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MetadataTheory: Learning Design & Theories (2nd of 10)

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MetadataTheory: Learning Design & Theories (2nd of 10)

  1. 1. First Floor Learning Design & Theories of Learning 1
  2. 2. Structure • Introduction to learning design • Copyrights • Motivation Theories • Instructional Design • Economics of Learning Design
  3. 3. Why do we create DLOs? • Created by: – Faculty, technology support staff, instructional designers, and other professionals • That have an educational goal in mind but cannot find an existing learning object that suits their needs – Few objects on the topic, – Poor quality ones, or – Do not mesh with a professor’s teaching style • If the educational goal is compelling enough, and a person is prepared to put in the time and effort, he or she may decide to create a new learning object.
  4. 4. What stands in the way? • Lack of technical experience • Incorporating effective pedagogy into the learning object – Although it seems obvious that learning should occur when a student uses a learning object, that is not always the case • Intellectual property and copyright issues – The problems get more complicated as more materials, or assets, are incorporated into a learning object
  5. 5. What stands in the way? • Author workload – Creating a high-quality learning object is a serious undertaking, requiring time to plan the project • Scope – It can be difficult to decide how much content to include in a single learning object, but the decision will have a major impact on the results.
  6. 6. Usability of Learning Objects (1/4) • Relevance: For a digital object to be effective in an online course, it must be relevant to the course content, and must materially contribute to the achievement of outcomes • Usability: The digital object should be usable in the platform or delivery system in use, and it must be accessible by the users
  7. 7. Usability of Learning Objects (2/4) • Cultural appropriateness: The digital object should be appropriate culturally, and the meanings that it communicates within a cultural context should reinforce learning objectives • Infrastructure support: Objects, whether large or small, simple or complex, should be housed and delivered on a system that is sufficiently robust to handle surges in traffic, bandwidth usage, and storage of large files
  8. 8. Usability of Learning Objects (3/4) • Redundancy of access: It is important to make digital objects accessible through more than one means of delivery • Size of object: Large objects are sometimes unusable if the users are distributed in remote location where access is poor and/or slow. Optimizing the size of the object, particularly images and audio files is important
  9. 9. Usability of Learning Objects (4/4) • Relation to the infrastructure / delivery: If the object is easily integrated into the learning management system, it is treated differently than a large, complex object, that might be run in conjunction with the learning management system. It may be necessary to modify the delivery system and/or rationale
  10. 10. Before you take the leap, ask… • What educational problem are you trying to solve? • How do you envision your learning object being used? • What rights issues can you identify? • What resources do you have available for development?
  11. 11. Educational Problem • Identify your learning goal – keep your focus to it! – Is there a concept that is troublesome for learners using traditional methods? – Is it that you have supplemental resources you wish to share, but don’t have time in class to show them all? • Think about whether there is a clear advantage to using your planned learning object to reach the educational goal you have named. – Can learners easily get an equivalent experience in some other way? • Ask yourself whether your solution is worth the time and effort involved.
  12. 12. Envisaged Use (1/2) • List the most common ways you envision learners using it. • Think of uncommon ways that your learning object might be used. • The activities described in the second list begin to open up new possibilities for learner interaction. – You may come up with ideas in this second list that you cannot implement due to restrictions
  13. 13. Envisaged Use (2/2) • Check your lists against your written educational goal; do the activities support the goal? – Keep these lists in mind throughout the development process • Consider how your learning object will relate to other existing learning objects and to other educational materials you are aware of. – The same is true for other companion materials that are not digital learning objects – When you publish your learning object, you might suggest that it be used in company with the other objects or materials you have identified
  14. 14. Copyrights (1/2) • If you are using materials created by someone else in your learning object, you must obtain permission and provide correct attribution. • Copyright clearance. Make sure you have copyright clearance for each asset you use, and make sure that clearance specifically covers use of the asset in a digital learning object like the one you will create. • Fair use. Fair use refers to a portion of copyright law that deals with commentary, criticism and parody. Fair use does not give unlimited license for use and distribution even if the purpose is purely educational
  15. 15. Copyrights (2/2) • Creative Commons. Creative Commons allows authors and artists to select licenses for their works that specify how they can be used • “Open” & “closed” learning objects. Learning object formats may be either open or closed with regard to whether assets can be extracted – Website (open) VS java simulation (closed) • Your own rights issues. You should also consider your own rights and those of the organization for which you work
  16. 16. Available Resources • Are you the sole developer, or do you have staff to assist you? • What technical experience do you and/or your staff have? • What software is available to you for creating or digitizing assets, and who knows how to use it? • What software will you use to create your learning object? • Do you have access to assets already digitized? • Major obstacles to creating learning objects are: – Lack of time; – Lack of technical expertise
  17. 17. Motivation Theories Relevant for e-Learning
  18. 18. Cognitive Evaluation • Cognitive Evaluation plays an important role in an individual’s belief about whether or not he or she can succeed in a task. Before engaging in a task, individuals analyze it in order to determine whether or not they have a high probability of success. If they predict success, they are likely to embark on the task, and are likely to be motivated to complete the task (high persistence probability).
  19. 19. …for Learning Objects • Learning objects should be developed with the abilities and levels of the users in mind. Mastering the tasks builds confidence and increases self-concept. If not, the users / learners will be frustrated and demotivated.
  20. 20. Consistency Theory • Consistency Theory: Individuals become demotivated when there is a lack of consistency of behavior, values, and belief, and that such a condition can result in cognitive dissonance. Inconsistency in online learning occurs when instructor behavior does not align itself with expectations, or when the learning objects do not function in a predictable, practical way.
  21. 21. …for Learning Objects • Making certain that the learning object uses terminology and instructional strategies that are consistent with those of the online course, and that they are congruent with the texts used is very important.
  22. 22. Goal-setting Theory • Goal-Setting Theory: The key to achieving a goal is to set one that has the following attributes: attainable and accessible. In order to direct ourselves we set ourselves goals that are: Clear (not vague) and understandable; Challenging, to assure stimulation and avoid boredom; and, Achievable, to minimize the chance of failure.
  23. 23. …for Learning Objects • Learning objects should be selected so that they can be incorporated in the learner’s goal- setting system. Learning object-driven instructional activities should be clear and easy to conceptualize, but also challenging enough to maintain intellectual engagement.
  24. 24. Affiliation Needs • Affiliation Needs: Power, affiliation, and achievement are basic motivators. In an online environment, affiliation needs are often satisfied by means of an interactive discussion board or chat area. Instant messaging also often satisfies that need.
  25. 25. …for Learning Objects • Any learning object that helps improve collaboration and interactivity among learners is likely to help a learner or user achieve affiliation needs. Further, any learning object that encourages learners to want to identify with the identity of the institution, and to improve self-concept through affiliation is also likely to increase an individual’s sense of power and achievement.
  26. 26. Self Actualization • Self-Actualization: This approach is based on Alderfer’s (1972) model of Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG). All needs in Alderfer’s equation hinge upon the notion of selfconcept, and the basic core idea that anything that helps an individual develop a better sense of self will be motivating.
  27. 27. …for Learning Objects • Reinforce notions that a learner might hold about himself or herself, such as, “I am a successful student,” or, “I accomplish tasks in a timely manner, and I do it effectively.” • Learning objects can help the learner self-actualize with respect to the subject matter and skills included in the learning activities of the distance-delivered course. At the same time, they can help self-actualization in terms of technology by helping gain a sense of mastery in multiple modes: via personal computer-based online programs, mobile learning, video game-based learning programs, audio and video.
  28. 28. Instructional Design 8 pointers to creating high-quality Digital Learning Objects
  29. 29. 1. Motivation Theories • Keep motivation theories in mind when selecting objects. – If learning objects are selected without keeping in mind certain theories about how humans are motivated, or demotivated, the courses that incorporate them are likely to be ineffective.
  30. 30. 2. Align outcomes & activities • Align outcomes with instructional activities that incorporate learning objects. – Review how the object is intended to be used, – How it is used in actual practice. – Assess the learners to gain an appreciation of their values, needs, and interests, – Articulate how the learning objects are intended to be used, – How their use will affect outcomes – Conduct a post-course review to see how the objects were actually used and what kinds of outcomes were achieved
  31. 31. 3. Technological Issues • Resolve potential technological issues. – What platform will be used? – Will a learning management system be used? – Will this be a live web-based course? – What kinds of access will the students have? – Will it be offered in CD-ROM format? – Will you use PDAs or hand-held computers? • These have to be considered because it is very difficult to retrofit an object once it is incorporated into a learning module
  32. 32. 4. Delivery Modes • Maintain multiple delivery modes – Online, blended, mobile, video game-based simulation – Design objects so that can be reused or easily repurposed for the modes the learner will be using, and for the actual conditions of delivery. – A needs assessment is important for this
  33. 33. 5. User Needs & Capabilities • Remember real user capabilities and needs – Learning objects vary in size, use, and complexity. – Some, require an extensive repertoire of skills, and the ability to work within a number of plug- ins. – Others are static and very easy to use. • Although these are easy to use and download, they may not be appropriate if the learner is using a small screen hand-held computer
  34. 34. 6. Culture • Sociological Factors – Understanding the cultural beliefs and values is critical in developing an instructional strategy – Understand the values and how one might unintentionally offend a learner – Understand cultural values in order to use objects in a way to reinforce self concept and to motivate
  35. 35. 7. Psychology • Psychological Factors – Motivation, self-concept, self-efficacy, and basic beliefs about how the mind makes meaning are very important – Understand how learning objects can make connections between the learner’s experience and the concepts presented in the course in order to achieve learning goals – Learning objects can enhance learner self-efficacy and self-concept, as well as to improve learner self- regulation in the quest for effective, flexible, and adaptable learning strategies
  36. 36. 8. Disabilities • Implement learning objects, particularly for users with low vision, low hearing, or cognitive needs
  37. 37. It’s all about design
  38. 38. It’s all about design Design for Learning Design for Interoperability (metadata) Design for the Learner’s experience Design for Accessibility Design for Reusability Graphic Design Usability Guidelines Choosing a Technology and Development Tools Care and Feeding of Your Learning Objects
  39. 39. Economics of Learning Design
  40. 40. Cost of creating a course • One example of a course that consumes: – 30 days of a subject expert’s time, – 7 days for an internet specialist – Additional expenses for copyright review, academic approval, and administration *Bates, Anthony. Managing Technological Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 2000. pp.138, 144
  41. 41. Cost Analysis Cost Category Cost per day Total Subject Expert (30 days) $400 $12.000 Internet Specialist (7 days) $300 $2.100 Graphics and Interface Design (4 days) $300 $1.200 Copyright Clearance - $700 Total Direct Costs $16.000 Overheads/Indirect Costs (25%) $4.000 Faculty of Education Approval $4.000 TOTAL - $24.000
  42. 42. Assumptions • Experienced course author • HTML specialist • No instructional design costs • No development of any interactive media or course specific Java programming
  43. 43. Delivery Costs? Cost Category Cost per item Total Subject Expert (30 days) $400 $12.000 Internet Specialist (7 days) $300 $2.100 Graphics and Interface Design (4 days) $300 $1.200 Copyright Clearance - $700 Total Direct Costs - $16.000 Overheads/Indirect Costs (25%) - $4.000 Faculty of Education Approval - $4.000 Library - $1.000 Server Costs - $300 Tutoring 40 students $220 $8.800 Registration $14 $640 Administration $28.86 $1.155 Printed material & postage - $1.500 TOTAL - $37.161
  44. 44. Economies of Scale • The previous model is problematic cause: – Courses are developed from scratch – Delivered only to a minimum set of students
  45. 45. Discussion • Develop a learning strategy which connects the desired learner outcomes and content with underlying theories • In Learning Design, best practices that take into learning theory and behavioral psychology, including motivation, have a higher likelihood of success • It is important to assess and review best practices on a regular basis, and make sure they align with desired learning outcomes, and user needs
  46. 46. First Floor Learning Design Next stop: 2nd Floor – Learning Technologies 1