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Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in 
the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
André Furtado | Hugo Ro...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in 
the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
André Furtado | Hugo Ro...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Influence of masonry pan...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Influence of masonry pan...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Types of failure of infi...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Observed damages in rece...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Observed damages in rece...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Observed damages in rece...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Observed damages in rece...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Observed damages in rece...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Observed damages in rece...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Modeling of infill mason...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Modeling of infill mason...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Modeling of infill mason...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Previous Research 
• Sim...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Proposed approach 
elast...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Proposed approach 
The u...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Numerical model calibrat...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Numerical model calibrat...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Numerical model calibrat...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Numerical model calibrat...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Numerical model calibrat...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Numerical model calibrat...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Numerical model calibrat...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Numerical model calibrat...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
PT4 PT8 
4 Storeys 
3 ba...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Under going work 
PT4 PT...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Under going work 
PT4 
P...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Under going work PT4 
Hu...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Under going work PT8 
Hu...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Final comment and future...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Final comment and future...
Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings 
Obrigado!!! 
Thank you!!...
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Numerical Modelling of Masonry Infill Walls Participation in the Seismic Behaviour of RC Buildings

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Presentation made by Dr Hugo Rodrigues @ University of Porto during the OpenSees Days Portugal 2014 workshop

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Numerical Modelling of Masonry Infill Walls Participation in the Seismic Behaviour of RC Buildings

  1. 1. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings André Furtado | Hugo Rodrigues | António Arêde hugo.f.rodrigues@ipleiria.pt
  2. 2. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings André Furtado | Hugo Rodrigues | António Arêde hugo.f.rodrigues@ipleiria.pt
  3. 3. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Influence of masonry panels in buildings response • Infill masonry panels are usually considered in the design of new structures has non-structural elements, and its influence in the structural response is disregarded • Infill masonry panels may change drastically: • the global lateral stiffness and strength of the building structures • the natural frequencies and vibration modes • the energy dissipation capacity • a brittle behavior and failure mechanism • Common infill masonry panels can modify drastically the global structural behavior attracting forces to parts of the structure that were not designed to support them, leading to unexpected behavior/response and collapse mechanisms Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  4. 4. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Influence of masonry panels in buildings response (Crisafulli, 2010) Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  5. 5. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Types of failure of infills masonry walls The seismic response of an infilled frame building structure is very complex, and usually 3 different damage or failure patterns/mechanisms can be distinguish: P P P P Monolitic behaviour Detachment frame-infill Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014 P P P P P P Shear-friction failure Diagonal tension failure Crushing of the corners
  6. 6. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Observed damages in recent earthquakes - Field evidence Possible causes: Balcony excessive deformation (cantilevers); dimensions of the masonry leafs; improper support conditions; poor connection conditions of the external leaf; no ties or anchoring systems either between inner and external leafs and/or between infill walls and the structural frame Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  7. 7. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Observed damages in recent earthquakes - Field evidence Damage to masonry enclosure walls – in-plane response (interface separation between infills and resistant structure, diagonal cracking, corner crushing) P P P P Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  8. 8. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Observed damages in recent earthquakes - Field evidence Damage to masonry enclosure walls – in-plane response (diagonal cracking) Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  9. 9. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Observed damages in recent earthquakes - Field evidence Out-of-plane failure of masonry enclosure walls Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  10. 10. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Observed damages in recent earthquakes - Field evidence Damage to infill masonry walls: - in-plane response (interface separation between infills and resistant structure, diagonal cracking, corner crushing) - out-of-plane collapse Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  11. 11. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Observed damages in recent earthquakes - Field evidence Short column mechanism Possible cause: wall openings in masonry enclosures Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  12. 12. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Modeling of infill masonry walls Infilled frames are complex structural systems and exhibit a highly nonlinear behavior. This fact complicates the analysis and explains why infill panels has been considered as "non-structural elements", despite their strong influence on the global response of buildings. Micro-models: Macro-models: • Detailed modeling • More simplified than the micro-models • Allow interpretation of the behavior at • Allow for a representation of the global local level behavior of the infill masonry panels and • Allow to obtain the cracking pattern, the of their influence in the buildings ultimate load, and the collapse response mechanisms • Equivalent strut model is the most used • High computational effort • Need for a large number of parameter • Useful for the calibration of global models Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  13. 13. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Modeling of infill masonry walls The equivalent strut model was suggested by Poliakov and implemented by Holmes and Stafford Smith in the 1960s. Later, many researchers improved this basic model. Today, the strut model is accepted as a simple and rational way to represent the effect of the masonry infill panel in the global response of buildings. The main advantage of the multi-strut models, in spite of the increase of complexity, is the ability to represent the actions in the frame more accurately. Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  14. 14. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Modeling of infill masonry walls The typical strut models are not able of represent the response of the infilled frame when horizontal shear sliding occurs in the masonry panel. For this case, Leuchars & Scrivener proposed the model illustrated. A recent NZSEE Bulletin article, “Analytical modeling of infilled frame structures” [Crisafulli et al., 2000], provides a review of macro and micro models, and reports on some comparative studies between equivalent strut models and FEM (‘solid’ element) models. Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  15. 15. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Previous Research • Simplified global macro-model • Represents the infill panel behaviour and its influence in the building response to seismic loadings • An upgrading of the bi-diagonal strut model • Considers the strength and stiffness degradation interaction in both directions of loading • 4 strut elements with rigid linear behaviour that support a central element where the non-linear behaviour is concentrated • Non-linear behaviour characterized by a monotonic curve with 5 branches for each loading direction, and corresponding hysteretic rules elemento Não-Linear Bielas F 2 K0 + K1 3 + K2 + K3 + K4 u + F2 + F1 + F3 + u2 u1 + u3 4 + u4 + 1 5 Rodrigues, H.; Varum, H.; Costa, A. (2010) - Simplified macro-model for infill masonry panels - Journal of Earthquake Engineering, World Scientific Publishing, doi 10.1080/13632460903086044, Vol. 14, Issue 3, March 2010, pp. 390-416. Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  16. 16. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Proposed approach elasticBeamColumn Strut behavior in plane Residual stiffness in the OP direction non-linearBeamColumn Only with axial Non-linear behavior Pinching4 Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  17. 17. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Proposed approach The uniaxial material Pinching 04 was adopted to represent the hysteretic rule i) Cracking (cracking force Fc, cracking displacement dc) ii) Yielding (yielding force Fy, yielding displacement dy) iii) Maximum strength corresponding to the beginning of crushing (Fcr and corresponding displacement dcr) iv) Residual strength (Residual strength Fu and residual displacement du) The envelope can be obtained based on recommendations from past researchers (Zarnic and Gornic,1997 and Dolsek and Fajfar,2008) and observations from experimental tests (Mazounry,1995 and Shing et al, 2009) and from recommendation codes (FEMA) Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  18. 18. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Numerical model calibration – One-storey one-bay infilled RC frame • Reduced scale - 2/3 • Simplified masonry model • Tests on sample materials of concrete and masonry used to calibrate the numerical model 4.20 0.42 0.15 0.15 0.42 0.165 0.20 1.625 0.35 [ m ] Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  19. 19. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Numerical model calibration – One-storey one-bay infilled RC frame • Reduced scale - 2/3 • Simplified masonry model • Tests on sample materials of concrete and masonry used to calibrate the numerical model Without infill 4.20 0.42 0.15 0.15 0.42 0.165 0.20 1.625 0.35 [ m ] Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  20. 20. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Numerical model calibration – One-storey one-bay infilled RC frame • Reduced scale - 2/3 • Simplified masonry model • Tests on sample materials of concrete and masonry used to calibrate the numerical model 4.20 0.42 0.15 0.15 0.42 0.165 0.20 1.625 0.35 [ m ] Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  21. 21. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Numerical model calibration – One-storey one-bay infilled RC frame • Good agreement between numerical and experimental results • Model able to well represent the masonry strength and stiffness degradation, energy dissipation Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  22. 22. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Numerical model calibration – One-storey one-bay infilled RC frame Manzouri (1995) and Shing et al (2009) found that the maximum strength (Fmax) occurs at approximately 0.25% drift The maximum strength can be calculated through the equation proposed by Zarnic and Gornic (1997) and later modified by Dolsek and Fajfar (2008). L  t  f 0.818 (1 2 1) F in tp   C   max 1 C 1 Lin h' t C  Lin 1 ' 1.925 h ftp is the masonry cracking stress obtained based on experimental test Post-peak strength degradation or residual strength is based on Dolsek and Fajfar (2008) that estimate that the displacement at residual strength is five times of the displacement of maximum strength Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  23. 23. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Numerical model calibration – One-storey one-bay infilled RC frame Two different approaches were tested: • Calibrated with experimental results • Recommended parameters Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  24. 24. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Numerical model calibration – One-storey one-bay infilled RC frame • Good agreement between numerical and experimental results • Model able to well represent the masonry strength and stiffness degradation, energy dissipation Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  25. 25. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Numerical model calibration – One-storey one-bay infilled RC frame Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  26. 26. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings PT4 PT8 4 Storeys 3 bays x 5 bays • 3D Models • Regular buildings Under going work 8 Storeys 3 bays x 5 bays Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  27. 27. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Under going work PT4 PT8 4 Storeys 3 bays x 5 bays 8 Storeys 3 bays x 5 bays • Dynamic time-history Analysis • The building was submitted to seismic motions in order to be representative of a moderate-high European seismic hazard scenario Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  28. 28. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Under going work PT4 PT8 Bare frama Full infilled soft-storey Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  29. 29. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Under going work PT4 Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  30. 30. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Under going work PT8 Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  31. 31. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Final comment and future work • Masonry infill walls have a complex behavior due to the properties of their materials and to the interaction mechanisms with the surrounding frame • The response prediction of masonry infilled frame structures can be achieved by computational modeling. The application of simplified nonlinear numerical models, associated with the increasing computational power, allow for the inclusion of infill masonry models in the structural assessment of existing building structures and in the design of new buildings • The proposed infill masonry model was calibrated with the results of one experimental test. The numerical results shows that generally the model proposed was able to represent the response of the structures in terms of displacements evolution, and cumulative dissipated energy • The proposed macro-model can be a useful tool in the development and calibration of simplified rules for the analysis of infilled frame structures under horizontal loadings, accounting for important mechanical features as hysteretic behavior, strength and stiffness degradation, pinching and damage evolution, function of the deformation demands • The main challenge is the possibility of considering the out-of-plane collapse of the infill masonry panel …. Under going work … Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  32. 32. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Final comment and future work Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014
  33. 33. Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings Obrigado!!! Thank you!!! Numerical Modeling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behavior of RC buildings André Furtado | Hugo Rodrigues | António Arêde hugo.f.rodrigues@ipleiria.pt This research was developed under financial support provided by “FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia”, Portugal, namely through the research project PTDC/ECM/122347/2010 - RetroInf – Developing Innovative Solutions for Seismic Retrofitting of Masonry Infill Walls. Hugo Rodrigues | Workshop on Multi-Hazard Analysis of Structures using OpenSees – OpenSeesDays Portugal | Porto, July 03-04, 2014

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