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Village report

  1. 1. REPORT ON VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT Submitted By:- Kumar Nishant (10201026) Sunil Kumar (10201055) (VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT REPORT SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ON RURAL MANAGEMENT)HOST ORGANIZATION VSS CO-ORDINATORUDYOGINI Prof. Jyotirmayee AcharyaREPORTING OFFICER FACULTY GUIDEMs. Ketaki Narkar Prof. H.S. GaneshaEnterprise Promotion Manager MBA-RM CoordinatorUdyogini School of Entrepreneurship KIIT SCHOOL OF RURAL MANAGEMENT (KSRM) BHUBANESWAR, INDIA (VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT 2010-12)
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst and foremost we are thankful to Prof. (Dr.) L. K. Vaswani, DIRECTOR, KIIT School ofRural Management for placing the Village Study Segment (VSS) fieldwork Component as a partof our course curricula. We would like to express our gratitude to Professor (Dr.) JyotirmayeeAcharya, Coordinator, VSS to facilitate throughout by playing different roles as mentor,coordinator and supervisor and for inputs and moral support for designing and completion of thereport. We are thankful to the faculty guide Prof H. S. Ganesha for his guidance and assessmentof this report.We have immense pleasure in expressing our deep sense of gratitude, indebtedness and sincerethanks to our esteemed Reporting Officer Ms. Ketaki Narkar, Enterprise Promotion Manager andteam member Mr. Kumar Padmanabh of Udyogini who facilitated our accommodation and madeus to learn all the VSS components by doing and interacting with the villagers. We are thankfulfor their feedback and insight to our theme paper and support for the RAC and to share with ususeful experiences during the village study. We are also thankful to Mr. Prashanto Mandal,EPM; Ms. Yojana Lama, EPE and Ms. Punam Rai, EPE of Udyogini who helped us immenselyin our project and ensured that our visit turns more meaningful.In order to complete fieldwork successfully, I would like to present special thanks to all theresearch participants and villagers who provided their valuable time and made our staymeaningful and study valuable. We are extremely happy to reveal our special thanks to ourclassmates for their inspiration.Kumar Nishant (10201026)Sunil Kumar (10201055)School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 2
  3. 3. ABSTRACTAuthor: Kumar Nishant and Sunil KumarHost Organization: UDYOGINI, Jabalpur, Madhya PradeshVillage Report: A report of the Samaiya village of Niwas Block, Mandla district was developedby conducting household survey through a structured schedule.Rural Action Components: The action component aimed to provide Grass roots managementtraining to the Women Entrepreneur Group (WEG) formed by Udyogini, conduction of a rally onWomen’s day to promote enterprise and entrepreneurship among women’s and a skit onadvantages of enterprise and entrepreneurship.National Service Scheme: The main objective of NSS activities carried out is to createawareness about of common diseases and prevention. To discuss among the villagers about theState Govt. health schemes for women also we focused our NSS on children to increase theirawareness level and motivate them to come to school.Theme paper: Assessment of willingness to pay of the community for the services and productsidentified for being offered through Village Level Service CentersOrganization profile of the host organization was documented. The major objective was study ofexisting supply chain established by Udyam Jagaran Sansthan (UJAS), to check for thewillingness of the community to pay for the identified products and services in the project areasof Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. A study in both financial and operational aspects ofdifferent opportunities was carried out to understand the various perspectives for the initiativesundertaken by UdyoginiResearch Design: The main endeavor in the study was to check the willingness of the productsand services for Tribal community people that can be incorporated into the existing supply chainof the UJAS. For this Semi Structured questionnaire is develop to collect the primary data.Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Focused Group Discussion (FGD) and Mass Meetings areorganized to conduct NSS and Rural Action Component activities, 32 Household surveys wascarried out and a schedule is designed to collect information from the individual on theirSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 3
  4. 4. priorities on alternative livelihood. The secondary data is provided by organization. Interactionwith concerned officials also helped to understand the things better.Study Findings:During our stay in the village we found that giving right information can help people to makeright decision. We observed that the people of the villages have the potential and skill to come upfrom poverty and misery but the most important thing they lack is information and knowledgeabout what is happening around the World. We saw that mere distribution of money bygovernment and NGOs has degraded the communities’ value and generated a feeling ofdependency. We learnt the importance of life skills & functional literacy which will help them tooperate & manage their enterprise. The households have very small amount of savings which isnot enough for their risk mitigation. The rate of interest charged is 5-10 percent per month andrepayment period remain longer with number of self consumption loans being more taken by thehouseholds. We also learnt that social rural marketing can bring an economic empowermentwith the help of WEG formation as this inculcates saving habits among the rural women.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 4
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTSPART 1: VILLAGE REPORTINTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 112 OBJECTIVES: ......................................................................................................................... 113 METHODOLOGY: ................................................................................................................. 12 3.1 SOURCE OF DATA: ............................................................................................................................. 12 3.2 SAMPLE DESIGN: ............................................................................................................................... 12 3.3 DATA ANALYSIS: ................................................................................................................................ 12 3.4 LIMITATIONS OF DATA COLLECTION:................................................................................................ 124 GEOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE...................................................................... 13 4.1 Location:............................................................................................................................................ 13 4.2 History of the Village:........................................................................................................................ 13 4.3 Demography of Village: ..................................................................................................................... 14 4.4 Literacy Level: ................................................................................................................................... 14 4.5 Social Structure: ................................................................................................................................ 14 4.6 Institutions: ....................................................................................................................................... 15 4.7 Gender Clock ..................................................................................................................................... 155 Weather and Seasonality ......................................................................................................... 16 5.1 Weather ............................................................................................................................................ 16 5.2 Temperature ..................................................................................................................................... 16 5.3 Seasonality of Cropping Pattern: ...................................................................................................... 16 5.4 Seasonality of Food Availability: ....................................................................................................... 17 5.5 Seasonality of Diseases: .................................................................................................................... 17 5.6 Period of happiness and sorrow: ...................................................................................................... 18 5.7 Seasonality of Migration: .................................................................................................................. 18 5.7.1 Force field analysis of Migration: ............................................................................................... 196 Natural Resources .................................................................................................................... 19 6.1 Land:.................................................................................................................................................. 19 6.2 Water: ............................................................................................................................................... 20School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 5
  6. 6. 6.3 Forestry: ............................................................................................................................................ 207 INFRASTRUCTURE .............................................................................................................. 21 7.1 Roads:................................................................................................................................................ 21 7.2 Electricity:.......................................................................................................................................... 21 7.3 Drainage: ........................................................................................................................................... 21 7.4 Communication: ................................................................................................................................ 21 7.5 Social infrastructure .......................................................................................................................... 21 7.5.1 Educational infrastructure ......................................................................................................... 21 7.5.2 Anganwadi: ................................................................................................................................ 22 7.5.3 Infrastructure Related to Health ................................................................................................ 22 7.5.4 Defecation .................................................................................................................................. 22 7.5.5 Infrastructure Related to the Drinking water ............................................................................ 22 7.5.6 Cultural place ............................................................................................................................. 23 7.5.7 Micro Enterprise: ....................................................................................................................... 23 7.5.8 Community hall .......................................................................................................................... 238 Local Economy ......................................................................................................................... 23 8.1 Income Source .................................................................................................................................. 23 8.2 Livelihood .......................................................................................................................................... 23 8.3 Primary and Secondary Occupation of the Village ........................................................................... 24 8.4 Land holding pattern:........................................................................................................................ 24 8.5 Agriculture......................................................................................................................................... 25 8.6 SERVICE HOLDERS ............................................................................................................................. 26 8.6.1 Government Service: ................................................................................................................. 26 8.6.2 Private Service:........................................................................................................................... 26 8.7 Market Linkage ................................................................................................................................. 26 8.8 Expenditure Pattern .......................................................................................................................... 269 Consumption ............................................................................................................................ 27 9.1 Products ............................................................................................................................................ 27 9.2 Food availability ................................................................................................................................ 27 9.3 Housing Pattern: ............................................................................................................................... 28 9.4 Banks ................................................................................................................................................. 28School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 6
  7. 7. 9.5 Credit................................................................................................................................................. 28 9.5.1 Trader/ Money Lenders: ............................................................................................................ 28 9.5.2 Friends and Acquaintances: ....................................................................................................... 28 9.5.3 Banks: ......................................................................................................................................... 29 9.6 SHGs: ................................................................................................................................................. 2910 Village Level Committee: ...................................................................................................... 2911 Political and Governance System ......................................................................................... 30 11.1 Political system: .............................................................................................................................. 30 11.2 Panchayati Raj Institutions:............................................................................................................. 30 11.3 Gram Sabha:.................................................................................................................................... 3012 Government Schemes: ........................................................................................................... 3013 STATUS OF WOMEN .......................................................................................................... 3114 PLANS OF THE VILLAGE ................................................................................................. 32 14.1 Short Term Plans: ............................................................................................................................ 32 14.2 Long term plans: ............................................................................................................................. 3215 SWOT Analysis: ..................................................................................................................... 3216 Relationships with Other Communities ............................................................................... 3317 CONCLUSIONS: ................................................................................................................... 33Appendices ................................................................................................................................... 36PART 2: ORGANIZATION PROFILE1 Organization Overview ........................................................................................................... 41 1.1 Vision................................................................................................................................................. 42 1.2 Mission .............................................................................................................................................. 422 Operational Areas .................................................................................................................... 42 2.1 Where it works:................................................................................................................................. 433 Organization Structure ........................................................................................................... 444 Retrospective: ........................................................................................................................... 445 Approaches: .............................................................................................................................. 45School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 7
  8. 8. 6 Operational Frameworks: ....................................................................................................... 467 Services offered: ....................................................................................................................... 468 Major funding partners: ......................................................................................................... 469 Operational Model of VLSC ................................................................................................... 4710 Overall Activities: .................................................................................................................. 4711 Key Achievements:................................................................................................................. 4812 Future plan of organization: ................................................................................................. 48PART 3: THEME PAPERINTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 50 1.1 Background of the study: .................................................................................................................. 50 1.2 Rationale of the Project: ................................................................................................................... 51 1.3 Objective of the Study: ..................................................................................................................... 51 1.4 Scope: ................................................................................................................................................ 51 1.5 Limitations of the Study: ................................................................................................................... 51RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 52 2.1 Study area and target group: ............................................................................................................ 52 2.2 Sample Design: .................................................................................................................................. 53 2.3 Sampling Method: ............................................................................................................................. 53 2.4 Survey Design: ................................................................................................................................... 53 2.4.1 Collection of primary data: ........................................................................................................ 53 2.4.2 Collection of Secondary Data: .................................................................................................... 53 2.5 Methods of Data Analysis Techniques: ............................................................................................. 53 2.6 Time Frame: ...................................................................................................................................... 53 2.7 Study Area Profile: ............................................................................................................................ 53WILLINGNESS PROFILE ....................................................................................................... 54 3.1 Products and Services for which willingness has to be found: ......................................................... 54 3.2 Demands for Products and Services: ................................................................................................ 55 3.3 Description of Services:..................................................................................................................... 554 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 67 4.1 Major findings of the Study: ............................................................................................................. 67School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 8
  9. 9. 5 Suggestions: .............................................................................................................................. 68We suggest the following services for feasibility check: .......................................................... 68PART 4: RURAL ACTION COMPONENT1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 742 Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 743 Methodology: ............................................................................................................................ 744 Activity Profile: ........................................................................................................................ 755 RAC Place: ............................................................................................................................... 756 The Process: .............................................................................................................................. 767 Outcomes and Impact: ............................................................................................................ 768 Key Success Factor: ................................................................................................................. 779 Lessons Learnt: ........................................................................................................................ 7710 Overall observations as a grassroots change agent ............................................................. 77 10.1 Challenges Ahead:........................................................................................................................... 77 10.2 Suggestions to the above challenges: ............................................................................................. 78Case Study ................................................................................................................................... 79PART 5: NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEMEINTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 832 Objective of NSS: ..................................................................................................................... 833 Activity Profile: ........................................................................................................................ 84Skit: Advantages of doing Enterprise and Entrepreneurship ................................................ 89School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 9
  10. 10. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONAdivasi: TribalGond tribe: A Caste of TribalBaiga tribe: A caste of TribalKarma: A flok dance of Gond and Baiga TribalHareli: A Tribal festivalMadayi Mela: A Seasonal Local Fair.Paddy: An Agriculture ProduceKodu: An Agriculture ProduceKutki: An Agriculture ProduceJagni: An Agriculture ProduceMassor: An Agriculture ProduceAlsi: An Agriculture ProduceMahua: NTFPsAmla: NTFPsTendu Patta: NTFPsGalla: Agriculture ProduceUJAS: Udyam Jagran SanthanVLSCs: Village Level Service CenterCLSCs: Cluster Level Service CenterFGDs: Focus Group DiscussionPRA: Participatory Rural AppraisalNTFPs: Non Timber Forest ProduceSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 10
  11. 11. INTRODUCTIONAs part of the field work module of Village Study Segment course, we conducted survey ofvillage Samaiya in Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. We were assigned a host organization, anon government organization named UDYOGINI working in the Mandla district of MadhyaPradesh. We had the opportunity to closely observe the various forms of interventions andinteractions taking place within the village and understand the impact of such interventions onthe lives of the people of the village.2 OBJECTIVES:The main objective of village study segment is:  To get insight into the socio-economic and cultural realities of rural life.  To understand the dynamics of various village level institution in addressing the developmental work  To understand the status of women; their contribution and the role played by them in developing rural entrepreneurship  To understand the dynamics of social structure, infrastructure, resources, and various intervention on the villagers and how it effects them  To blend class room learning with the field experienceSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 11
  12. 12. 3 METHODOLOGY:The data collected are on demography, social structure, infrastructure facilities, agro-climaticresources, village economy, village organizations and people’s institutions and the issues ofdevelopment. Both Quantitative and Qualitative data were collected. The quantitative data wereon population, land holding, literacy rate. The qualitative data were quality of drinking water,quality of the road, housing pattern, sanitation, food habit which were obtained from the villageafter the interaction with the villagers and with use of tools like PRAs, Focused Groupdiscussion, informal meetings.3.1 SOURCE OF DATA:The required data were collected from both primary source and secondary source.The primary data were collected from direct interaction with villagers during household surveys(through questionnaire given by college), PRA exercise, focused group discussions, informalinterviews, SHGs meeting, non- participatory observation and other village meetings.The secondary data were collected from Gram Panchayat Office, veterinary hospital, RevenueOffice, Patwari, Anganwadi, Primary School, Sarpanch and Internet.3.2 SAMPLE DESIGN:For questionnaire survey systematic random sampling was done. 32 households were selectedrandomly; efforts were made to collect different information regarding social and economicalstatus of the villagers from all caste, and economic group.3.3 DATA ANALYSIS:Statistical tools like tables, graphs, bar charts, averages, percentages etc. were used to analyzethe data collected on various things like, caste, sex ratio, different occupations, livestock, assets,land holding pattern, literacy level, and different infrastructure like road, electrification etc3.4 LIMITATIONS OF DATA COLLECTION:a). People hesitate to tell about the details regarding income and assets.b). Most of the people are working under MNREGA therefore they are available only in theevening.c). People are not clear about the present value of their asset.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 12
  13. 13. 4 GEOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE4.1 Location:Samaiya village is located in Niwas block of Mandla district in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Itcomes under Singhpur Panchayat. It is located 7 km from Niwas, 60 km from Mandla town and65 km from Jabalpur. The village is divided into four hamlets, It is situated on upland, and hasan area of about 400 acre out of which 200 acre is under forest.Table 1: Location of the VillageVillage SamaiyaBlock NiwasDistrict MandlaState Madhya PradeshBoundaries East Singhpur West Khudri North Pipariya South DevdungariParliamentary Constituency NiwasSource: Transect walk, Panchayat Office4.2 History of the Village:Time 2: Line of the VillageYear Description1950 Village Established1955 First Bicycle1976 First Open Well1979 Establishment of Primary School1986 First Boy to pass high school(10th)1990 First Hand pump1990 Electrification1991 First Girl to pass high school(10th)1995 First Television1996 Establishment of Anganwadi1996 Construction of Durga Manch2005 Village included in MPRLP2006 Starting of NREGA work2006 First Tractor2006 Ladali Yojana2007 Samuhik Vivah Yojana2007 First motorbike2008 Metal Road2009 Construction of TempleSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 13
  14. 14. 2009 Formation of SHG2010 First Mobile phoneSource: Informal meetings, Focused group discussion with villagers4.3 Demography of Village:Total population of the village is 613; out of which total numbers of male is 324 and totalnumber of female is 289. The sex ratio of the village is 892 female per 1000 males. The totalnumber of children is 206 out of which number of boys and girls (between 0-18) is 115 and 91respectively. The population belonging to the age group of 18 and above constitutes 66 % of thetotal population, 9% per cent belong to the age group of 0-6 years and 25% per cent belong to theage group 7-18.Table 3: Households and Population dynamics of SamaiyaCaste-wise distribution Total No. of Total No. of No. of No. of Total households BPL Males Females PopulationST SC OBC households 112 12 4 128 35 324 289 613Source: Survey done by MPRLP in 20094.4 Literacy Level:The literacy level of the village is 58%, out of this 72% males of the village are literate whereasjust 43% females of the village are literate. Adult male literacy rate is found to be 69% and adultfemale literacy rate is 33%. Also 75% and 59% of the boy’s and girl’s respectively in the agegroup of 0-18 are literate. This increase in literacy level of girl’s indicates that the villagers arenow concerned about the girl’s education also this increase is mainly due to the programslaunched by government.4.5 Social Structure:The village has a homogenous population of Hindu. The social group composition of villageSamaiya is divided amongst the Schedule Tribes (ST), Schedule Castes (SC) and OtherBackward Caste (OBC). Hierarchy based class structure is not very visible 88% of thehouseholds i.e. 112 belong to schedule tribe, 9% i.e. 12 belongs to schedule caste and rest 3% i.e.4 is of backward class.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 14
  15. 15. 4.6 Institutions:Various formal and Informal institutions in and around the village Samaiya are as follows:Table 4: formal and informal institutions From To Institutions Distance Samaiya Jabalpur Railway Station 70 KM Samaiya Mandla District Headquarter 60 KM Samaiya Niwas Tehsil 7 KM Samaiya Niwas Janpath 7 KM Samaiya Niwas Primary Health Centre 7 KM Samaiya Niwas Veterinary Hospital 7 KM Samaiya Niwas Police Station 7 KM Samaiya Niwas State Bank of India 7 KM Samaiya Pipariya Market 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya Cooperative Bank 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya Cattle market 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya High School 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya Middle School 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya Bus Stand 2 KM Samaiya Singhpur PDS ½ KM Samaiya Singhpur Gram Panchayat ½ KM Samaiya Inside Village Anganwadi centre 0 KM Samaiya Inside Village Primary School 0 KM Samaiya Inside Village Temple 0 KMSource: PRA4.7 Gender ClockTable 5 Gender ClockTime Activities of female Time Activities of male4:00-5:00 am Get up 4:00-5:00 am Get up5:00-6:00 am Go for Toilet, Bringing 5:00-6:00 am Go for Toilet, brush water, Cleaning house, teeth and go to field Cleaning utensils, for inspection6:00 – 8:00 am preparing tea, Bathing, 6:00-8:00 am Having tea, Take cooking animal for grazing8:00-9:00 am Serving food, send 8:00-9:00 am Take bath, breakfast children to school, take and go to work/field breakfast go to field/forest/labor work9:00-12:00 pm field/forest/labor work/ 9:00-12:00 pm field/forest/labor work household choresSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 15
  16. 16. 12:00-1:00 pm Come back from 12:00-1:00 pm Come back from field/work, Take Lunch field/work, Take and go back to field/labor Lunch and go back to work. field/labor work.1:00-5:00 pm Work/field 1:00-5:00 pm Work/field5:00-6:00 pm Bringing water, cleaning 5:00-6:00 pm Come back from the utensils field, go to bring livestock from field7:00-8:00 pm Cooking 7.00 - 8:00 pm Get fresh, take tea, gather to chat with friends/neighbors8:00-9:00 pm Dinner 8:00 -9:00 pm Dinner9:00-5:00 am Sleep 9:00-5:00 am SleepSource: Focused Group Discussion5 Weather and Seasonality5.1 WeatherThe Mandla district receive average rainfall of 1580 mm. 70-80% of annual rainfall is receivedsouthwest monsoon period i.e. June-September. The agriculture in the village is rain fed. Theclimate is hot and humid during summer and cold during winter.5.2 TemperatureThe climate is hot and humid during summer and cold during winter. The mercury rises sharplyin the summer and touches about 44-45 degree Celsius in the summer and dips as far as 1-2degree Celsius in the winter. The climate of the village is characterized by an oppressively hotsummer with high humidity. Summer generally commences in the month of March.Seasonality:5.3 Seasonality of Cropping Pattern:Table 6: Major NTFPSl. No. Name of Product Time of Flowering Time of Harvesting1 Maua Chait (March-April) Baisakh (April-May)2 Tend leaf Fagun (February-March)Source: PRASchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 16
  17. 17. Table 7: Major cropsSl. Season Name of Crop Time of Sowing Time of HarvestingNo.1 Paddy Ashadh (June-July) Mid Kartik (October)2 Maize Ashadh (June-July) Kuwar (September-Oct.)3 Kutki Sawan (July-August) Aghan (December-Jan.)4 Kharif Kodo Mid ashadh (June) Aghan (December-Jan.)5 Ramtilla Sawan (July-August) Aghan (December-Jan.)6 Arhar Ashadh (June-July) Magh (January-Feb.)7 Wheat Mid Kartik (October) Mid Baisakh (April-May)8 Rabi Rai Aashin (September-Oct.) Aghan (December-Jan.)9 Batra Kartik (October-Nov.) Fagun (February-March)10 Masoor Kartik (October-Nov.) Fagun (February-March)Source: PRA5.4 Seasonality of Food Availability:Although more than 90% of the villagers are engaged in agriculture but due to low fertility of thesoil and lack of irrigation facility production is not up to the mark. Scarcity of food is commonduring June, July, and August.5.5 Seasonality of Diseases:Table 7: Seasonality of DiseaseTypes of Jan Feb Marc Apri May June Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov DecDisease h l yCold/Cough *** *** ** * * * * * * * *** ***Headache * * ** *** *** ** *** *** * * * *Diarrhea * * *** *** *** ** *** *** * * * *Malaria * * * * * ** ** ** * * * *Sun Stroke * * * *** *** *** * * * * * **, **, *** indicate rare occurrence, often observed and severely occurred respectively.Source: PRASchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 17
  18. 18. 5.6 Period of happiness and sorrow:Table 8: Happiness and Sorrow Indicator Season Reason Magh (January-Feb) Greenery Good climate Sorrow Jeth (May-June) Very hot, Sum stroke, malaria Sorrow Ashadh (June-July) No work no money Sawan (July-August) Average Fagun (February-March) Availability of food Baisakh (April-May)Source: PRA5.7 Seasonality of Migration:Migration is very common in the village and it is mainly cyclic migration. Migration is mainlydue to push factor, the primary reason for migration is lack of employment opportunities in thevillage. Other reasons are lack of food availability need for money etc. People mostly migrate tothe nearby city like Jabalpur. Most of them engage in labor work and very few people work asagricultural labor Migration is common in the Migration Detailsmonth of January, February, July and August as Migrated 72%there is no work available in the village and For Job 100%during this time no cropping is done. On an City 74%average a person migrate for 36 days, 48% Town 26%people live in tent in the city where they migrate Avg. no. of days for migration 36 daysand just 30% people live in pucca house during Avg. earning/month 1878migration and 22% people lives in kuchha house Residence (pucca) 30%at the destination place. . Residence (kuchha) 22%Source: FGD, Survey Residence (Tent) 48%School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 18
  19. 19. 5.7.1 Force field analysis of Migration: INHIBITING FORCE INDUCING FORCE 1. Emotional attachment to the Village 1. Unemployment. 2. High cost of living 2. Food shortage 3. Excess work during Migration 3. Debt 4. Lack of proper housing facility 4. Landlessness 5. Low quality food 5. Low agriculture production 6. Illness or death 6. DraughtSource: focused group discussion6 Natural Resources6.1 Land:According to the villagers the fertility of soil is not good because of which yield per hectare isvery less. The village is situated on uplands or mid up land where texture of soil is loamyMurom with or without clay. Depth of soil is also shallow to moderate. Fertility is moderate;the soil is black, red or rocky in texture. The land use pattern in village is as follows:School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 19
  20. 20. Table 9: Land Holding Pattern Land use Area in hectareCultivable land 185 acreFallow Land 15 acreForest Land 200 acreTotal geographical area 400 acreSource: Patwari of the village6.2 Water:The Village has six hand pumps for the drinking water of which one is not functioning now.Village has good drinking water facility as these pumps provide hygienic water. There are fewhouseholds which are little far away from the hand pump and well therefore they face a lot ofproblem for drinking water. There are also few households who use River water for drinkingpurpose and the water is not suitable for drinking purpose. Villages have 11 open wells of which4 are public and rest is of private ownership. The village has a pond of approximately 0.5 acrefor drinking water for their livestock. The water in two of the open well is present throughout theyear and is used by most of the villagers. One of these well is used for drinking purpose whileother is used for bathing purpose. There is also a small River Balai flowing south of the villagewhich is used for drinking and bathing for the nearby households.6.3 Forestry:As village is situated on upland, it is surrounded by forest. Though a large part of forest isdepleted due to excessive use of resources but it still provides a lot of tangible and intangiblebenefits to the villagers. Villagers gets not only fuel wood but also a number of non timber forestproduce like Maua and Tend patta which adds to their source of livelihood. The forest hasmainly tress of sagon, mahua, palash, Tend and other trees which are used as fuel. Forest doesn’thave any animal species except wild pig, fox, monkey, rabbit and some varieties of birds likepeacock.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 20
  21. 21. 7 INFRASTRUCTURE7.1 Roads:The village is connected through a concrete Road, near the village there is PCC which is of 1kmin stretch. Inside the village road are both Kuchha and Pucca. The sample survey shows that 59%of the households say that the road is dilapidated, 22% of the road is of poor quality, 16% of theroad is average and just 3% of the sample says that the road is of good quality.7.2 Electricity:The village was electrified in 1990; most of the households are electrified. Electricity is availableapproximately 12 hours with two interruptions in a day. The sample survey shows that 80% ofthe households are electrified. There are 4 mohallas in the village out of which three areelectrified. The village receives electricity for 12 hours every day with two breaks in a day.7.3 Drainage:Drainage is a problem in the village because there is lack of drainage line on both side of roads,even road is Kaccha on some places. That is why water stagnation is a serious problem in thevillage, especially in rainy season in this particular season stagnant water invites monsoondiseases like malaria and diarrhea.7.4 Communication:There is no land line phone available in this village. Mobile phone network was available 1kmaway from village till 2009. The proper use of mobile phone started in 2010. The village hasnetwork connectivity of BSNL, Reliance CDMA & GSM7.5 Social infrastructure7.5.1 Educational infrastructureThere is one Primary school in the village, Middle school is situated in the neighboring villageSinghpur which is just half km from the village, and High school is situated at Pipariya which istwo km from the village. The strength of the school is 67 including 39 boys and 28 girls andthree teachers to teach them. The school has been provided with midday meal facilities for thechildren under Sarvashiksha Abhiyan. There is no toilet facility for students in the school.During our village stay and teaching in the Primary School we noticed that in spite of goodfacilities provided the learning of the children is very poor. The students of 5th std. are not able toSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 21
  22. 22. read properly nor are they good at solving simple mathematical problems. Students of differentclasses’ seat together, teachers are inefficient in teaching and are not able to bring disciplineamong students and nor are they willing to do so.7.5.2 Anganwadi:The Anganwadi is established in 1996 in the village but till now it’s not having its own building;its building is under construction and is expected to become functional by next one month.Anganwadi worker and Asha are in village itself and are working efficiently. They provideservices like Supplementary nutrition, Non-formal pre-school education, Immunization, HealthCheck-up, Referral services, Nutrition and Health Education.7.5.3 Infrastructure Related to HealthThere is no health facility available in the village. The Primary Health Centre is located 7 kmfrom the village. According to the villagers the PHC is running well, the number of Doctors isadequate and all the health facilities are in good condition. General fever, Malaria, Diarrhea, arecommon in the village. There is an Asha worker in the village that provides vaccination to thechildren and also informs people about different diseases.From the household survey we found that 41.5 percent of the respondent feels the PHC isrunning well while 39 percent feel there are not sufficient doctors while 14 percent are not happywith the competence of doctor. 4.5% people feel PHC is lacking in basic facilities.7.5.4 Defecation91% of the houses in the village practice open defecation while the rest have toilet facilities.Households having toilet facility also prefer to go in the open for defecation; toilets are mostlyused by small children’s.7.5.5 Infrastructure Related to the Drinking waterThe village has 6 Hand pumps for drinking water facility out of which one is not functioning.There are 11 open well out of which 4 are for use others are of private. Most of the householdsuse water from an open well for drinking purpose, very few people use water from hand pump asthe water is not suitable for drinking purpose. Few households use water from river for drinkingpurpose but the water is not hygienic. Few house hold complained about the distant location ofthe hand pump.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 22
  23. 23. 7.5.6 Cultural placeThere are 2 temples in which the villagers offer their prayers.7.5.7 Micro Enterprise:Out of 128 households only five households have small shop which keeps some basic need itemslike, Matchbox, Bidi, Candies, Snacks, Soap, detergent, cosmetics, biscuit, gutkha etc. There arethree women SHGs which are involved in handicraft work and a men SHG involved in fishingactivity.7.5.8 Community hallThere is a community hall present in the village and is presently being used as Durga Manch.8 Local Economy8.1 Income SourceAccording to the house hold survey the average annual income of the family is Rs 31300,average annual expenditure is Rs 21100 and average annual savings is Rs 12000.These savings isused for the creating assets and some part of it is saved to cope with future crises.8.2 LivelihoodThe livelihood of villagers is multidimensional; people are engaged in a number of activities.Villagers try to do maximum work to meet the family needs. Most of the people in the villagehave agriculture as the primary source of income, apart from this they also do work as wagelaborers in government schemes or private works. If they do not have work in village theymigrate to nearby city to earn some livelihood. Since the village is surrounded by forest theygather Maua and Tend patta from there and either sell it in the market to get some money or keepsome for their own consumption. Few women’s are engaged in handicraft activity from last oneyear and few men also do fishing for their livelihood.Figure 1: Economic Activities 8% 4% 7% Agricultural 41% 13% wage labour salaried job Migration 27% Business forest ProduceSource: Household SurveySchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 23
  24. 24. 8.3 Primary and Secondary Occupation of the Village Figure 2: Primary Occupation Figure 3 Secondary Occupation Non Agri-laborer 19% Farmer Cultivator 6% 3% 3% 3% Salaried Job 81% Farmer/Cultivator No secondary 72% Occupation 13% Homemaker Non Agri-laborer (housewife) Agri-laborerSource: Household SurveyFrom the household survey we found that 26 of 32 households were engaged in agriculture asprimary occupation and only 6 households were engaged in other activity.Apart from agriculture people are engaged in Activities like non-agriculture laborer, farmcultivator, Services, agriculture laborer, home maker etc as secondary occupation. 72% Peopleare engaged in non agriculture- laborer as secondary occupation. 13% are engaged as farmcultivator. From the household survey we found that 56% of the earning members are male and44% earning members are female. The wage rate in the village is Rs 100 for both male andfemale working under MNREGA; whereas for village work, wage rate is Rs 60.8.4 Land holding pattern:The land holding pattern of Samaiya village is pointed out in the pie chart. There are 9% peoplewho do not have land; they are dependent on wage labor as well as migration for livelihood. 22%has below three acre land and they are engaged both in agriculture as well as non-agriculture jobto sustain their livelihood. 22% have between 3-5 acre land and they used the land in propermanner for cultivation because the land is limited and most of the household members areengaged in agriculture. 31% households have land between 5-10 acre and above 10 acre landholder are 16%.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 24
  25. 25. Figure 4 Land Distribution 16% 9% Landless 22% Below 3 Acre Between 3 to 5 31% Between 5 to 10 22% Above 10 AcrSource: Patwari of the Village8.5 AgricultureMost of the people are dependent on agriculture; the agriculture practice is mainly primitive innature and labor intensive. Agriculture is mainly rain fed due to non availability of water forirrigation purpose. It is found that the soil is blackish to red loamy and even rocky at someplaces. Though some of the farmers use urea along with cow dung as fertilizers; however,application of cow dung is found to be prevalent in the village. Most of the crops produced areconsumed only a small part of it is sold in the local market. On an average a household earns Rs13000 per year from agriculture. Table 10: Yield per Hectare Product Name Yield Rice 16.5 quintal/hectare Wheat 29 quintal/hectare Maize 12 quintal/hectare Rai 14 quintal/hectare Batra 18 quintal/hectare Masoor 7 quintal/hectare Arhar 6.5 quintal/hectare Ramtilla 6 quintal/hectare Kodo 5 quintal/ hectare Kutki 5 quintal/hectare Chana 13 quintal/hectare Alsi 7.5 quintal/hectare Urad 5 quintal/hectareSource: FGDSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 25
  26. 26. 8.6 SERVICE HOLDERSThere are ten service holders in the village out of which 8 are envolved in government serviceand two are involved in private service. From household survey we found that on an average aservice holder earns Rs 2000 per month.8.6.1 Government Service:  Kotwar of village  Asha worker  Anganwadi worker  Peon ( Education Department)  Peon (Irrigation Department)  Teacher ( High School)  Stenographer (Irrigation Department)  SAF ( MP Police)8.6.2 Private Service:  Program Assistant  Health Worker8.7 Market LinkageThe nearest market available for the villagers is at Pipariya which is 2 km from the village. Themarket is held weekly i.e. on Saturday. Every household of the village go to this market forpurchasing goods for the whole week. The market is very huge containing almost all productsrequired by the villagers ranging from fruits, vegetables, clothes, makeup products, soaps &detergents, sweets, all type of galla items etc. Many villagers also sell their products in themarket. Villagers usually go to the market by walking with their family.A major product which come in and goes out from the village are annexed at the end.8.8 Expenditure PatternFrom the household survey we found that 64% of the income is spend on food, on an average ahousehold spends Rs 1100 per month of food consumption.7% i.e. approx. Rs 1400 p.a. is spendon clothing, 5% i.e. approx. Rs 1100 p.a. is spend on health care, 5% i.e. Rs 1000 p.a. is spendon toiletries. Rest others constitute 20% of the total expenditure.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 26
  27. 27. Figure 5: Average Expenditure 1% 4% 2% Food Consumption 10% 1% Clothing 11% Health Care 64% Electricity & Travelling 7% Housing Education Social Function Agri. Related Exp.Source: Survey9 Consumption9.1 ProductsThere is no processing unit in the village. So people sell their raw material and grain stock in thenearby market Main products of the village are the agricultural and forest produce. Theproduction of agricultural produce is just sufficient for the villagers, though they sell someproduce like Rai, Kodo, Kutaki, Jagni, Wheat, Arhar, Masoor, Batra etc. in the local and weeklymarket of Pipariya. Apart from this they also sell NTFP like Mahua and Tend leaf to thesemarkets.9.2 Food availabilityAccording to the household survey most of the households are deficit in food availability. In caseof cereals 41% of the households have sufficient production and just 3% have surplusproduction. In case of pulse 34% households have sufficient production; in case of oil 22% havesufficient production. The village has very less production of vegetables, fruits and cash crops.Figure 6: Food Availability 100% 80% Surplus 60% Deficit 40% 20% Sufficient for Family 0% Cereals Pulse Oil/Ghee Vegetable Fruit Cash CropSource: SurveySchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 27
  28. 28. 9.3 Housing Pattern:The village is divided in to 4 small hamlets’. The houses in the village are scattered, most of thehouses are located alongside the road of the village. Two houses of the village are Pucca houses,except that all the houses in the village are thatched house made from brick, mud, stone, logs etc.The walls are plastered with mud and colors are applied on them, roofs are made up of logs withon them. All the houses in the village are painted either with white, sky blue or in combination ofboth. Villagers keep their houses very clean by coating the floor regularly with cow dung ormud.Houses lack windows for ventilation. The housing area including the kitchen garden varies from20×40-60×40. In most of the household average number of the room are 3 except in fewhousehold which are having 2 rooms. The houses are more in width than in length. In almost allhouse hold the animal living is situated just after the entrance.9.4 BanksThere are two banks located near the village, one is the Co-operative Bank which is located 2 kmfrom the village and another one is the State Bank of India which is located 7 km from thevillage. Very few villagers have account in the Co-operative bank; most of the people haveaccount in the State Bank. The reason is the villagers receive their payment for working underNREGS from State Bank Only. Before this scheme came very few villagers had a bank accountbut after the starting of this scheme as well as a number of SHGs, most of the people are accountholder.9.5 Credit9.5.1 Trader/ Money Lenders:This is the major source of the informal credit for the villagers, may it be for daily expenditure,social function, medical expenses purchasing cattle’s or crop loan. The interest rate varies from60-80% p.a. depending upon the emergency of credit.9.5.2 Friends and Acquaintances:This is source of informal credit system for the villagers. Borrowing of money and grains mostlytake place. In case of cash borrowings it is repaid by working as a wage labor where as the grainsare returned back after harvesting.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 28
  29. 29. 9.5.3 Banks:Very few people take loan from the bank primary reason is the process of taking loan is verycomplicated in banks. Also taking loan from bank requires a lot of paper work and people haveto deposit their documents where as it is much easier to take money from money lenders aspeople can get money very quickly.9.6 SHGs:Village has 6 SHGs formed by three different NGOs working in this village. An NGO namingAjeevika funded by MPRLP has formed 4 SHGs, Udyogini has formed 1 SHG and FES hasformed 1 SHG respectively.1. Ajeevika is working very efficiently in this village; they have launched a number of poverty elevation schemes in the village. It is working on the basis of three tier systems, first they are working on group basis by forming SHGs, second on individual basis by providing fund for business and third they are creating assets which can be used by all the villagers2. Udyogini: It formed its first WEG in 2008 but this group broke up. Currently it has formed a new group which is just 3 months old. This group is new and is involved in saving; each member of the group saves Rs 50 every month.3. Foundation for Ecological Security: It is working in this village since 2009 and has formed one SHG.10 Village Level Committee:There are 5 village level committee, they are as follows: 1. Gram Vikas Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005 with an objective to works for the development of the village and looks into new opportunities for development. 2. Van Suraksha Samiti: it is the oldest committee formed in this village. It was formed in 1995 with the aim of protecting the forest and its resources. But now this committee is not working properly. 3. Prashfutan Samiti: This committee was formed in 2008. This committee provides utensils, tent and other related goods at the time of marriage or any other social functions.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 29
  30. 30. 4. Nigarani Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005.the main objective of this committee is to look after various constructions and development work in the village. 5. Gram Kosh Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005. It works for any type of disaster management in the village. This committee is funded by Ajeevika which is a Madhya Pradesh Government Project. Its main objective is to provide financial support in case of Snake bite, delivery of child, sudden death in a poor family etc.11 Political and Governance System11.1 Political system:There is no political party in the village, but there are some people using the political and socialinfluence to enhance the household income.11.2 Panchayati Raj Institutions:Panchayat office is located in the village Singhpur which is half km from the village. Mr. MunnaSingh Paraste is the Sarpanch of the Panchayat and he lives in the village Samaiya. Mr. LamanSingh Warkare is the Up Sarpanch of the Panchayat. Village Panchayat take good care of thevillager’s day-to-day problems and the problems are sorted out in monthly Gram Sabha. Almostall eligible voters participate in the Panchayat elections.11.3 Gram Sabha:Gram Sabha is a special type of meeting conducted in the village. Its main aim is to identify andsolve the problems related to village development plans. All the villagers attend these meetingssince they deal with the major problems of the village. Earlier Gram Sabha used to be held on 6thof every month but now there is no fixed date as such, but it is held every month.12 Government Schemes:  Poverty Alleviation Program: National Rural Employment Gurantee Act (NAREGA) is running in the village. Currently it is working on water availability by digging wells throughout the Panchayat also work on “Merdh bandh” is to be done after completion of wells.  Ladali Yojana: Under this scheme girl child would be given Rs 2 lakh when they complete 18 yr of age.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 30
  31. 31.  Samuhik Vivah: Under this scheme girl will be given jewelry, cloth and Rs 10,000 at the time of marriage.  Antyodaya Yojana: It is distributing food grains, kerosene and sugar under Public Distribution System (PDS) to the villagers.Source: Revenue Department13 STATUS OF WOMENTable 11: Gender AnalysisWomen’s participation Women do not participate in local politics. Women’s vote is controlledin Politics by men and Political parties do not see women as vote bank.Agriculture Work is divided between both men and women. Women do the work of removing weeds from the field and harvesting of the crops. Men do the work of plough and sowing of seeds.Land Both men and women have equal ownership over their ancestors land, both gets equal amount of land.Labor Both men and women receives equal wage for labor workMarriage Girl is not forced for marriage by their parents. Girl is free to select the person of her choice but inter caste marriage is not permitted.Education Due to the government scheme of free education, girls are given all the facilities like bicycle, books, stationary items, dress etc therefore most of the girls go to school.Family Planning Women have equal right to decide the number of children she could have.Dowry Dowry is common in the village. Girls Parent’s have to give some dowry in cash or kind to the boy’s family. Only after settlement of dowry, wedding takes placeDecision making Males are the decision maker in the family; women have a small role in decision making.Control over finance Head of the family have the control over finance, most often males are the head of the familySource: FGDSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 31
  32. 32. 14 PLANS OF THE VILLAGE14.1 Short Term Plans:  Providing water for both drinking and an irrigation facility for this it is digging 15 wells throughout the Panchayat. 13.2 Long Term Plans:14.2 Long term plans:  Work on “merh bandh” i.e. boundary along the fields would be done throughout the village.  Electrification of one part of the village i.e. a mohalla which is not yet electrified have to be electrified  Construction of roads in the remaining part of the village which is kuchha.15 SWOT Analysis: STRENGTH WEAKNESS Land Lack of Water and irrigation equipments Forest Illiteracy Jute Low wage payment Handicraft, Brick making skill Low saving habit Social capital Nuclear family Demand for Agriculture/NTFP Natural calamities Presence of Piparia Market Job insecurity Road connectivity Low repayment habit Weekly haat NGO intervention Government Schemes OPPORTUNITIES THREATSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 32
  33. 33. 16 Relationships with Other CommunitiesAs life in the village is interwoven the villagers have harmonious relationship with nearbyvillages. The village lack many basic facilities and therefore people have to visit these villagesfor their day today requirement. They to go to Pipariya to buy Kirana items, weekly haat is alsolocated in Piapriya, Flour mill is also located in Pipariya, middle school is located in Singhpur,Panchayat is also situated in Singhpur etc.17 CONCLUSIONS:The village study enabled me in studying the various aspects of the village life. We came toknow various things knowing which perhaps were not possible without staying in the villageamong the rural population. My stay helped me to understand the lives of the villager, their needand various dynamics relating to it. The Firsthand experience is how they sustain theirlivelihood, which kind of difficulties they face for livelihood and other expenses of household.And we also saw the various development plans running in the village and impact of it helpedme to sharpen my understanding of these plans and ground realities associated with them. It’seasy to stay outside the village and suggests various means for the development of village but thereal picture is quite different in the village. The village do have its bright color which is absent inurban areas, even in many developed cities of the country. The facts like equality betweendifferent caste, female position in the house, unity among villagers etc are among some of thepositive aspects of the village. Still there is sufficient scope of improvements in the villagerelated to the providing of livelihood opportunity to the villagers. We can say that providingsubsidies will not help but what the villagers actually needed is the information and knowledgeabout their products, their value and their demand in the outside market, so that they could getappropriate return for their hard work. And the second hand experience is how they cope up withthe expenditure when there have no job and suddenly natural disaster happened on the villagelike Pala and other disasters.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 33
  34. 34. PRA techniques used:1). Social Mapping and Resource Mapping:School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 34
  35. 35. 2) Chapatti Diagram:3) Seasonal Calendar:School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 35
  36. 36. AppendicesAnnexure- 1: Caste wise Population Distribution (Source: PRA) Caste Wise PopulationSl. No. Surname Caste No. of Household 1 Marawi ST 9 2 Amro ST 6 3 Paraste ST 43 4 Kulaste ST 7 5 Uike ST 9 6 Oiyam ST 25 7 Saiyam ST 2 8 Sakhde ST 1 9 Masram ST 3 10 Warkare ST 2 11 Pandram ST 2 12 Udaste ST 3 13 Vishwakarma OBC 1 14 Yadav OBC 3 15 Sarthi SC 12 Total 128School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 36
  37. 37. Annexure-2Inflow of products Products/services used LocalSl. No. but not produced Annual Consumption in the area Production Quantity Price/Unit Total Value 1 Chocolate 48000 0.5 24000 No 2 Body Soap 1700 10 17000 No 3 Washing Soap 1700 5 8500 No 4 Washing Powder 1700 5 8500 No 5 Face Cream 2400 5 12000 No 6 Gotha 48000 1 48000 No 7 Vegetable Oil 2500 60 150000 No 8 Dry Coconut 1000 5 5000 No 9 Finger chips 24000 1 24000 No 10 Sugar 1000 35 35000 No 11 Tea 6000 1 6000 No 12 Agarbatti 500 5 2500 No 13 Shampoo 2000 1 2000 No 14 Tooth paste 2500 10 25000 No 15 Biscuit 1500 5 75000 No 16 Hair Oil 2000 1 2000 No Total Inflow 444500Source: Informal interviewAnnexure-3Outflow of Products:Sl. No. Products quantity price/unit total value demanded in 1 Wheat 3000 kg Rs 11/kg Rs 33000 Pipariya 2 Rai 20000 kg Rs 13/kg Rs 260000 Pipariya 3 Ramtilla 6000 kg Rs 22/kg Rs 132000 Pipariya 4 Kodo 2500 kg Rs 7/kg Rs 17500 Pipariya 5 Kutki 2500 kg Rs 8/kg Rs 20000 Pipariya 6 Maize 2500 kg Rs 7/kg Rs 17500 Pipariya 7 Arhar 2500 kg Rs 22/kg Rs 55000 Pipariya 8 Batra 2000 kg Rs 60/kg Rs 120000 Pipariya 9 Masoor 1000kg Rs 12/kg Rs 12000 Pipariya 10 Maua 20000 kg Rs 15/kg Rs 300000 Pipariya 200000 11 Tendu patta piece Rs 0.4/piece Rs 8000 Pipariya 12 Handicraft Rs 50000 Jabalpur Annual Sell of products Rs 102500Source: SurveySchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 37
  38. 38. Annexure: 4Literacy rate 75 Male Female 41 34 29 19 10 Total Between 6-18 Above 18Source: Household SurveyAnnexure: 5Health Issues knowledge 84% 84% 88% 60% 66% 63% 22%Source: Household SurveyAnnexure: 6Source of knowledge about Health OTHERS RADIO T.V 1% 8% 6% HEALTH WORKER 85%Source: Household SurveySchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 38
  39. 39. Annexure: 7Drinking Water Facility 9% 13% 78% Pond/tank/River Tubewell OpenwellSource: Household SurveyAnnexure: 8Quality of Road 3% good average poor dilapidated 22% 16% 59%Source: Household SurveyAnnexure: 9Livestock Distribution Type of Animal Number of Animal Number of family Cow 32 21 Bullock 64 27 Buffalo 2 2 Calf 16 11 Goat/Sheep 21 5 Poultry 22 10Source: Household SurveySchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 39
  40. 40. ORGANIZATION PROFILESchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 40
  41. 41. 1 Organization OverviewUdyogini which means “women entrepreneur” came into existence in 1992 as a World Bankinitiative to pilot a program to develop a curriculum, methodology and service provider for microenterprise management services, principally training for poor, asset less and mainly illiteratewomen in the backward states of India.Udyogini was set up to co-ordinate and facilitate management training for grassroots womensgroups for the World Bank Institute-funded Womens Enterprise Management Training OutreachProgram (WEMTOP). This was a three-year participatory action learning project aimed atstrengthening the capacity of intermediary NGOs to deliver management training to poor womenmicro entrepreneurs in 1992. The training program consisted of Grassroots ManagementTraining (GMT) carried out for women producers and the Training of Enterprise Support Teams(TEST) for the trainers of GMT. The trainings were carried out through NGOs who wereresponsible for group formation and bringing together the women. NGO staff was trained astrainers or Enterprise Support Teams (ESTs).Udyogini from 1997 to 2001 scaled up its training services to many clients in existing andadditional states of India. It also introduced marketing services to NGOs that were working withpotential micro-entrepreneurs as well as to middle-level entrepreneurs working with womenproducers to help scale up their enterprises. In 2002, as a result of a strategic planning process,Udyogini made changes in implementing strategy, deciding to initiate programs to engagedirectly with women producers at the grassroots.By early 2010, Udyogini had a presence in 7 states of North, Central and Eastern India workingon aggregating and/or value-addition to commodities as diverse as lac, mahua, honey, bamboo,silk, other medicinal plants, maize, mustard, vegetables, and pulses and services like child-carecenter demonstrating considerable scale and breadth of experience and impact. It had alsofacilitated registration of producers institutions called UJAS in three of its locations. UJAS(Udyam Jagaran Sansthan) is now an established national brand identity for producer-ownedentities and business products.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 41
  42. 42. Most significantly, in 2010, it has taken up the challenge of microenterprise development forolder sex workers who want to move out of the profession and want to ensure that their youngdaughters develop employable skills so that they are not vulnerable to sex work.Its intervention at Mandla district, M.P began in 13 villages to support around 200 women. Theywork in three clusters namely Niwas, Babaliya and Bakori at Mandla district. By the end of2005, Udyogini worked with nearly 1200 women from 60 villages.1.1 VisionTo become a nationally and internationally recognized agency specializing in businessdevelopment services for NGOs and poor women.1.2 MissionTo provide quality and appropriate business development services for promotion of poor womenas entrepreneurs.2 Operational Areas Implementation Projects BDS Centre’s Bikaner, Udaipur (Rajasthan) Udaipur (Rajasthan)Mandla, Seoni, Raisen, Chindwada (MP) Jabalpur (M.P.)Saharanpur (U.P) Dehradun (Uttrakhand)Chamoli (Uttrakhand) Patna (Bihar)Ranchi (Jharkhand) Ranchi (Jharkhand)Kalahandi (Orissa)Nawada, Gaya (Bihar)School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 42
  43. 43. 2.1 Where it works:It is working in some of the most backward regions of India (desert and tribal districts ofRajasthan, forest areas of Madhya Pradesh, insurgency-affected districts of Jharkhand, higherreaches of the hill state of Uttarakhand, neglected areas of Bihar and AssamSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 43
  44. 44. 3 Organization Structure Board of Directors Chief Executive Officer Chief Operating Officer Business Development Service Manager Enterprise Promotion Manager Enterprise Promotion Executive Program Assistant4 Retrospective:URMUL, SURE and LUPIN in Rajasthan; NIPDIT and Samanwita in Orissa and ADITHI inBihar are few of the distinguished alumni of Udyoginis enterprise.Udyogini also has two flagship programs namely Training of Enterprise support teams (TEST)and Grassroots Management Training (GMT).School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 44
  45. 45.  TESTs are for those people who are professional and Para-professional but yet do not have much knowledge and business skills in this area. It is a residential course in which participants have to undergo an intensive training for four to five days. It covers a vast range of topics including motivation for entrepreneurship, business idea generation and marketing, risk analysis, market survey, value-chain analysis, business plan creation and linkages building with a woman focus, this is known as “Orientation TESTs”.  Udyogini also has "Advanced TESTs" which deal more intensively with particular aspects of enterprise management (such as feasibility and business planning), for those already familiar with the basics  GMT is a core activity in Udyogini’s work. This program focuses on women; they help marginalized women to become entrepreneur not just skilled producers. The topics covered under GMT are same as that of TESTs but the methodology and training aids used are quite different. Udyogini build the capacity of women by training them in fields like: assessing the feasibility of an enterprise planning and schedule production, understanding and assessing the market, production / quality management. To simplify these concepts for women, the training program includes tools like case studies and simulation exercise, role-play and group works.  There is also a program called “hybrid TESTs” which are designed for local entrepreneurs who have a certain level of education. The hybrid TESTs are customized version from TESTs and GMTs.5 Approaches:1. Gender Focused (women viewed as drivers and leaders)2. Capacity building model for women (Starts with incremental steps towards livelihood security for poverty alleviation and moves to empowerment through promotion of Micro Enterprise)3. Thrust in Inclusive Market Development4. Innovation, Learning and Change in Business Services’ content and delivery mechanismSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 45
  46. 46. 6 Operational Frameworks:1. Enterprise motivation and management awareness for grassroots women.2. Creation of grassroots business development service providers3. Enterprise promotion and incentives for producers and market players4. Ownership and scale up through systems and institution5. Expansion and outreach7 Services offered:1. Cluster identification, mobilization and development2. Conducting market related Action Research & Assessment Studies3. Conducting Feasibility Studies4. Conducting Micro-plans for villages5. Formulation of Business Plans for SMEs6. Enterprise motivation / orientation training7. Facilitation of market information, linkages & support8. Facilitation for financial including social venture capital support9. Building BDSP capacity through training, orientation & exposures10. Mentoring selected BDSPs as entrepreneurs with access to venture finance8 Major funding partners: MISEREOR NABARD Intel Corporation Government of India Ford Foundation Forest Department ICCW Government of Madhya Pradesh Reliance Life Sciences Government of Rajasthan Government of Uttarakhand European Union ICCOSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 46
  47. 47. 9 Operational Model of VLSC10 Overall Activities:1. Integrated BDS in diversified sub-sectors of Craft, Consumables, Agriculture & NTFP through its Field Projects.2. GMT (Capsule-based enterprise trainings for SHG women/Leaders).3. TEST (Training of Enterprise Support Team).4. Training Material Development.5. Market Surveys, Action Research & Impact Assessment.6. Feasibility Studies for Micro-enterprise activities.7. Business Plan Preparation.8. Product to Market Mapping / Value Chain Analysis.9. Supply Chain Development (Primary Level).10. Building Market Linkages & Trade Network.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 47
  48. 48. 11 Key Achievements: • Institutionalization of UJAS as a Producers’ Organization in all 3 implementation locations; • Has trained over 1000 NGO and government staff through TEST. • Has trained over 5000 producer women through GMTs • Establishment of local level supply chain with a growth-oriented enterprise model for various sub-sectors in all project locations; • Facilitated market linkages for various products with companies like Reliance, Safal, Fab-India, UTMT and more corporate houses; • Developed a cadre of more than 100 women producers as service providers handling & coaching other women on enterprise functions; • Chanelized a sales turnover of more than 50 lacs in 2 project locations each (M.P & Raj.) and more than 25 lacs in 1 location (U.P); • Facilitated around 3500 producers to move up the value chains with more technical operations as processors; • Build around 50% of the women to an extent to take up more technical production & market operation and unions independently.12 Future plan of organization:  To strengthen customer base by expansion and outreach to other districts like Katni, Shingroli.  To strengthen and improvise the quality of training.  To improvise the BDS by adding up more services and products in the supply chain.  To set up a franchise model for the existing and upcoming VLSCsSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 48
  49. 49. THEME PAPERAssessment of willingness to pay of the community forthe services and products identified for being offered through Village Level Service CentersSchool of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 49
  50. 50. INTRODUCTIONAs part of the Village study segment, the major objective was study of existing supply chainestablished by Udyam Jagaran Sansthan (UJAS), to check for the willingness of the communityto pay for the identified products and services in the project areas of Mandla district of MadhyaPradesh. A study in both financial and operational aspects of different opportunities was carriedout to understand the various perspectives for the initiatives undertaken by Udyogini. In order toidentify challenges for the organization in current and future context different concepts that werelearnt in the classroom were utilized. The period of the study was from the 7th of January 2010to the 29th January, 2011.1.1 Background of the study:The main endeavor in the study was to check the willingness of the products and services forTribal community people that can be incorporated into the existing supply chain of the UJAS.The organization is expanding in terms of opening up new VLSCs but the profit is not increasingin the same proportion therefore the organization is willing to find out the problems in the supplychain and launch new products and services in order to increase their profitability.The operational areas of the organization i.e. Mandla district have agriculture as their primarysource of earning and livelihood. As the geographical condition of this area is not suitable forgood production from agriculture due to lack of water and irrigation equipment, most of thefarmers have to depend on rain. There is a need to introduce some services to minimize theseproblems to some level or some extent. All the identified products will be provided by the UJASthrough its supply chain i.e. through the chain of CLSCs and VLSCs. Udyogini desires toidentify potential services according to the need and demand of the villagers, so that they canimprove their livelihood and also UJAS can improve its profit.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 50
  51. 51. 1.2 Rationale of the Project:Even though the organization is expanding in terms of number of VLSCs but the profit is notincreasing in same proportion, thus there is felt need to re-monitor the overall working of thesupply chain and identify the problems. Also there is a need of introducing new products andservices by keeping in mind the needs of the village and the villagers. Identification of products& services has already been done therefore to check the willingness of the villagers to pay for theidentified products services, the main rationale lies behind the primary occupation of thevillagers, their income & expenditure pattern and the most critical period/ month in a year. Basedon the identified list of products and services, to fulfil the needs of the villagers at their ownvillage at fair prices so that they can increase their income and decrease their expenditure.1.3 Objective of the Study:The long term goal of this project is to increase the profitability of the CLSCs, VLSCs by solvingthe identified problems in the supply chain and also to introduce new services and products in thesupply chain of UJAS. To achieve this goal the objective is to check for the willingness of thecommunity/ villagers to pay for the identified products and services.1.4 Scope:The information and the recommendations derived from this study helps to take appropriatedecisions for launching new identified products and services in the existing supply chain of theUJAS to improve the lifestyle of the villagers. The primary data collected regarding theirwillingness to pay for identified products and services and systemic knowledge generated by thiswill result in the creation of a resource for other future study.1.5 Limitations of the Study: 1) Poor and delayed transportation facility delayed the data collection. 2) As some of the villages are not operational areas of the organization, cause problems in collecting villagers for FGD and data collection. 3) As the field staff was not familiar to such kind of surveys, they took time in understanding and implementing right survey.School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 51

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