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On Internet of Everything and Personalization. Talk in INTEROP 2014

  1. The Internet of Everything and Personalization Opher Etzion, PhD Professor and Head of the Institute of Technological Empowerment, YVC
  2. Such applications become possible since everything is connected None of the authorized drivers location is near the car’s location theft is concluded Use a built-in car stopper to slow the intruder and dispatch the security company A person enters a car and the car starts moving; the person does not look like one of the authorized drivers 2
  3. 3 The term “Internet of Things” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999. His observation was that all the data on the Internet has been created by a human. His vision was: “we need to empower computers with their own means of gathering information, so they can see, hear, and smell the world by themselves”.
  4. 4 The term “Internet of Everything” was coined by Cisco It is an extension : M2M, M2P, P2P connecting persons and machines. Example: WAZE is based on human sensors We’ll use this term as a generalization of IoT
  5. 5 The world of sensors 1 Acoustic, sound, vibration 2 Automotive, transportation 3 Chemical 4 Electric current, electric potential, magnetic, radio 5 Environment, weather, moisture, humidity 6 Flow, fluid velocity 7 Ionizing radiation, subatomic particles 8 Navigation instruments 9 Position, angle, displacement, distance, speed, acceleration 10 Optical, light, imaging, photon 11 Pressure 12 Force, density, level 13 Thermal, heat, temperature 14 Proximity, presence
  6. 6 The value of sensors Kevin Ashton: “track and count everything, and greatly reduce waste, loss, and cost. We could know when things needs replacing, repairing or recalling, and whether they were fresh or past their best” The value is in the ability to know and react in a timely manner to situations that are detected by sensors
  7. “There is no Internet of Things yet” Sarah Rotman Epps Oct 17, 2013 7 The Forrester report entitled “There is no Internet of Things Yet” asserts that while much of the sensor technology exists, each sensor lives in isolation, while multi sensor system is difficult to construct
  8. 8 Differences between the traditional Internet to the Internet of Everything Topic Traditional Internet Internet of Everything Who creates content? Human Machine How is the content consumed? By request By pushing information and triggering actions How content is combined? Using explicitly defined links Through explicitly defined operators What is the value? Answer questions Action and timely knowledge What was done so far? Both content creation (HTML…) and content consumption (search engines) Mainly content creation
  9. 9 “How does Event Processing get into the picture?” While the weakest link is now considered the data integration issue – looking beyond that we can find event processing Combining data from multi-sensors to get observations, alerts, and actions in real-time gets us to the issue of detecting patterns in event streams However much of the IoT world has not realized it yet…
  10. 10 A major difference between traditional Internet and the IoE – usability The success of the Internet is attributed to its relative simplicity: to connect to create content to search Imagine that any search in the Internet would have been done using SQL queries… How pervasive do you think the Internet would have been?
  11. For situational awareness…. Languages are actually more complex than SQL 11 // Large cash deposit insert into LargeCashDeposit select * from Cash deposit where amount > 100,000 // Frequent (At least three) large cash deposits create context AccountID partition by accountId on Cash deposit; Context AccountID Insert into FrequentLargeCashDeposits select count(*) from LargeCashDeposit having count(*)>3; // Frequent cash deposits followed by transfer abroad Context AccountID insert into SuspiciousAccount select * from pattern [ every f=FrequentCashDeposit -> t=TransferAbroad where timer.within(10 days)]
  12. 12 The Internet of Everything is applicable to virtually anything… In this presentation we discuss applications in: Aiding the elderly, healthcare, agriculture, smart cities, environment and sustainability, retail, industrial applications,, home automation, and examples of applications for the ordinary person
  13. Chair Sensor 13 Safety sensors Alerts example: Door was not locked within 2 minutes after entrance Falling event detected Vocal distress detected No motion for certain time period detected Motion sensor Door sensor Voice Sensor Alert family member
  14. 14 Personalized alerts based on collection of monitors E-Health sensors
  15. 15 Control the exact conditions of plants grown in water to get the highest efficiency crops.. Hydroponic system control
  16. Sensors that determine the right time to collect waste based on the container’s condition and enable to dynamically schedule the waste collection schedule Smart Waste management 16
  17. 17 Sensors that replace the human driver’s sensing, and actuators that drive the car. Driverless car 2017
  18. Computing implants inside the human body 18 Sensors and actuators that fight any disease, operate in the level of cell, and reprogram the body to stop the aging process. 2020 2040 Short term: switch off our fat cells Longer term: stay young forever
  19. 19 Internet of things – what’s holding us back Chris Murphy, InformationWeek, May 5, 2014 1.The data is not good enough 2.Networks aren't ubiquitous 3.Integration is tougher than analysis 4.More sensor innovation needed 5.Status quo security doesn't cut it We’ll concentrate on these topics – with special emphasis on the democratization of use
  20. 20 Data is not good enough…
  21. 21 State-of-the-art systems assume that data satisfies the “closed world assumption”, being complete and precise as a result of a cleansing process before the data is utilized. Processing data is deterministic In real applications events may be uncertain or have imprecise content for various reasons (missing data, inaccurate/noisy input; e.g. data from sensors or social media) Often, in real time applications cleansing the data is not feasible due to time constraints
  22. 22 Where does the uncertainty come from?
  23. Security considerations of IoE Murder by the Internet “With so many devices being Internet connected, it makes murdering people remotely relatively simple, at least from a technical perspective. That’s horrifying,” said IID president and CTO Rod Rasmussen. “Killings can be carried out with a significantly lower chance of getting caught, much less convicted, and if human history shows us anything, if you can find a new way to kill, it will be eventually be used.” EXAMPLES: Turn off pacemakers, Shutdown car systems while driving, stop IV drip from functioning 23
  24. Privacy considerations of IoE The traditional Internet and social networks are already compromising privacy in the virtual world 24 The Internet of Everything increases the challenge since it can track the physical world
  25. Democratization of use in Internet of Everything Challenges: Integration of sensors and actuators Personalization of situation detection Pervasive use 25
  26. Standardization Standards were crucial to the success of the traditional web The “Joint Coordinated Activities on IoT” published in February 2014 standards roadmap: With aspects on architecture, format, identification, sensor network management and more… AT&T, Cisco, GE, IBM and Intel form Industrial Internet Consortium for IoT standards in March 2014 26 form-industrial-internet-consortium-iot-standard/ 2014-03-28#ixzz32F6UB1KE
  27. 27 On Personalization The industrial revolution opened the era of mass production, variety depends on the economy of scale. Current technology such as Internet of Things provides the opportunity to enable everybody to create their own systems. This requires multi-disciplinary effort.
  28. Personalization of situation detection 28
  29. For simplification we need to clean the noise Eliminating noise from the model Current models are close to the implementation models – and from pure logic view contain “noise”. Bringing data from current state Query Enrichment Inclusion in events Examples: Determine what food-type the container carries Fetch the temperature regulations for a specific food type Other noise : workarounds 29
  30. The Event Model Research project developed by IBM Haifa Research Lab and Knowledge Partners International that dealt with simplification of event processing using model driven engineering approach The Event Model design goals 30 Short video can be found in: wngy5Y&
  31. From hype to reality The hype is there… The potential to be the basis of a revolution is there… Some solutions are there…. Bridging the gaps are on the way.... The community needs to focus on the crucial issues…
  32. My main motivation is to use the experience and knowledge I have accumulated over the years to make a better world 32

Editor's Notes

  1. BVH: pre-SQL was procedural, which included loops (e.g., Get Next within Parent until GE status code), Go To, structured programming to avoid Go Tos, difficult to understand, even more difficult to manage change over time