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Data 2 Documents
Modular and Distributive
Content Management in RDF
Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus S...
The ‘web of documents’
Sharing content between web
documents and systems is hard
¤  Content Management Systems
all have Sp...
The ‘web of data’
Using Linked Data in web
documents is non-trivial
¤  Tools often require a lot of expert
knowledge to us...
Can we solve both with one solution?
Our ambition is to turn the technology stack around:
Not yet another tool, but using ...
‘Ripping apart web documents’
Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF
Niels Ockeloen, Victor d...
‘Ripping apart web documents’
Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF
Niels Ockeloen, Victor d...
‘Ripping apart web documents’
Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF
Data 2 Documents
Declara...
The knowledge involved
We want to facilitate re-use of the effort put into the
selection, composition and rendering of dat...
The Data 2 Documents vocabulary
Models the knowledge needed for
RDF based Content Management
¤  Provides essential abstrac...
Relation with HTML5
HTML5 offers guidance for
breaking up web documents
with semantic elements
like Article, Section, Head...
Render Definition
Definitions to (re)construct documents
Article Definitions and Render Definitions provide the abstractio...
Modularity and Distributiveness
Content and Definitions can be located on different servers
across the web, and can be re-...
Vocabulary schema
Definitions: which data is selected? And how it is rendered?
Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive C...
Reference implementation
A general parsing script
that interprets the d2d
vocabulary
¤  Based mainly on two
recursive func...
Evaluation
Goal: Sanity Check – Can people actually work with this?
¤  Two experiments
¤  7 Linked Data experts
¤  73 Mast...
Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF
Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus S...
Tasks
Participants had to perform 9 tasks
and fill in a questionnaire
¤  Increasing in complexity
¤  Copy article
¤  Edit ...
Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF
Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus S...
Evaluation results (1)
Success Rate and Average Time for the first (red) and second (blue) experiment
Data 2 Documents Mod...
Evaluation results (2)
Data 2 Documents
“I	would	consider	using	Data	2	
Documents,	if	I	have	to	develop	a	
general	website...
Conclusions
Data 2 Documents (d2d): A vocabulary for Modular and Distributive
Content Management in a declarative fashion,...
Two sides of the story
Why is this interesting from a Knowledge Engineering and
Knowledge Management perspective?
¤  The r...
Questions…
www.data2documents.org
Data 2 Documents
Thank you for
your attention
Modular and Distributive Content Managemen...
“The assignment was really helpful to understand about linked data.”
“I can see why people would make use of D2D, it is ea...
“It was nice to see how easy it is to use data from external sources to
create a nice website”
“I heard the terms Linked D...
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Data 2 Documents: Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF

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Content Management Systems haven’t gained much from the Linked Data uptake, and sharing content between different websites and systems is hard. On the other side, using Linked Data in web documents is not as trivial as managing regular web content using a CMS. To address these issues, we present a method for creating human readable web documents out of machine readable web data, focussing on modularity and re-use. A vocabulary is introduced to structure the knowledge involved in these tasks in a modular and distributable fashion. The vocabulary has a strong relation with semantic elements in HTML5 and allows for a declarative form of content management expressed in RDF. We explain and demonstrate the vocabulary using concrete examples with RDF data from various sources and present a user study in two sessions involving (semantic) web experts and computer science students.

Published in: Science

Data 2 Documents: Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF

  1. 1. Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  2. 2. The ‘web of documents’ Sharing content between web documents and systems is hard ¤  Content Management Systems all have Specific implementation details and data models ¤  46% of websites uses a know CMS ¤  Content exchange using offline converters, plugins, RSS, IFrames ¤  No clear standards for sharing fragments of content on the web ¤  Most common: including HTML snippets (e.g. YouTube videos) ¤  Social Media platforms analyse the content of added links Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  3. 3. The ‘web of data’ Using Linked Data in web documents is non-trivial ¤  Tools often require a lot of expert knowledge to use ¤  Not as trivial as doing regular web content management ¤  Applications, tools and plugins are in many cases created specifically for the task or purpose at hand Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  4. 4. Can we solve both with one solution? Our ambition is to turn the technology stack around: Not yet another tool, but using RDF/Linked Data as the foundation for doing content management on the web ¤  RDF-based Linked Data has all the necessary properties ¤  Eliminating traditional boundaries between sites ¤  No difference between regular content and existing Linked Data; provides a way of including Linked Data in web documents ¤  Bridges the ‘gap’ between the Web of Data and the Web of Documents Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  5. 5. ‘Ripping apart web documents’ Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  6. 6. ‘Ripping apart web documents’ Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  7. 7. ‘Ripping apart web documents’ Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Data 2 Documents Declarative Content Management expressed in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016 RENDERING AND STYLE TEXT IMAGE
  8. 8. The knowledge involved We want to facilitate re-use of the effort put into the selection, composition and rendering of data ¤  How to select data? ¤  How to compose that data into logical document sections? ¤  How to render those in the document? ¤  How to re-use those efforts? à We need to model the knowledge involved in these tasks! Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  9. 9. The Data 2 Documents vocabulary Models the knowledge needed for RDF based Content Management ¤  Provides essential abstraction layers for Content Management ¤  Extends upon the notion of Semantic Elements in HTML5 ¤  Works with heterogeneous Linked Data from multiple sources ¤  Makes Content Management Declarative, Modular and Distributive Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  10. 10. Relation with HTML5 HTML5 offers guidance for breaking up web documents with semantic elements like Article, Section, Header, etc. ¤  A document consist of a number of nested Sections ¤  An Article is a Section with content that can be read out of context, as in Syndication ¤  HTML5 does not specify how to achieve this re-use; Data 2 Documents facilitates this Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  11. 11. Render Definition Definitions to (re)construct documents Article Definitions and Render Definitions provide the abstraction layers of data selection, composition, and rendering Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016 Article Definition Field Specification Field Specification Triple Specification
  12. 12. Modularity and Distributiveness Content and Definitions can be located on different servers across the web, and can be re-used by others Multiple Article Definitions can fit the same data, while multiple Render Definitions can fit the same Article Definition Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  13. 13. Vocabulary schema Definitions: which data is selected? And how it is rendered? Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  14. 14. Reference implementation A general parsing script that interprets the d2d vocabulary ¤  Based mainly on two recursive functions ¤  Processing of Sections ¤  Processing of Triple Specifications Data 2 Documents Function ProcessSection(Section) { Definition = GetFromLibrary(Section->Type); ForEach FieldSpec in Definition { TripleSpec = FieldSpec->TripleSpec; Field = ProcessTripleSpec(TripleSpec, Section); If (Field->Type == Section) { ProcessSection(Field); } else { Render(Field); } } } Function ProcessTripleSpec(TripleSpec, Section) { NeededPr = TripleSpec->NeededPredicate; Object = Section->{NeededPr}; NestedTripleSpec = TripleSpec->mustSatisfy(); If (NestedTripleSpec != Null) { return ProcessTripleSpec(NestedTripleSpec, Object); } else { return Object; } } Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  15. 15. Evaluation Goal: Sanity Check – Can people actually work with this? ¤  Two experiments ¤  7 Linked Data experts ¤  73 Master students ¤  Change and extend a D2D based web document ¤  Using only an online text editor Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  16. 16. Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  17. 17. Tasks Participants had to perform 9 tasks and fill in a questionnaire ¤  Increasing in complexity ¤  Copy article ¤  Edit articles ¤  Create article based on external FOAF profile ¤  Re-use articles from other participants ¤  Place content using DBpedia IRIs ¤  Change the rendering of articles Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  18. 18. Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  19. 19. Evaluation results (1) Success Rate and Average Time for the first (red) and second (blue) experiment Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  20. 20. Evaluation results (2) Data 2 Documents “I would consider using Data 2 Documents, if I have to develop a general website in the future” “Manually edi>ng Data 2 Documents defini>ons is not significantly harder to do than manually edi>ng HTML” “I would consider using Data 2 Documents, if I have to develop a site in the future that uses Linked Data” Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  21. 21. Conclusions Data 2 Documents (d2d): A vocabulary for Modular and Distributive Content Management in a declarative fashion, expressed in RDF ¤  Facilitates sharing content across sites, and re-use of the knowledge needed for data selection, composition and rendering ¤  Participants do not disagree that manually editing d2d definitions is not significantly harder to do than manually editing HTML ¤  The majority of participants would consider using d2d to develop websites with Linked Data Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016 Future work ¤  Creation of GUI components ¤  JavaScript implementation
  22. 22. Two sides of the story Why is this interesting from a Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management perspective? ¤  The representation and re-use aspect of knowledge in existing knowledge bases and systems, including the Linked Open Data Cloud ¤  The modeling and managing of the knowledge involved in doing RDF-based Content Management ¤  How to compose data elements into documents ¤  Which elements, In what order, From what pattern, Constraints ¤  How to use that composition in a certain context ¤  In this case, the rendering in HTML5 Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  23. 23. Questions… www.data2documents.org Data 2 Documents Thank you for your attention Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  24. 24. “The assignment was really helpful to understand about linked data.” “I can see why people would make use of D2D, it is easy to connect different files to each other without having to have the needed files.” “Even though different articles in the course syllabus presented RDF syntax and HTML editing, no real commitment was asked from the reader to implement any of the suggested techniques. Thereby I have realized that my theoretical coverage of the material was until now incomplete given that it lacked a practical approach. This introductory experiment with Linked Data management through D2D documents has therefore provided me with a broader insight of the specifics that web document linkage, editing and organizing requires.” “I really liked this assignment and would have wanted to have more assignments similar to this one.” “Completing this assignment I felt like I learned a lot and found a better way to interlinking webpages and making websites than the traditional way of making them.” “When I read the instructions at first I did not understand all the tasks. But after some minutes of reflection, it was an interesting challenge and I would have liked to do more exercises like this, because it is useful to put into practice the topics you learn reading academic articles” Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016
  25. 25. “It was nice to see how easy it is to use data from external sources to create a nice website” “I heard the terms Linked Data and Open Data so many times, but never actually had a hands-on experience. I am therefore, very happy with this assignment. It was very nice to see the changes I made immediately appearing on the website.” “I personally really enjoyed this assignment. Data becomes very accessible for re-use with D2D. The task where you take other people's comments is a very good example.” “I must say when I saw this assignment on BB for first time, I though I should forget the 3 points because I done have any knowledge in HTML or Linked Data, but I found one of the goals of this assignment exactly is that everyone can work with it.” “D2D is easy to use. I like the fact that it separates the design from the content. Even without a graphical content management system, it is quite easy to understand with some basic HTML knowledge.” “Doing the tasks I realized how you can link all sorts of external knowledge together in one page. When you want to change something to the knowledge you just have to update some links and the website will automatically be updated as well.” Data 2 Documents Modular and Distributive Content Management in RDF Niels Ockeloen, Victor de Boer, Tobias Kuhn and Guus Schreiber v EKAW 2016 v 21 November 2016

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