Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Simplifying Wireless Security


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This paper will follow the use of unsecured wireless networks in the city of Derry. Derry established a city wide open access network in 2008, thereby providing ideal conditions for the study of security issues pertaining to unsecured open access networks.

The paper will attempt to uncover the
reasoning behind the failure of individuals to take suitable security measures in light of threats that exist.

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Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Simplifying Wireless Security

  1. 1. RESEARCH PAPERBY OLIVIA Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Simplifying Wireless Security
  2. 2. www.oliviamoran.meAbout The Author Olivia MoranOlivia Moran is a leading training specialist who specialises in E-Learninginstructional design and is a certified Moodle expert. She has been workingas a trainer and course developer for 3 years developing and deliverytraining courses for traditional classroom, blended learning and E-learning.Courses Olivia Moran Has Delivered:● MOS● ECDL● Internet Marketing● Social Media● Google [Getting Irish Businesses Online]● Web Design [FETAC Level 5]● Adobe Dreamweaver● Adobe Flash● MoodleSpecialties:★Moodle [MCCC Moodle Certified Expert]★ E Learning Tools/ Technologies [Commercial & Opensource]★ Microsoft Office Specialist★ Web Design & Online Content Writer★ Adobe Dreamweaver, Flash & Photoshop
  3. 3. www.oliviamoran.meAbstractSecurity for wireless networks is a widely publicised topic with thousands ofarticles and papers to be found on the Web. When it comes to practicaladvice on how to secure your home network, and stay safe when usingpublic open access networks, the available literature is inadequate. Thevast majority of this literature is presented in an inappropriate mannerresulting in the bemusement of the average user making it inaccessible tothem. It is unnecessarily complicated through the use of technical jargonand unambiguous instructions. Consequently, while people are aware ofthe basic concerns it is difficult for them to learn the practical skills neededto put even the most basic security safeguards in place.This paper will follow the use of unsecured wireless networks in the city ofDerry. Derry recently established a city wide open access network,thereby providing ideal conditions for the study of security issues pertainingto unsecured open access networks. The paper will attempt to uncover thereasoning behind the failure of individuals to take suitable securitymeasures in light of threats that exist. Based on this insight, a user-friendlyprototype multimedia application is developed. The prototype aims toprovide users with the practical skills they need to secure their data in asimple and easy to understand manner. An evaluation will be carried outand the contributions of this research will be acknowledged. In conclusionareas for future research and development in this field of study will besuggested.1. IntroductionWith the advent of teleworking, Internet shopping and social networking more people are nowopting to log online as users. Users are no longer confined to the physical location of theirdesktop P.C. The new „generation on the move‟ reflects the paradigmatic shift in technologiesfuelled by the increasing use of mobile computing. Reduced cost and size of memory andpervasive devices, as well as faster and more powerful processors, have made the growth andacceleration of pervasive computing possible.The vision of pervasive computing implies obtaining information the moment it is neededregardless of geographical location. Realisation of this vision would, “Give users the freedom notonly to communicate efficiently at any place in the world but also to access local information aswell as information residing on the Internet at any place and any time” [Burkhardt et al, 2002].This opportunity is now open to everyone with evidence of entire cities and their citizensembracing the idea. A prime example of such a city is Derry, the second largest city in NorthernIreland._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 3© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  4. 4. This city has taken a foresight approach to emerging changes in todays‟ technologicalenvironment. In 2005, Derry established the „Wireless City Project‟. This project involved threemain players including Derry City Council, the University of Ulster and North West Institute ofFurther and Higher Education. As part of this project Derry experienced the launch of citywideInternet access making it one of the first cities in Europe to offer such a service. Derry wasquickly transformed from a historical walled city to a wireless one. A variety of technologies wereutilized to create this wireless city, namely Wireless Mesh Network (W.M.N.) technologies. TheseW.M.N.‟s “Present a promising solution by extending network coverage based on a mixture ofwireless technologies” [Waharte & Boutaba, 2005]. The W.M.N. was chosen, as it is the mostappropriate technology currently available for building a citywide network. The provision of sucha service in Derry undoubtedly offers many benefits for those who avail of it. However, usersneed to be aware that this network is an open access network free for everyone to use. Using anunsecured network can raise serious security concerns with many negative implications for theuser should they not take appropriate security precautions.This paper will examine the main security issues attached to using unsecured networks. Firstly,the paper will consider the reasoning behind the failure of many individuals to protect themselvesand their personal data when using unsecured wireless networks. Having identified these corereasons, attempts will be made to counteract them through the construction of a simple user-friendly prototype multimedia application. This prototype will attempt to significantly reduce thecomplex nature of many security help guides and instruction manuals currently available. Anevaluation will be conducted and the contributions of this research will be acknowledged. Inconclusion suggestions for future research and development for advancement in this subject areawill be presented.2. Background Literature[Cheng et al, 2006] describe WMN as “An emerging technology for future broadband wirelessaccess”. They consist of wireless access networks that are according to [Waharte et al, 2006],interconnected by a wireless backbone. They operate on the concept of mesh routers and meshclients where “Each node operates not only as a host but also as a router, forwarding packets onbehalf of other nodes that may not be within direct wireless transmission range of theirdestinations” [Akyildiz et al, 2004]. [Waharte et al, 2006] suggest that their development hasbeen fuelled by increased user expectations in relation to anytime and anywhere connectivity, aswell as quality of service guarantees. W.M.N.‟s are a revolutionary technology facilitating citywideInternet access. Their use brings many benefits to both business and the everyday citizens,however for those who fail to take appropriate precautions there can be numerous drawbacks.“Data security and privacy is the major concern in the current generation of „Wireless Web‟offerings” [Borsc & Shinde, 2005]. Using an unsecured network is not without risks, thesenetworks are completely open “Leaving Britain‟s 29m Internet users exposed to fraud, identitytheft or worse” [Clapperton, 2007]. When security precautions are not undertaken the end resultfor users can be very frightening, yet individuals continue to ignore the warnings.2.1 Getting The Configurations RightA survey carried out by LAN Communications in 2004 identified instances where business accesspoints were not correctly configured with default settings still in use [LAN Communications, 2004].One of the conclusions drawn from the results of this survey is that even where access points aredeployed in an organised and controlled manner, this is of little benefit. IT staff are not alwaysproperly educated and equipped with the expertise needed to configure wireless devicesappropriately. This is a worrying indication that even those who are responsible for setting upnetworks for businesses are finding configuration of the necessary devices difficult to grasp._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 4© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  5. 5. One can imagine how even more difficult is must be for individuals setting up such networks athome who are unfamiliar with network technologies and their correct configurations. It has beenestimated that “90% of WLan security incidents until 2010 will be the result of misconfiguredSystems” [Eastwood, 2007].The first task that should be completed when setting up a router or access point is to changedefault settings established by the manufacturer. While some measures have been taken bymanufacturers to reduce the complexity of the configuration process many users are stillbemused by it and simply do not bother enabling the security features as they find it too difficult.2.2 Following Best PracticeLAN Communications highlight a number of attacks including eavesdropping, denial of service,unauthorised access and data tampering that have resulted from a failure to follow basicguidelines pertaining to network security [LAN Communications, 2004]. This failure is extremelyproblematic especially where sensitive data is being transmitted. A malicious hacker can „snoop‟and „sniff‟ the air for data packets, a point noted by [Eastwood, 2007] “A wireless network requirespackets of data to travel through the air, making them prone to inception”. TJX is a company inAmerica who invested 17.4 billion dollars in their wireless network but still failed to apply basicsecurity measures to their corporate wireless network. This network was found by [Pereira, 2007]to have had less security than one would expect to find on an average home network resulting inthe theft of over 45.7 million credit and debit card numbers. Surprisingly the company failed toinstall firewalls and data encryption on many of the computers using their network. The lossesfrom this attack for both the retailer and the individuals who suffered are estimated to be in themillions. This attack is evidence that major corporations with massive budgets are not aware ofthe threats facing their networks, and suggests they do not employ the necessary expertiseneeded to protect against such dangers.2.3 Complexity of Security SolutionsUsers find it difficult to keep abreast of the “Ever-shifting landscape of new threats, coupled withenhanced security features bemuses” [Cracknell, 2007]. Available products are often extremelydifficult for the average user to configure and get to grips with. This sad reality is highlighted by[Aronauer, 2007] “Ironically, Wi-Fi networks have always offered safety features to block peoplefrom piggybacking on private networks. Unfortunately, the set-ups are too complicated and time-consuming for many users” resulting in only three out of every five enabling safety features.Complexity and difficulty of use are some of the main reasons why so many people do not securetheir networks. They also see it as an inconvenience and simply do not understand the need forsecurity.The concept of „plug and play‟ has pervaded every part of our lives, as people have grownaccustomed to having an out of the box solution. While these devices are easy to install [Furnell& Ghita, 2006], note that these solutions can create a number of serious security issues. Plugand play users do not have to bother themselves with examining configuration settings, overridingtheir first opportunity to deal with the issue of security altogether. It has been highlighted that themanufacturers of these devices are failing to provide an adequate amount of guidance forcustomers who wish to make their networks secure. According to [Furnell & Ghita, 2006] when itcomes to help manuals and instructions provided by manufacturers for setting up security on theirdevices, “Help provided for each setting is minimal, detailing only on the syntax and formatinformation rather than explaining the role and function of each option”. While all informationprovided was technically correct it was difficult to understand. This had major negativeconsequences for the user when attempting to configure the device correctly and often lead to theuser making the wrong choice. It was discovered that manufacturers “All seem to excel inproviding the required functionality and protocols, the implementation is hindered by the level ofinformation to guide the configuration process” [Furnell & Ghita, 2006]._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 5© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  6. 6. It is clear that manufacturers experience a weak spot when it comes to „correctness versuscomprehensibility‟ and are finding it difficult to strike a balance. It was concluded that usabilityfactors act as a major barrier to the deployment of wireless networks that are security enabledand hence there is a pressing need for “Clearer presentation of security options at the softwarelevel and it would be desirable for more products to provide support that effectively differentiatesbetween experienced and novice users” [Furnell & Ghita, 2006].3. Proposed SolutionThe author proposes a simple user-friendly prototype multimedia application. This prototypeillustrates how help guides and instructions can be constructed without the burden ofunnecessary levels of complexity. It is targeted at the citizens of Derry City, with the aim ofmaking them aware of the need for security when utilising unsecured networks both in the cityand at home. This is achieved through the use of lessons resembling tutorials that allow users toimplement and apply security solutions currently available to them. It not only empowers peopleto take action by providing practical advice that is quick and easy to implement, but also to acceptresponsibility for securing their personal data when using wireless networks. Ideally thisapplication will be distributed on Compact Disk Read Only Memory (C.D.-R.O.M.‟s) free ofcharge, thus ensuring its availability.3.1 Application DesignThe „Derry City Wireless‟ application is divided into two main sections „home‟ and „Derry city‟.The „home‟ section deals with issues pertaining to wireless security at home while „Derry city‟concerns the problems that can arise from the use of public open access wireless networks. Thecontent of each section is presented in tutorial fashion with practical advice given so that userscan learn how to implement security on their networks and mobile devices. A number oftechnologies were utilised during the production of the prototype. These were chosen as theywere found to satisfy the specifications and requirements of the application while doing so in arelatively cost effective way. They also ensured a shorter lead-time for the prototype. Theseincluded the „Flash‟ development environment, „Cam Studio‟ and „Sitepal‟ avatars.3.1.1 Technologies UtilisedThe prototype was developed in „Macromedia Flash‟, an application development environmentthat has become increasing popular in recent years. The majority of Internet users are familiarwith „Flash‟ applications with most computers possessing the capability to play „Flash‟ files.According to [Karvir, 2005] the Flash Player is the most widely deployed client runtime in theworld boasting penetration of 98% among Internet enabled Personal Computers (P.C.‟s). „Flash‟permits the production of projector files, a stand-alone executable program perfect for deploymenton C.D.-R.O.M.‟s.The success of the prototype is dependent upon users listening and following instructionscarefully. „Flash‟ caters for the engagement of the target audience through rich interactivecontent that is delivered in a simple yet visually appealing form, reducing the complexity of theinformation being presented. Prior to the commencement of the development of the prototype in„Flash‟ storyboarding was conducted in order to organise the content of the presentation explicitlyillustrating how the content would be displayed and in what sequence. A number of animationsare used throughout the application. These provide visual reinforcements for the learner helpingthem to comprehend the concept as described by the avatar during the lessons and contribute tothe professional feel of the application._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 6© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  7. 7. The avatar technology offered by „Sitepal‟ was used to create the personalised talking andanimated character called „Olivia‟. This virtual speaking character was key to entertaining theuser as well as being informative. „Olivia‟ (as presented in figure 1) acted as a guide directingusers through the steps involved in the completion of different tasks i.e. configuring your router,encryption etc. Users identify with „Olivia‟, a young woman dressed in casual clothes. Thissupports the message of keeping things simple and easygoing, allowing the user to learn in arelatively relaxed manner. The avatars‟ voice is clear and consistent throughout the applicationgenerated through the use of text to speech technology (T.T.S.). This audio element results in abetter learning process for the user who is able to retain more information than they would have,if the message were communicated using text. Testing indicated that the avatar plays a majorrole in focusing the users‟ attention on the more critical points in the presentation. Whenquestioned about their favourite aspect of the application the sample users agreed unanimouslythat the speaking virtual character was the most impressive and enjoyable element in theprototype. Figure 1: Virtual Avatar „Olivia‟„Cam Studio‟ is a freeware solution that facilitates the capture of screen motion and audio. Thisapplication allowed for the inclusion of real time screen views permitting the users to visuallyfollow the steps as described by the avatar, leaving little room for confusion.3.1.2 Competitor AnalysisAn in-depth examination of competitor material was conducted. This involved analysing varioussolutions that already exist, that aim to educate users on the critical issues pertaining to wirelesssecurity. This analysis revealed that much of the information available is presented in such a waythat it renders it useless to the average users. While the relevant concepts are explored, they arediscussed in technical terms that the average users are unable to comprehend. The modality oftext is relied on too heavily resulting in ambiguity of the information being presented and dataoverload for the user. The framing of information impacts greatly on the conclusions, implicationsand assumptions that the user draws about the task at hand. For example, where informationabout wireless security is presented in an unclear and unambiguous manner the user mayperceive the issue as more complex than it actually is, deterring the user from learning moreabout it. To overcome this limitation an avatar was introduced communicating with the userthrough voice and gesture. The multimodal interface helped reduce unnecessary complexity anddeliver the message to the user in a clear and concise way (figure 2)._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 7© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  8. 8. Figure 2: Multimodal interfaceDuring the competitor analysis similarities in terms of the colours used became apparent withcolours such as reds, yellows, blacks and greys widely utilised. They colours invoke a certainsenses and emotions in users. The colour red, black and grey creates a sense of „danger‟ whileyellow can be associated with „caution‟ and „warning‟ signage. The overall appearance of theprototype is one that supports the message being presented and one that aims to create anenjoyable user experience and avoid these feelings of danger etc. The prototype uses variousshades of purple throughout. These look both simple and clean while portraying a sense of calm.The layout, fonts, colours, images used in the prototype are subtle avoiding any unnecessarydistractions for the user.3.1.3 System ArchitectureThe System Architecture of the prototype (figure 3) consists of three main modules includingtooling, programming models and client. Figure 3: System ArchitectureThe tooling module consists of the Flash authoring tool. This component was concerned with thedeployment of the applications‟ multimedia aspects namely video, graphics and sound. Theprogramming modules including actionscript and class libraries allowed for the rapid developmentof the prototype. A relatively small amount of programming knowledge was required withdevelopment time being reduced through the use of pre-built reusable components includingcontrols available through the class libraries. The client module catered for the seamless andconsistent presentation of information across various hardware and software platforms, operatingsystems and Internet browsers. This is key to ensuring a rich user experience. The Flash playeris a virtual machine used to run Flash files on the clients‟ computer._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 8© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  9. 9. 3.2 ImplementationThis phase of development encompassed the building, testing and deployment of the prototype.Production specifications acted as a guide for the production process. The prototype underwentextensive testing and documentation was created.3.2.1 TestingTesting was conducted to identify and remove errors and inconsistencies before development ofthe final prototype. According to [Bennett et al, 2006] testing at this stage helps to keep furthermaintenance and development time and costs to a minimum. Bugs and problems encountered inthe early stages of the applications‟ development are easier to rectify and cheaper to correct thanif they were discovered in the final stages of development. The tests were also successful inuncovering areas for potential future development.The testing stage was broken down into three main phases. Phase one of prototype testinginvolved the cooperation of a focus group in an effort to identify underlying issues that the authorwas not conscious of. The focus group was formed from a small group of sample users, mainlyfriends and family of the author. During this time a number of issues were highlighted anddiscussed. The sample immensely enjoyed the avatar having had very little experience with thissort of technology in the past. They also generated positive feedback pertaining to the contentstating that it was both interesting and informative.As part of prototype testing phase two, user acceptance testing was carried out at differentintervals during the development of the prototype. Users were required to familiarise themselveswith the prototype application and its‟ content prior to the completion of „user acceptance testingsurveys‟. The results obtained from this phase facilitated the iterative development of theprototype, with the application being improved through the generation of feedback and theclarification of requirements. A number of additions were suggested during this phase of testing.Recommendations, illustrated in table 1, will be included in the final application. Function Description Test A test function will allow for the evaluation of the user and the level of learning that Function occurred. At the end of each lesson the users will be subjected to a formative assessment in the form of a multiple-choice quiz. This will consist of 10 questions covering the basics of the lesson. This test function will provide users with an opportunity to utilise the concepts, skills and attitudes that they have learned during the lesson. Rewind A rewind function will be included allowing users to rewind the lesson if they miss a Function part or wish to hear it again to clarify certain points.Table 1: User RecommendationsThe third phase of prototype testing took the form of test logs with „test transcripts‟ being drawnup specifying the test cases that took place as well as expected and actual results. This wasnecessary to ensure that all errors and inconsistencies throughout the application had beenrectified before the final prototype was completed._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 9© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  10. 10. 4. Future Direction & Research4.1 Generic StructureThe applications structure is generic and could easily be extended for use on a variety ofplatforms such as the Web and Digital Video Disk (D.V.D.) for use in home D.V.D. players. Theapplication is deployed on the „Flash Player‟ not the web browser. Consequently, the applicationwill have the same appearance regardless of the platform and browser it is deployed on. It alsohas the potential to be developed for other application scenarios. Due to the increased use ofmobile devices such as smartphones and Personal Digital Assistants (P.D.A.‟s) with very uniquesecurity needs, it may be feasible to consider the development of a version of the applicationaimed specifically at securing these technologies.4.2 Standards of SimplicityA new standard was recently launched by the „Wi-Fi Alliance‟ called „Wi-Fi Protected Setup‟(W.P.S.). This new standard is the most recent attempt at simplifying the installation of securityfeatures on various wireless solutions. It remains to be seen whether this will lead to asubstantial increase in the amount of home users who will activate the security features in thewireless solutions released in June, with this new specification. These devices will bear a speciallogo and according to [Aronauer, 2007] will be twice as easy to install, cutting the number of stepsit takes to activate the security features in half.Research into the success of this new standard and how it impacts on consumer behaviour willneed to be carried out in the months ahead. It will remain to be seen whether or not it will have apositive effect on the average home user and improve security. If successful, moves should betaken to change this W.P.S. optional standard into a mandatory one resulting in users being ableto set up and use their wireless network in both an easy and secure manner.4.3 Training Help Guide and User Manual AuthorsIt is usually the developers and programmers who build the various security solutions that areresponsible for writing the accompanying help guides and user manuals. These individuals areexperts in their field of study and are constantly immersed in the technical jargon, concepts andideals pertaining to wireless network security. All of these become commonplace in the languagethat they use to communicate with work colleagues. This does not pose a problem as such workcolleagues are well versed in the area of network security. Furthermore they do not questiontechnical terms etc. used and they require little or no explanation of their semantics.Consequently, the jargon associated with a particular product, can unconsciously seep into theuser guide or manual being produced. One could easily assume from the examination of helpguides produced by major players such as Microsoft, Belkin, etc. that little or no quality control ispracticed.Greater importance should be placed on producing usable, useful and comprehendibleinstructions for users of different education and ability levels. Tighter quality controls need to bedeveloped in terms of „ease of use‟ and the creation of clear and concise instructions that can beunderstood without significant effort. Where possible and appropriate, user testing should becarried out so that feedback can be generated and the guides improved before final approval.Developers and programmers if charged with the creation of guides and manuals should be givenadequate training and instruction on how to produce them in such a way, that they are userfriendly, simple and helpful._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 10© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  11. 11. 5. ConclusionThis paper examined the main security issues pertaining to the use of unsecured wirelessnetworks. It considered the reasons why individuals, while aware to a certain extent of thedangers, do little to safeguard themselves against attack. Based on this insight, a user friendlyprototype multimedia application was developed and its‟ main elements were discussed in depth.The main contributions of this research were briefly addressed and suggestions for future studyand development were made.It is unlikely that people are oblivious to the need for wireless security as it is difficult to miss thecountless newspaper reports concerning the extent of cyber attacks and identity theft onunsuspecting members of the public. In light of these attacks it is clear that people are not takingproper precautionary measures when using unsecured wireless networks. Evidence suggeststhat available wireless security solutions including help guides and instructions are too complexand do not meet the needs of their users. The culture of „plug and play‟ solutions that ispervading through our everyday lives is further aggravating the problem.The „Derry City Wireless‟ multimedia prototype has set the foundation for a feasible applicationthat is informative, interesting and above all user friendly. This application has the potential to bedeveloped with ease in a relatively short space of time and in a cost effective manner. Uponevaluation of the prototype, it was found that users responded more favourably to examples theycould personally relate to. It helped users to translate global security issues into personal ones.This allowed them to comprehend how these issues could impact them on a personal level.The research conducted by the author was and remains to be an area deserving urgent attention.This paper has created an awareness of the pressing need to make wireless security accessibleto everyone. This can be achieved in part by having clearer and more concise methods forteaching people about the topic. The prototype demonstrated the extent to which informationcould be presented to a novice user at a simplified level without compromising the critical pointsbeing communicated. This paper has been successful in providing a summary of the motivationsfor the development of applications similar in nature and purpose to that of the prototype andhighlighting opportunities for further study in this research area._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 11© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  12. 12. 6. Refrences[AKYILDIZ ET AL, 2004] AKYILDIZ, I. F. & WANG, X. & WANG, W. (2004) “Wireless MeshNetworks: A Survey” Computer Networks 47, pp. 445-487. Holland: Elsevier.[ARONAUER, 2007] ARONAUER, R. (2007) “Safety With No Strings Attached – New InitiativesMake Secure Wi-Fi Access Easier Than Ever” Sales and Marketing Management, 159(2), pp. 16.North Carolina: ABI/Inform Global.[BENNETT ET AL, 2006] BENNETT, S. & McROBB, S. & FARMER, R. (2006) “Object-Oriented rdSystems Analysis and Design Using UML” 3 ed. Berkshire: Mc Graw Hill Education.[BORSC & shinde, 2005] Borsc, m. & Shinde, h. (2005) “Wireless Security And Privacy” IEEEInternational Conference on Personal Wireless Communications, 23-25 Jan, New Delhi: IEEE NJ,USA.[BURKHARDT ET AL, 2002] BURKHARDT, J. & HENN, H. & HEPPER, S. & RINTDORFF, K. &SCHACK, T. (2002) “Pervasive Computing – Technology and Architecture of Mobile InternetApplications” Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited.[Cheng et al, 2006] Cheng, H. T. & Jiang, H. & Zhuang, W. (2006) “Distributed Medium AccessControl for Wireless Mesh Networks”, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing 6(6) -Special Issue: Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. Issue Edited byShen, X. S. & Kobayashi, H. & You, X. & Pan, J. pp. 845-864, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.[Clapperton, 2007] Clapperton, G. (2007, April 1) “Thank you Superhacker, you saved mycomputer” The Sunday Times. London: Times Newspapers Ltd.[CRACKNELL, 2007] CRACKNELL, P. (2007) “New Attacks Demand New Defences” ComputerWeekly Vol pp.36. : UK: Reed Business Information UK Ltd.[EASTWOOD, 2007] EASTWOOD, G. (2007) “Meet the Challenge of WLAN Security” ComputerWeekly 5/29/2007, pp.32-34. U.K: Reed Business Information Limited.[Furnell & Ghita, 2006] Furnell, s. & Ghita, b. (2006) “Usability Pitfalls in Wireless LAN Security”Network Security 2006(3), pp. 4-8. London: Elsevier Ltd.[KARVIR, 2005] KARVIR, V. (2005) “Whitepaper - Delivering Enterprise Applications, Content,and Communications with the Flash® Platform” [online], retrieved 1 August 2007, from San Francisco: MacromediaInc.[LANS COMMUNICATIONS, 2004] LANS COMMUNICATIONS (2004) “LAN Survey RevealsSerious Network Security Issues” [online], retrieved 6 July 2007, from Dublin: LAN Communications.[Pereira, 2007] Pereira, J. (2007) “Breaking The Code: How Credit-Card Data Went Out WirelessDoor: In Biggest Known Theft, Retailer‟s Weak Security Lost Millions of Numbers” Wall StreetJournal (Eastern Edition) May 4, pp. 1. New York: Louis Gordon Crovitz.[WAHARTE & Boutaba, 2005] WAHARTE, S. & Boutaba, R. (2005) “Tree-Based Wireless MeshNetwork – Architecture: Topology Analysis” in Proceedings of the First International Workshop onWireless Mesh Networks (MeshNets), Budapest, Hungary, July 2005._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 12© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security
  13. 13. [WAHARTE ET AL, 2006] WAHARTE, S. & BOUTABA, R. & IRAQI, Y. & ISHIBASHI, B. (2006)“Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks: Challenges and Design Considerations”Multimedia Tools and Applications 29(3), pp. 285-303. Netherlands: Springer._________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page: 13© 2007 Olivia Moran [] Complexity Versus Comprehendability: Symplifying Wireless Security