Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas kalden

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Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas kalden

  1. 1. Participatory Capacity and NeedsAnalysis in Transitional RecoveryThe Case of Central Camp-1&2, Amparai, Sri Lanka (This is a draft of the exercise held in Navithanveli DS of Ampara district during 27-29 of Oct, 2009 ) Designed and facilitated the exercise by Munas Kalden 1 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  2. 2. 1. Contact Details: Munas Kalden Programme Officer-Social Transformation, Monitoring and Reporting United Nations Development Programme - UNDP 63, Jayawardanapura , Ampara, Tel: +94 63 222 4917,22munas.kalden@undp.org ; munas.kalden@gmail.com1. Village Map 2 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  3. 3. 2. Table of Content EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................ 5 I. BACKGROUND OF THE PCNA ......................................................................................................................... 6 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................... VILLLAGE INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 7 VILLAGE SELECTION PROCESS .................................................................................................................................... 8 JUSTIFICATION FOR SELECTING THE VILLLAGE .............................................................................................. 9 COMMUNITY PROFILING ..................................................................................................................................... 9 CONFLICT SENSITIVITY CONTEXT ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... STAKEHOLDERS ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................... 12 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................................... 14 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS ……………………………………………………………………………………….…………...15 NEED ANALYSIS PROBLEM ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................................... 17 PRIORITIZED NEEDS ........................................................................................................................................... 19 PROBLEM WEB-GENDER .................................................................................................................................... 21 GENDER ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................................. 23 PROBLEM WEB-SOCIAL COHESION .................................................................................................................. 31 SOCIAL COHESION ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................... 33 PROBLEM WEB-LIVELIHOOD .............................................................................................................................. 34 PROBLEM WEB-INFRASTRUCTURE .................................................................................................................. 35 COMMUNITY PLANNING ......................................................................................................................................... GENDER................................................................................................................................................................ 36 SOCIAL COHESION.............................................................................................................................................. 37 COMMUNITY ACTION PLANNING ....................................................................................................................... 39 LESSONS LEARNT ............................................................................................................................................... 43 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION........................................................................................................... 44 ANNEX.................................................................................................................................................................45 3 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  4. 4. 1 Abbreviation CBOs-community Based Organizations DSD- Divisional Secretariat Division GN –Grama Niladari IDPs-Internally Displaced Persons LNGOs-Local Non Governmental Organizations PLA- participatory learning and action PRA-participatory rural appraisal SDO-Social Development Organization UNDP-United Nations Development Programme 4 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  5. 5. 4. Abstract/Executive Summary The humanitarian and development agencies willing to address the development needs of the people in Central Camp, must take the „connecting‟ and „dividing‟ factors of the context, in which they are going to work. NGOs and CBOs should develop a greater sensitivity to the dynamics of peace and conflict in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of their activities. This means being more mindful of both the potential for programmes to exacerbate situation and the opportunities to support peace-building processes. The PCNA exercise under taken by UNDP is the result of realization of this reality and ground requirement. In this exercise, UNDP tried its best to listening to clients, social analysis and understanding the context that would create as results of the intended intervention. It devotes more resources to analysis, examine context through participatory process in order to strategize the intervention. The key actors, in the village are intermediary organizations in the field of humanitarian and development. They, with the good intention, made context more complex, without making context conflict analysis, before foraying into intervention. The methodology employed was participatory, using the tools and techniques of PRA. The people are the centre in the process. Good governance aspect of conflict transformation is much needed and to be focused. People feel there is no transparency in designing, implementing and monitoring the project related activities, in their words, „they just come; select the person whom they are interested in‟ or „the computer will select the beneficiary, the CBOs/NGOs say‟. This is long term practice on non following principle of good governance in the operation of intermediary organizations. Another factor is effective coordination among them, which make the context not favorable for development by leaving the grievance without transformed. This is the core issue centered and surfaced during the PCNA in the village of Central Camp in term of social cohesion. There are needs for livelihood, housing, drinking water, drainage/irrigation in terms of physical needs. It is recommended of making physical needs as entry point to transform the context into a positive development scenario where all actors live peacefully. The unilateral nature of the intermediaries‟ organizations‟ initiatives in the village is not contributing to the enabling situation for social cohesion. 5 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  6. 6. To build confidence among the wider community in the village, the NGOs and CBOs must analysis the context before the context. There are very few CBOs understand this approach and try to apply in their operation. This should take place in the whole district rather in particular villages. The exercise arrived at addressing the needs of the community. They are of Livelihood, SME , Micro Finance and Environment: providing start up capital to generate livelihood activities, providing quality paddy seeds for cultivation, creating seasonal job opportunities through SME initiatives, strengthening marketing facilities and facilitating to provide technical knowledge. Infrastructure and Housing: upgrading internal roads facilitating economic and social functioning, Gender and Social Cohesion: engaging youth, boys and girls, in providing life skill development / enterprenious, building capacity of service providers to deliver better services and solidify relationship between service provider and receiver, addressing social issues affecting women., like alcoholism.5. Background of the PCNAParticipatory Capacity and Needs Analysis, known as PCNA, is a consultative process in identifying the developmentneeds and the capacity of a village with the active participation of constituent members and stake holders of thesame. This has been (adopted) by UNDP, Sri Lanka to inquiry into the needs and to explore possible solution forthe problems identified. In practice of UNDP work, this was earlier known as participatory need analysis (PNA). Thishas been reviewed, based on the field experience gained, and becomes as PCNA.The objective of the exercise is to identify the capacity and need of the village and explore possible solutions fordevelopment intervention, through a participatory process. This would lay the foundation for sustainable developmentby undertaking conflict sensitivity analysis into serious consideration. In other word, this focuses three areas; namely,sustainable development, durable peace and transforming the conflict. Furthermore, this process it self, helps to buildthe capacity of the community and also creates a foundation to build cohesion among the stakeholders of theparticular village. This is building community capacity for development.The specific objectives of the PCNA were to: The primary objective of this assessment is to understand better the community-level dynamics thatstrengthen or undermine social cohesion and the prospects for peace and reconciliation in Central Camp -01 and 02.This inquiry was also intended to identify concrete opportunities for supporting “pro-peace” dynamics, in particularthose that have previously escaped the attention of external agencies. Specifically, this assessment aimed to:  Identify the current patterns and nature of social segregation and cohesion and to analyze the linkages between these and conflict/peace dynamics in each village.  Map key institutions, issues, networks and individuals who contribute to social cohesion and reconciliation with specific attention being given to women, young people and community leaders.  Identify potential approaches and partners for strengthening social cohesion including capacity building through livelihood and infrastructure means. 6 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  7. 7.  Provide recommendations and options (focus, priorities, entry points, strategies, activities and potential partners) for programming to strengthen intra and intercommunity/group bonds and informal mechanisms to resolve disputes, build trust and thereby increase community resilience to conflict in these villages.  identify problems, needs and solutions/strategy recommended by the community for  livelihood , SME, Micro Finance and environment  social cohesion and gender equality  infrastructure and housing  Provide the basis for participatory planning for community development(village planning)  Record and document information as a base-line against which to measure project intervention and change.At the outset, social cohesion was understood by the assessment team as being seen in terms of trust andassociation between and among disparate groups. Honesty and fairness were seen as the key aspects of trust.Villagers, village and community leaders, and CBOs/NGO staff were interacted about their perceptions of a range ofdifferent players with influence on social cohesion. Associations among and between villages were observed duringthe transect walk.The process employed was of community consultation and active participation. For this purpose, participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) tools were utilized. Now, this has been known as participatory learning and action (PLA). In all stepsof the exercise, the community‟s voice has been reflected and captured. The involvement of the UNDP was limited tofacilitation.6. Introduction: 6.1. Village Introduction The village selected for this exercise is Central Camp-01 and02 which falls under Navithanveli DS division of Ampara district. It is a hamlet within the DS division. The village has been occupied by the constituencies during the Galoya Scheme. At the beginning, there were 6,000 people resettle from other parts of the district. It features a Tamil-speaking majority split equally between ethnic Tamils and Muslims, as well as a smaller number of Sinhala families, who mostly moved there from the south under state irrigation and resettlement schemes. Lying at the intersection of competing Tamil and Muslim nationalisms, the village had seen some of the worst of Sri Lanka‟s inter-ethnic violence and remained at risk for longer. 7 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  8. 8. The means of livelihood are agriculture, inland fishing, animal husbandry, handloom and poultry making among other available in the village. 6.2. Village selection and process The village has been selected based on the criteria set by the UNDPi for development intervention. Of those, the following are applied. Table 1: Male and Female in Central Camp-01 & 021. Social criteria  Multi-ethnic/religious composition in a location or multi-ethnic/religious community living closely to the location  Social dimensions (weak community interaction, mistrust, high community tension, existence of excluded or less integrated social groups, ex-combatant etc…),  Health (poor nutritional level, low health services, accesses to facilities etc…),  High percentage of recently resettled community ( 2007 – 2009)  Percentage of families living in temporary shelter facility, and percentage of houses destroyed during displacement  Lack of adequate social service providers / social institutions  Literacy (school drop outs, less school facility, poor access to basic services etc…),  Lack of basic community infrastructure intervention (common wells, internal access roads, sanitations etc…)2. Economic criteria  Poor economic conditions (Gender differentiated income, lack of access to and control over resources, high unemployment rate, and poor support services, etc…)  Resettled communities, who have received no/less assistance from other external sources  Lack of basic livelihood infrastructure facilities (Small irrigation channels, agro-wells, storage facilities etc.)  Poor natural resource management and conflict over resource sharing3. Conflict-related criteria (To be ascertained through community consultations)  Weak social communication mechanisms  Lack of mechanisms to express/ share ideas  Lack of community decision making mechanisms or set up  Interference of power/ politics / influence in common activities or in sharing resources  Community stress derived from past conflict experience  Different cultural practices and beliefs 8 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  9. 9.  Composition of IDP and host families or resettlers (%), and more families with women headed households (%)4. Other requirements  Statistical information, documents and analysis to support the vulnerability and the status of the community. 6.3. Justification for Selecting the villageThe village has been selected in keeping the criteria set by UNDP. Social cohesion in the villages of Central Camp01 and 02, within a specific social context that is distinguished by each village history, its social diversity and theexperience of violence and social conflict. The nature of the conflict, the intensity and extent of the violence andassociated events strongly influenced the relationship between social cohesion, conflict and peace.The vulnerability is visible. The infrastructure needs reconstructed. Livelihood ought to be revitalized. The socialfabric is needs to be strengthened. All f those sections in the presents socio-economic setting could be strategizedthrough addressing their needs.This section of the intervention will address the issues through identified needs within the social and demographicsetting the two villages and relates this to the experience of conflict and efforts to facilitate reconciliation, throughcommunity identifies needs and intervention strategy.7. Community Profiling Tools Utilized for data collection: I. Transect Walk Diagram of Central Camp 1 and 2 Villages of Navithanveli DSD II. Social MappingLand use Road Home garden Highland LowlandSoil type Tar and gravel Sandy - Sandy Clay –sandyCrops Chilli, brinjol Green gram, Paddy - Paddy cowpea, gourd, land around 250 groundnut, cassava acres in Central Camp 1 and 600 9 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  10. 10. acres in central camp 2Fruit trees Banana, papaya, Banana, papaya, mango, pineapple, mango, pineapple, cashew,Other trees Neem –Kohomba, Kohomba, jack, Kohomba, jack, Palmyra, and other coconut, arecanut, arecanut, gilicidia bushes gilicidia Coconut tree, Mango, Palmyra,Livestock Poultry (local birds), Cattle and goat in goats and cattle off seasonsProblems observed No proper road, not It is difficult to find Land available for Irrigation channels maintained well. water in the drought housing and other need to be Transport problem season infra structure in renovated makes the people Division-02 but no more vulnerable Due to several government lands Displacement available in div-01 instability of livelihood is much obvious specially in Tamil communityParticipants : Munas Kalden, Dimuthu Bogahawaththa, Mohamed Shakeen, Abdul Jaleel, Subanjini Rajendram, GNsof both villages and community people who were in near to transect walk route ( 24th October 2009) Ecosystem: The whole land area is almost a flat surface. No big forest in the village but it is obvious that there are plenty of Neem/Vembu –Kohomba trees and some bushes. The soil type is almost sandy in home gardens and lowland and it becomes clay texture in paddy lands, underlying soil is mostly hard. Some common buildings are available in villages like community centers; government services delivery offices (GN and SDO), school building and cooperative society etc. Social Mapping The main road system made up with tar road and interior roads are of graveled. The average land areaowned by each family varies from 1 to 6 acres and resettled families usually own 1 acre of highland and 4 acres oflowland, on an average. A considerable part of paddy lands are owned by the outside business community. The mainlivelihood of the both villages, Central Camp -01 and 02, is paddy cultivation. Seasonal labor, livestock farming(cattle, goat, and country poultry etc), home gardening, upland cultivation and a few SMEs (retail shops, sewing andshort-eats making etc) are also practiced by both community.Environment: 10 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  11. 11. The environmental landscape of the village looks good, though there is no much forestation. It was observed thatsome farmers used to add paddy straw as an organic matter for making the soil fertile. Human –elephant conflictsrarely happen especially in between cultivation seasons.Climate:A common drought period is experienced in between July to mid September in every year. However, in this year ithas extended up to late October. During this period, all common, individual and tube wells get dried off and peoplehave to walk 4-5 km to find the water for drinking and other purposes. In both Maha and Yala seasons the communitycultivates paddy in lowland and other field crops in home gardens and uplands. Live fencing (Gliricidia) can beobserved in most of home gardens and no any cultivation practiced in draught season due to scarcity of water. TheGliricidia is not been utilized properly.Social Cohesion:With respect to social cohesion, both Tamil and Muslim community live together with a few Sinhala families. Thedemography of the community is pocket by pocket; mostly Muslims are in a pocket and Tamils in another pocket.Some serous ethnic conflicts have been experienced in 1990 decode especially in between Tamil and Muslimcommunities, due to the outside village influence. The Muslims in the village perceive that thehumanitarian and development assistance are being focused on delivering to the Tamils community. They, Muslims,perceive themselves as marginalized from those assistance benefited. This depicts of space to be addressed onreconciliation perspective through equally distributing the humanitarian and development assistance. This leaves themessage for the development actors and agencies of making conflict analysis prior to the intervention. Family disputes and domestic violence have increased and the liquor consumption of men has been identified asone of the main reasons for this issue... Women and children are the most vulnerable group under this circumstance.There were incidences of Sexual harassment reported in the Central Camp 02; therefore mobility of women isrestricted with existing insecurity situation. A few religious institutions Churches, Kovils and mosques) are availablein addition to the village level CBOs and LNGOs that serve for establishing and stabilizing social cohesion.Some land owners, in the both villages, have blocked the road and made fence claiming their land ownership. Thishas blocked the path. According to the villagers, it was open for public some time age. There are four instanceswhere the road has been blocked. The people, to get the services, are compelled to walk long distance. 11 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  12. 12. Table 2: Labour Force in Central Camp-01 & 028. Conflict Sensitivity Context Analysis 8.1. Stake holders’ Analysis In the village called the Central camp 01, there are considerable actors involved in contributing to the development process of the village. The following are of influential, according to the people participated in the PCNA exercise. o Rural Development Society(RDS) o Kovil Administration o Grama Nildhari o Samurdhi Officer o Farmer‟s Representative(Vatta Vithanai) o Women Society o Sports Club Actors outside the Village o Divisional secretariat o Sri Lanka Transport Board o Irrigation Department o World vision It is worthy to mention here that the personnel, working for a Minister who turned to politics from fighting force and opened a political office in the village. There is no evident, from the villagers, for making presence of “Pillayan”, the Chief Minister of Eastern Province who was in the same camp of fighting and joined the government. Now he is the. These two factions always go for registering their presence by opening political officers with the intention of serving their constituencies. The later has no office opened so far. If it comes to surface, this may create tension among the intra community as well as inter communities. In addition, in the post conflict of changing context, the intermediary community/civil organizations, that are distributing humanitarian and development assistant, working in Central Camp-01 and -02 are the key 12 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  13. 13. actors. There many such organizations. Some are within the village. They have to improve their understanding on peacebuilding and conflict transformation with conflict analysis concern. Analysis: In the said village, there many actors involved. Of them, the politicians who turn as so after being in the camp of fighting are main forces. They have political voices. But, different ways. Both elements are part of ruling governing. Both are trying to register their political presence in the community. The community is divided on this line though this is not much visible. This has been filtered into the community. Some of them are not ready to say anything fearing for anything may happen to them. The rest of them, actors, are from the community. They are traditional, as one could see same anature of the actors in the east part of the country. They are development oriented, for instance: Rural Development Society(RDS), Kovil Administration , Grama Nildhari,Samurdhi Officer, Farmer‟s Representative(Vatta Vithanai),Women Society, Sports Club. With the good intension of going good for the community development, make the situation unhealthy. There is no coordination among their activities, and priorities. Actors Services to the community o Rural Development Society(RDS)  Administrating the village development by utilizing the resources available in the village.  Coordinating with the DS and GS o Kovil Administration o Maintaining the religious activities in the village. o Promoting spiritual well being of the community members. o Resolving the community disputes o Promoting cultural values o Promoting inter faith dialogues o Providing moral education for children o Grama Nildhari o The focal for all government and non governmental activities in the village. o Government authorized representative in the village linking the DS of the area. o All development, humanitarian and emergency activities are coordinated through him/her o Samurdhi Officer o Promoting village livelihood and economic well being o Taking initiatives on poverty eradication activities.13 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  14. 14. o o Farmer‟s Representative(Vatta Vithanai) o Voicing farming related issues. o Mobilizing the farmers to get the services of authority for village relating to farming. o Looking after watering and irrigation needs of farming and farmers. o Representing forum at village and DS level related to farming o Women Society o Working for women welfare in the society. o Sports Club o Youth physical well being o Societal activities, like sramadana o Promoting cultural activities in the village. 8.2. Structural Analysis The structural analysis makes the present situation and pattern of the village that move beyond direct relationship, to relational pattern that involve and affect whole groups, a scope of inquiry that includes structural pattern- the way things happen over and over again- and existing structures. In other words, the time horizon includes both present and historical dynamics, between or among groups, particularly where one group has been privileged and others marginalized. This part of the report, analyzes structural patterns under Social Condition, Procedural Pattern, and Institutional Pattern. Social condition of Central Camp-01 and 02 is of case with disparity in accessing services and resources. Due to the protected war and its negative impact, the people of both villages experienced in early 90, disparity in accessing to the power and resources. This was mainly when one of the main actors, of conflicting party, in de-facto sate of governance and influence in the villages. During the same period, the Muslims felt of marginalization in equally distributing humanitarian and development assistance. In the prevailed setting, the Tamils perceived of victimized by the actors of conflict and rehabilitation process, so far they did not rehabilitated or reconciled. This situation made both communities mutually perceive of disadvantaging and ethnically marginalizing. The impact of the prolong conflict in the east and main actors influence, in the village administration ethnically marginalized; one over the other is palpable. The room for reconciliation is vital. Having analyzed the social condition, procedural pattern also could be observed in the both villages particularly lack of transparency, inequality access, non participation and fairness. The people from both communities had no equal access to information and understanding of decision making. Both communities perceive they are consistently left out of political and economic decisions and process that14 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  15. 15. affect them. Mostly cited instance, government facilitated housing project, during the post tsunami setting, could be recalled here. The people perceive that they were not aware of the decision process how was the beneficiaries selected. Participation and fairness element of procedural pattern is observable. Another analytical aspect of structural focus is Institutional Pattern. The function and maintenance of key social, political and economic organization, particularly established to serve the wider public did not, according to the participants, serve in a neutral manner. The people have no trust in those institutions. A. Related information: Two different communities separated from norms and culture having lot of grievances between two communities government support not equally distributed war victims still suffering enough rooms for livelihood activities B. Analysis in Points: Having own priorities of needs Communication gap between two community exist Better income generation among the villagers will restore the harmony if equally distributed War victims and family need more support from villagers Sharing source and power according to the needs will minimize the conflict between the communities. Need more support from government ,in policy level. 8.3. Dynamic Analysis The dynamic analysis tries to gain a better understanding of the dynamics, relationship and issues of the situation at different stages of conflicts prevailed in the East where Ampara Time Line Exercise facilitated by the UNDP staff, Mohamed Jaleel and Sunera Edrisuriya district constituted part of it. This helps the practitioners in the field of development to plan and carry out better actions and strategies. Understanding the dynamics will help supporting or undermining peace efforts in a transition situation. The relationship and dynamic communication among Tamils and Muslims in Central Camp-01 and 02 depicted in the below given chart analyzed based on the stages of conflict. The information gathered through the Time Line and Focus Group Discussion during the PCNA exercise15 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  16. 16. No Period Stage of conflict Nature of the relationship between Muslim and Main Actors in the conflict Tamil 01. 1980s Pre-conflict Incompatibility of goal among the Tamil speaking  Tamil armed groups youths. Tamil armed group influenced positively on  Tamil speaking youths Tamil Speaking Communities including Muslim. The  Government Forces youth attracted by these groups and developed into incompatibility in their goals. 02. 1980-90 Confrontation Conflict is more open; Tamil armed groups supporters  Tamil armed groups began to engage in confrontational behavior on  Government forces Muslims. In turn, Muslims engaged in the same  and Indian Peace Keeping behavior. Tit for tat. Occasional fighting among Tamil Forces Armed Groups and Government Forces which formed alliance among the communities-Muslims and Tamils. Low level violence among Muslims and Tamils. Both Muslims and Tamils mobilized their resources and strengthen their allies. The relationship between Muslims and Tamils was very strained, lead to polarization. There were cases of mutual killings. 03. 1990-2000 Crisis Tension and violence is most intense between the  LTTE Tamils and Muslims. People from all sides were killed.  GoSL Normal communication between Tamils and Muslims ceased. 04. 2000-2002 Out Come Ceasefire agreement. Relationship between Muslims  LTTE and Tamils started restoring. Less tension. The  GoSL/Forces agricultural activities restarted. Tamils and Muslims communication improved. Relationship rebuilt. 05. 2005-08 Again Crisis Tensions among Tamils youths. Relationship between  Karuna Faction Tamils and Muslim remained same.  Pillayan Faction  LTTE  Government Forces 06. 2009 Post Conflict LTTE defeated. Tension among Tamils youth remains  Development agents to limited degree.  Aid Distributing Intermediary The relationship between Tamils and Muslims is CBOs improving. Communal approach is reducing.  Karuna Faction (less influence at this stage) The following analytical remarks are worthy to be noted.  During different stages of conflict, the relationship among and between the communities (Tamils and Muslim) changed.  During the pre-conflict stage, the youths were on the same camp.  During 2005-08, Again Crisis Period (ACP), tension increased among and between Tamils youths who were in the same camp of thought.  There was a clear ethnic demarcation during the crisis stage of conflict.  During the post conflict stage, the actors have been changed. The key actors are development agents out side the villages and Aid distributing intermediary CBOs inside the villages. 16 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  17. 17. 9. Need Analysis 9.1. Problem Analysis Tool – Force field analysisNo Sector Problem-Supporting Factors Problems-Hindering Elements 01.  Organized group of people to engage in livelihood activities 1. Lack of capital to generate livelihood activity Livelihood, SME , Micro  Availability of land for livelihood activities 1. Non availability of quality paddy seeds for cultivation  Willingness of motivated young in working for livelihood activities 2. Lack of land for agricultural cultivation Finance and Environment 2. Inadequate seasonal job opportunities 3. Inadequate external services (extension services) 4. Lack of marketing facilities 5. Inadequate technical knowledge 6. Water scarcity 02. Problem-Supporting Factors Problems-Hindering Elements o Women involvement of livelihood activities/ Small scale income  Insecurity and sexual harassment generation activities o Anti alcoholism activity of women societies  Absence of PHI service o Existing police service and its usage on handling domestic violence  Dowry problem cases o Women ownership on properties (land and houses)  Irregular reproductive service o Joint ownership (Husband and wife)  High degree of war affected women (women Headed Households) Gender Empowerment o Women as bread winners in the Women headed House hold(WHH)  Lack of transport facilities and difficulties in access to clinic, specially for pregnant mothers. o Skilled/trained women on civil society management /leadership etc  Alcoholism and domestic violence. o Existing active women‟s society(SWORD ,WRDS)  High degree of school drop outs of girls caused by poverty 17 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  18. 18. 03. Problem-Supporting Factors Problems-Hindering Elements o Meeting basic needs and getting services formally and informally  Partiality among humanitarian and development strengthen intercommunity relationship (fetching water, and during intermediary organizations transportation for instance). o Religious, cultural and recreational gathering among all three religious  Non engaging of multi communities in the community Social Cohesion communities foster the relationship. development activities o Education fosters relationship among students of all ethnic and  No coordination among the CBOs working in the religious communities. villages. o Community development activities connect among and between the  Non participatory way of selecting beneficiaries for communities. development and humanitarian activities by the authorities. o Very good rapport among religious leaders in the villages.  Insecurity for girls students on the way to schools04. Problem-Supporting Factors Problems-Hindering Elements Infrastructure and environment 1. Land availability for housing & roads  No fund for make lift irrigation 2. Availability of main electricity distribution lines along the main roads  Lack of drinking water 3. Availability of irrigation distribution channels  Lack of sufficient income for housing construction 4. Availability of reasonable amount of water in Kittanki  Problems in rehabilitating irrigation channels Kulam (for any purpose) 5. Availability of bus stand facilities 6. Land availability for school construction. 18 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  19. 19. 9.2. Prioritized NeedsNo Sector Problems Identified Problems Prioritized Criteria Set 05.  Lack of capital generate livelihood activity 1. Lack of capital to generate livelihood activity 1. Benefiting as much as many Livelihood, SME , Micro Finance people  Non availability of quality paddy seeds for cultivation 2. Non availability of quality paddy seeds for 2. important and urgency cultivation  Lack of land for agricultural cultivation 3. Lack of land for agricultural cultivation 3. Cost effectiveness  Inadequate seasonal job opportunities 4. Inadequate seasonal job opportunities and Environment  Inadequate external services (extension services) 5. Inadequate external services (extension services)  Lack of marketing facilities 6. Lack of marketing facilities  Inadequate technical knowledge 7. Inadequate technical knowledge  Water scarcity 8. Water scarcity 06. Problems Identified Problems Prioritized Criteria Set  Insecurity and sexual harassment 1. Tension due to sexual harassment /murders 1. Most families benefited  Absence of PHI service 2. Early marriages and poverty 2. Urgency  Dowry problem 3. Sexual harassment and lack of security 3. Cost effectiveness I measures to prevent the situation Gender Empowerment  Irregular reproductive service 4. Lack of awareness on health related issues 4. Positive social impact  High degree of war affected women (women Headed 5. School dropouts among girl students Households)  Lack of transport facilities and difficulties in access to clinic, especially for pregnant mothers.  Alcoholism and domestic violence.  High degree of school drop outs of girls caused by poverty 07. Problems Identified Problems Prioritized Criteria Set  Partiality among humanitarian and development intermediary 1. Partiality among humanitarian and 1. Benefiting as much as many oh oc es ial io C S n people 19 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  20. 20. organizations development intermediary organizations  Non engaging of multi communities in the community 2. Non engaging of multi communities in the 2. important and urgency development activities community development activities  No coordination among the CBOs working in the villages. 3. Insecurity for girls students on the way to 3. Doing no harm schools  Non participatory way of selecting beneficiaries for 4. No coordination among the CBOs working in 4. Rebuilding Cohesion development and humanitarian activities by the authorities. the villages.  Insecurity for girls students on the way to schools 5. Non participatory way of selecting beneficiaries for development and humanitarian activities by the authorities08. Problems Identified Problems Prioritized Criteria Set  No fund for lift irrigation 1. No fund for lift irrigation 2. Benefiting as much as many people Infrastructure and  Lack of drinking water 2. Lack of sufficient income for housing 2. important and urgency Housing construction  Lack of sufficient income for housing construction 3. Lack of drinking water 4. Cost effectiveness  Problems in rehabilitating irrigation channels 5. Problems in rehabilitating irrigation channels  Issues associated in rehabilitation or upgrading internal roads 6. Issues associated in rehabilitation or upgrading internal roads  State servicers are not properly reached the constituents 7. Non availability state land for preschool and recreation  Insufficient fund to construct or build toilets 8. State servicers are not properly reached the constituents  Non availability state land for preschool and recreation 9. Non availability of emergency treatment unit at the hospital  Non availability of emergency treatment unit at the hospital 10. Insufficient fund to construct or build toilets 20 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  21. 21. 9.3. Problem Web 9.3.1. Gender: Tool used: Focus Group Discussion Facilitator: Ms.Subajini Rajendram Objective: To identify the women and gender related issues in the specific villages among Tamil and Muslim communities. Focus Group: Women from both Tamil and Muslim communities with the different age groups. Key focusing area: The tool was used to draw a real picture of the existing status of women in the both GN divisions and among the two vulnerable communities. The discussion was based on the followings.  Women and Livelihood  Women and societal engagement in relation toFocus Group Discussion on gender empowerment by Suba Rajendram from UNDP development  Women and social security (within and out side the family)  Women, how do they respond to issues faced  Women and health  Women and social cohesion  Women and accessibility  Women and housing  Women and water and sanitation Identified key issues by the women: 1. Women insecurity caused by the incidents such as rape and murder happened in the village (in the mid of this year, 2009, there was the above incident.) 2. Marketing facilities and promotion of the locally made products and lack of transport facilities to the out side markets 3. Lack of awareness on Reproductive health and service availability in the division 4. Instable capital for Livelihood generation specially for women 5. Liquor consumption and increased of domestic violence 6. Early marriage system caused by poverty 7. School drop out of girl children due to poverty 21 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  22. 22. Expected outcome: Identified many women related issues that reverse the women development and stable thewomen vulnerability high  Many women came out with their own and community experience to address the problem without any hesitation  Throughout the discussion with the existing poverty situation, limited access to resource and considerable, repeated displacement due to the civil war make the rural women further vulnerable.Daily Routing:Tool used: Daily RoutineFacilitator: Ms.Subajini Rajendram and Mr.Mahendran Objective: To identify and differentiate the gender based division of labor and daily routine chart of children in the division in a daily routine basisFocus Group: Men , women and children (from both Tamil and Muslim community with the different age group)Key focusing area: Identified key issues by the women:Expected outcome:To be identified the gender based division of labor in a daily routinebasis and to be revealed that how are women and men engaged inthe productive activities/ reproductive activities and to know the dailyroutine activities of children 22 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  23. 23. Analysis: IntroductionFOCUS MEN WOMEN CHILDRENGROUPMORIN Time 4 to 9 AM Time 3 to 9 AM 4 to 7.30 AMG /AFTERN Time 12 to 02 Time 12 to 02 PM Time 12 to 02 PMOONEVENIN Time 3 to 6 PM Time 3 to 6 PM Time 3 to 6 PMGNIGHT Time 6 to 10 Time 6 to 11PM 6 to 10 PM PM 23 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  24. 24. Data Analysis Women  Women are involving in small scale income generation activities which is mostly attached to the house hold premise. They are mostly engaged in the house hold related / reproductive activities  Women invest more time in the household related task  In the village women twice in a month meeting the women society to develop/share their common interest with the women group  In the draught season women get up early to carry the water far away fro their house (Early morning 3 go for collect water for all household usages)  It shows the double burden based taskMen …………………………………………………………………………………………..  Men are the bread winners of the family  Most of the time engage in the earning  Most of the time spend in the out sideChildren…………………………………………………………………………………Daily routine Analysis of PCNA Navidanveli DS divisionDaily routine was selected to highlight the gender division of labor of the men and women in the society. It was ashared activity with men and women through participatory way. Find the analysis of the same.According to the mapping men and women are spending their time from early morning 5.00 to night 11.00 PM.The working understanding is women as an unpaid worker in the house spend their whole time with the reproductiveactivity and small scale livelihood engagement. . Compared to women, men spend more time on productive workswhich is out side the house and in wider context of community development. 24 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  25. 25. Daily Routine of Women & Men 7 6 5 No of hours 4 3 2 1 0 Suppo Leisur LH rting Integr e time Public works Produ Carryi to ation & Cookin Sleepi Washi Cleani shere to ctive ng study Rest of entata g ng hrs ng ng involv fullfill work water of relativ inmen ement HH childre es t needs n Women 1 6 4 1 6 2 2 1 1.5 0 4 1 Men 5 1 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 3 0 0Key realization and recommendations:  It clearly pointed out the gender inequality within house hold. There are specific gender role.  Over burden of women. Taking the role of reproductive and productive as well, due the changing context in the post conflict.  Women as working unpaid for long hours. Their contribution has not been quantified.  Make realization for gender sensitization program to be balanced the task within family. Ex: Share the house hold responsibilities with the other member, and contribute for the family harmony and cultivate shared responsibility.  Compare to men, the gender lacuna is self care of women. Ex: continues work of women for 18hrs without rest.  Having livelihood activity initiatives by women for their family support. This will, in future, could lead to possible multi layered empowerment of women. . Utilizing livelihood as a tool to empower women. . It creates space for women to gradually move to economic empowerment. Then she can have control over their earnings. So it reduces the economic dependency on men/husband/father. 25 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  26. 26. 9.3.2. Gender: Liquor Consumption & Domestic Violence –Causes and EffectsWomen migration as housemaids Child Age marriage Severe effect in Family Split of Family structure Economy Children sexually made harassment & addicted /Divorce to the habit Increase no. of school Committed / attempted to Drop out of children suicide Wife Physically assaulted + Children psychologically affected Psychologically affected Liquor Consumption & Domestic Violence The believe of having liquor for muscle No stable income Family dispute/ problem due to 10. Community Planning poverty pain of wage labors Waglabors generation 10.1. Objective Tree Men are the bread winners and taking the authority in their hand Patriarchic ideological influence of Women is the property of men 26 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  27. 27. Gender: Poor Transportation-Causes and Effects Analysis Malnutrition of mother Poor mothers & child health conditionNo proper care of mother and child–Health related issues: nutritional No proper care of mother and child –issues /vaccination/family planning Health related issues:system nutrition/vaccination/family planning Irregularly attend of Pregnant mothers clinic and mothers /women face difficulties dropout from clinic in access to clinic Selling the product locally for low prices Pregnant mothers /women face difficulties in access to Restricted access to market specially affect clinic women mobility to market their product Poor Transportation No proper awareness on the issues by the Lack of Resource managers of transportation services 27 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  28. 28. 10.1. Gender : Poor Health Services –Causes and Effects AnalysisAnalysis: IntroductionWomen easily become vulnerable in a society where gender quality not maintained. Navidanveli DS division inAmpara district is of testimonial. The high level of vulnerability affects the women further specifically in the divisionon the ground of prolonged displacement, poverty, limited access to resources, cultural limitation, prevailing sexualharassment and cultural acceptance of women as subordinate.Culturally accepted domestic violence and women vulnerabilityDaily waged laboring and liquor consumptions are interred linked. In the selected division, highest numbers of menare engaged in daily labour waging. Those who go for daily wage, simply addicts to locally available liqueurconception. The wide spread belief of such consumption smooth the pain resulted by the physical involvement,induces this practice. The consumers of liquor, most of them, lost their control and simply involve in the violencebehavior. By the time when the time passes, this becomes an accepted norm in the relationship between the breadwinner and the other members of the family. The unexpected end bad result of this practice is becoming womenvictim of that. In the most of the cases, surfaced during the discussion, this leads to domestic violence and familydispute.Women and livelihood engagementMost of the Tamil and Muslim women do their „house premise- based sub livelihood activities‟ to boost or to getsufficient income for their survival. Most of the women engage in domestic poultry farming and home gardening.Some are engaged in cattle farming and goad rearing. Further some have skills in sawing and weaving. Specially,during the draught season women are the bread winners in most of the families. Even though, they do not raise their 28 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  29. 29. voices against their husband. The bread winner takes the domestic authority has not been practiced by the women.In some house, there are cases; both husband and wife do share the means of survival. In many, the bread winneruses the domestic authority in his hand and shoots it for his own direction. But, the women are no, if they are thebread winner of the family.Women willingness and engagement in a proper income generation activity is on the high but lack of capital and noproper small scale marketing facilities is their main problem. This is due to restricted access to other(Sinhalese/Muslim) community which is caused by prolonged civil war, according to the Tamil Women participated inthe exercise and another course is, no proper transport facility. Selling the products of home garden, for instance,and non availability of proper milk collecting center. This situation compelled them to utilizing the products for theirown consumptions and for family usages. Some time, this condition reduced their bargaining power in pricing theproducts, which results in a very low price. Most of the women, in the said division, do similar kind of products. Theyfind difficulties in marketing their product within the village.The gap between producing local products and finding local market is widening. This is palpable. Reducing this gableads to promoting healthy family condition and shared domestic responsibilities. This will, ultimately, reduce the levelof domestic violence.In relation to lack of capital, women are not in a position to generate with any income generation activity. The maincause is prevailing rural poverty, which is associated with and resulted from protected war. The war always inducesdisplacement. Displacement makes adverse the poverty. It becomes true in the villages of Central Camp -01 and02..For example, Tamils from 1983 and until the post-war stage, which start from the May of 2009, on the ground ofethnic tension and displacement made their live and livelihood instable and made extreme vulnerable. This iscommon for both men and women. On women perspective, this should be addressed separately.Women association and works for developmentCertain women as members in the society like, WRDS, SWORD & Samurdhi society are engaged in the communitydevelopment. A very limited circle of individuals are engaged in the field to develop their community and of ownmobility. According to some experience gained, in terms of conducting series of workshop to transform liquorconsumption to a meaningful activity, with the support of women members. In this connection, women work tomitigate the negative impact in the village. This needs well planned strategy with peer group change managementapproach, while introducing alternative to the well routed practice. This is socially challenging task. The door is openfor intervention.Impact of poverty 29 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  30. 30. Rural poverty is the main cause for the economic and social vulnerability of women in the society. This contributes tochild poverty. Schooling girls and boys become the victim. They are being compelled to stop schooling and suspendlearning. This contrarily, contributes again to the cycle of unhealthy domestic condition and very week family ties. Thepoverty level among Tamil community is high compare to Muslim community which is the caused of war.Domestic violenceDomestic violence cases are, in many instances, tolerated by victim women. In the case of extremity, they attempt tosuicide. This leads their dependants without parental care. They become the victim for ever.Some recommendation from women sideWhile it was discussed with the team of participants, they do option of having strong women advocacy team/forumshould be formed and net worked to address these issues to avoid severity of continuation.Draught and womenDuring the draught season women does shouldering the totality of family burden such fetching water for allhousehold needs which is a foremost problem, especially women used to carry the water far away from the home.They are compelled, in some instances, to find the water for their livelihood means a like. 30 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  31. 31. 11. Social Cohesion: Partiality among humanitarian and development intermediary organizations The communities in the villages of Central Camp-01 and 02 consist of all three communities, with large constituencies are of Tamils and Muslims and Sinhalese with very few. They are living together, after facing the bitter experience of protected war divested their soils and hearts. The problem, in the changed context of post conflict is analyzed and visualized here. Reducing trust in the official of Increase in disease caused by Increase in the social evil authority that leads to mistrust improper environmental and immoral acts &conflict management Land not utilized for cultivation grievances Increasing Grievances and and becoming jungle relative deprivation Non participation and corporation in the community development The suitable and needy does Less willingness to return to the not receive development village who displaced during the assistance crisis Partiality among humanitarian and development intermediary organizations Non corporative village organizations in community development Improper monitoring by the Less seriousness in selecting government top officials proper and relevant beneficiariesPersonal priority CBOs were notrather properly guided Partiality Selecting the beneficiariesprogrammatic through non transparencybenefit 31 manner Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  32. 32. 1. 12.Social Cohesion: No coordination among the CBOs working in the villages. Unhealthy relationship between the people and CBOs Element of conflict embedded without Grievances among the reconciled people Less progress in the community development Improper selection of the location and beneficiaries Funds and assistances Dispute among the CBOs were not utilized efficiently No coordination among the CBOs working in the villages. Securing the fund Strengthening the position and survival of the CBO staff within the system 32 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  33. 33. Analysis of Social Cohesion:It is clear that the conflict has resulted in the loss of social cohesion among the people and communities of CentralCamp-01 and 02. Less obviously, it is apparent that the nature of the impacts on social cohesion and its resiliencevaries from village to village in Navithanveli Ds division and independent on a range of factors.. It paints picture of thediversity of experience and potential for strengthening social cohesion, recovery and reconciliation in the future.Generally, Central Camp is marked by social segregation rather than cohesion. This has been fostering by CBOs andNGOs working in their villages. Through the use of religious identity during the conflict, religions have been polarizedand religious identity has hardened on both sides, Tamils and Muslim. There has been reconciled through the socio-economic interaction. There are few evident to suggest that more strategies to be employed to sustain what alreadyreconciled. In general, people are confident that violent communal conflict will not re-emerge again in Central Campin the foreseeable future. People through the PRA exercise gave the example of the latest violence of August 2009relating to rape. There has no link with ethnicity or religion. , which did raise tension in the village. A strategy to overcome social conflict is to be employed from gender perspective. In particular, the DS-level dialogue of Navithanveli where the village Central Camp falls, an important strategic optionthat will play an important role in reducing tensions and preventing conflict as well as transforming the contextconducive for social cohesion and social co-existence. In villages in Central Camp, where both religious groups livedtogether before the conflict, they are now divided. Central Camp, there was a strong distrust of the youth, a result ofprevious conflict where certain youth acted as provocateurs and combatants. In the case of Central Camp, forexample, people spoke of high levels of trust, association and joint activities after the agreement in 2004 and in thepost LTTE context. but social relations and trust, among the youth of Muslims and Tamils, are no longer as beforeeven though many peacebuilding initiative taken place.Sports, for example, cricket in Central Camp were popular forms of cross community association but unfortunately,there is no common ground in Central Camp-02. Interestingly, in villages where traditional sports and customaryritual remains strong, trust and inter-group association can still be found and social cohesion has been maintainedeven after the conflict. Customary mechanisms tend, however, to have their limitations and only work for internalcommunity matters. Evidence from those met during the exercise in these two villages, indicates that there is a lackof integration upon returning and that the building of social relations between groups involved in the conflict has notreceived sufficient attention. As one experienced community worker put it, “things look normalized in most places, butit is not back to normal, because of the CBOs and NGOs working in the village. ”. IDPs have, on the whole, returnedto their areas, but often they moved to city where they feel comfortable in living there in terms of job opportunity,education and other facilities. Their land remains without occupation. In some place big trees are occupied. Thisleads to social issues including rapes. In the rape case where a student raped took placed in the close proximity ofsuch jungle. Social problems have developed.The following sections provide a more fine-grained view of social cohesion in each of the villages visited by thetransect walk team in order to understand better the impacts of the conflict and efforts for recovery andreconciliation. The relationship between Muslims and Tamils is good in the post LTTE context. 33 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  34. 34. Moreover, the CBOs and NGOs are misusing the issue of recovery and development. There is increased mistrustbetween the people of Central Camp02 where Muslims come and between the people from Central Camp 01 wherethe majority is Tamils. The CBOs must work as connecting factors between these ethnic communities.The people in the village are living or tying to live together, with reconciliation of bitterness of the war repercussion ontheir hearts. During post conflict period or the context in which the NGOs, CBOs and other organizations are workingfor the community development are of the source of generating element in polarizing the community in terms of socialcohesion. The main reason is not making conflict sensitivity and context analysis. At the absence of such analysis,aid distribution becomes the genesis of promoting misunderstanding among multi ethnic communities. The people bytheir nature wanted to live peacefully. Those organization needs to be understood the context in which they operates.Livelihood: Insufficient capital to generate livelihood activities: Causes and Effect of Infrastructure 34 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  35. 35. Infrastructure Increase in crime Hindering to the community development Dispute within the family Increase in medical expenses Less confidence in future Increasing poverty Spread of disease Not schooling Reduction in income Could not make hygienic meals Waste of time and Burden in caring not using child productively Scarcity of drinking water Dry wells No water in Increased irrigation channel population High lands Scarcity of water in Deforestation catchment areas No seasonal rain Unexpected drought 35 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  36. 36. Community Planning A. Gender: Objective Tree 36 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  37. 37. 37 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009
  38. 38. 1. Social Cohesion: Objective Web -Neutrality among humanitarian and development intermediary organizations Coexistence and peaceful at the personal and relational level Maintaining respect to the gender, elderly, Healthy life through green Increasing trust in the youth and multi cultural environment official of authority coexistence Land utilized forBalancinggrievances the psychological Active participation and cultivation and economicenvironment and promoting corporation in the well being promotedcoexistence community development The suitable and needy IDPs living out side returned receives development and contributing to the assistance community development Neutrality among humanitarian and development intermediary organizationsActive Corporation and participation of Proper monitoring system Proper mechanism followed invillage organizations in community established for CBOs’ works by selecting relevant beneficiariesdevelopment the government officials A. SocialCBOs were properly guided Web - Proper coordination among the CBOs working through Cohesion: Objective Impartiality Selecting the beneficiaries in the Prioritization based on the transparency manner and with villages. community agreed criteria based on the Standard community participation Operational Procedures (SoP) 38 Participatory Need and Capacity Analysis, Navithanveli, Ampara-Dec2009

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