + © 3GPP 2012 © 3GPP 2012 1999 Release 99 Release 5 Release 6 HSDPA W-CDMA Release 4 LCR TDD HSUPA, MBMS Release 7 HSPA+ (MIMO, etc.) Release 8 LTE Release 9 Release 10 LTE enhancements Release 12 ITU-R M.1457 IMT-2000 Recommendation ITU-R M.2012 [IMT.RSPEC] IMT-Advanced Recommendation 3GPP work is structured in releases (REL) of 1-3 years duration each release consists of several work items (WI) and study items (SI) even if a REL is completed corrections are possible later existing features of one REL can be enhanced in a future REL 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 ??? LTE-Advanced Further LTE Release 11 enhancements 3GPP aligned to ITU-R IMT process 3GPP Releases evolve to meet: • • Future Requirements for IMT Future operator and end-user requirements only main RAN WI listed now 2013 2015 Release schedule & RAN features
  55. 55. + •  REL-9: mainly addition of LCS (Location service) & MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service) & enhancement of others (e.g. SON, HeNB) •  Main motivation to introduce LTE-A in REL-10: •  IMT-Advanced standardization process in ITU-R for 4G •  Additional IMT spectrum band identified in WRC07 •  LTE-Advanced (REL-10/11 ...) is an evolution of LTE (REL-8/9), i.e. LTE-Advanced is backwards compatible with LTE © 3GPP 2012 LTE Rel-8 cell LTE Rel-8 terminal LTE-Advanced terminal LTE-Advanced cell LTE Rel-8 terminal LTE-Advanced terminal An LTE-Advanced terminal can work in an LTE Rel-8 cell An LTE Rel-8 terminal can work in an LTE-Advanced cell LTE-Advanced contains all features of LTE Rel-8 & 9 and additional features for further evoluton LTE target:: peak data rates: DL: 100Mbps UL: 50Mbps TS 25.913 LTE-A target:: peak data rates: DL: 1Gbps UL: 500Mbps TS 36.913 From LTE to LTE-Advanced
  56. 56. + E-UTRA Operating band Uplink (UL) Operating Band BS Receive UE Transmit Downlink (DL) Operating Band BS Transmit UE Receive Duplex Mode Channel Bandwidths Approximate Center Frequency 1 1920 MHz to 1980 MHz 2110 MHz to 2170 MHz FDD 5, 10, 15, 20 2100 MHz 2 1920 MHz to 1980 MHz 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz FDD 1, 4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 1900 MHz 3 1710 MHz to 1785 MHz 1805 MHz to 1880 MHz FDD 1, 4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 1800 MHz 4 1710 MHz to 1755 MHz 2110 MHz to 2155 MHz FDD 1, 4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 1700 MHz 5 824 MHz to 849 MHz 869 MHz to 894 MHz FDD 1, 4, 3, 5, 10 850 MHz 6 830 MHz to 840 MHz 875 MHz to 885 MHz FDD 5, 10 850 MHz 7 2500 MHz to 2570 MHz 2620 MHz to 2690 MHz FDD 5, 10, 15, 20 2600 MHz 8 to 44 Frequency Bands and Channel Bandwidths Celcom (May 2013) Maxis (April 2013) Celcom (April 2013) Maxis (Jan 2013) Digi (July 2013- Planned) [Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-UTRA]
  57. 57. + Release 12 3GPP time plan for REL-12 (decided in TSG #56 in June 2012): •  Start: Sept. 2012 (TSG #57) •  Stage 1 (requirements) freeze: March 2013 (TSG #59) •  Stage 2 (functional description) freeze: Dec. 2013 (TSG #62) •  Stage 3 (all details) freeze: June 2013 (TSG #64) RAN Workshop on REL-12 & onwards held in June 11-12, 2012 in LlublJana, Slovenia: •  About 250 participants •  42 presentations (http://www.3gpp.org/3GPP-News) from leading network operators and manufacturers •  Scope: •  Requirements •  Potential technologies •  Technology roadmap for Release 12, 13 and afterwards (Note:Workshop covered also UMTS but inly LTE is considered here)
  58. 58. + Requirements for RAN in REL-12 !  Capacity increase to cope with traffic explosion !  Energy savings !  Cost efficiency !  Support for diverse application and traffic type !  Higher user experience/data rate !  Backhaul enhancement !  2010 " 2020: 500x more smartphones %& tablets; most data traffic indoor !  Network operations/expanding costs, eNB/UE power consumption !  New apps, M2M interworking, public safety !  User expects higher data rate for similar costs !  Can become bottleneck with larger data traffic increase Requirements Impact
  59. 59. +Potential Technologies identified by REL-12 Workshop !  A great majority showed interest in Small Cell Enhancement for LTE.Technologies proposed by many members: !  Interference coordination / management !  Dynamic TDD !  Enhanced discovery / mobility !  Frequency separation between macro and small cells with higher frequency band, e.g. 3.5 GHz band for the small cells !  Inter site CA / macro cell assisted small cells !  Allows flexible data rate increase via carrier aggregation avoiding control signaling in small cells !  Wireless backhaul for small cell
  60. 60. +Potential Technologies identified by REL-12 Workshop !  Very clear interest related to LTE Multi-Antenna/site technologies such as: !  3D MIMO/beam-forming to allow beam control in both horizontal and vertical directions !  New procedures and functionalities for LTE to support diverse traffic types proposed by many members: !  Control signaling reduction, etc. antenna array
  61. 61. + Summary •  Envisaged REL-12 topics (to be completed by June 14): •  main topic: small cell enhancements cope with data traffic explosion •  further multi-antenna enhancements (3D MIMO, CoMP enhancements) •  D2D/public safety, offloading via Wifi, MTC will bring new aspects •  further enhancements of existing features (e.g. SON, MDT, CA) •  Future: •  further 4G enhancements expected before 5G (if 5G then led via ITU) •  driven by requirements from customers & network operators •  often triggered by availability of new spectrum and influenced by new technologies/applications and costs
  62. 62. + THANKYOU EMAIL: mazlan@gmail.com TWITTER: mazlan_abbas FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/drmazlanabbas LINKEDIN: www.linkedin.com/in/mazlan/ SLIDESHARE: www.slideshare.net/mazlan1 PINTEREST: www.pinterest.com/mazlan

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