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This chapter introduces the semantic modeling procedure, detailing its technical characteristics, possibilities and limitations. First, we present the languages that are used for semantic description. We present RDF, RDFS and OWL, describe their expressiveness in terms of describing Web Resources, and the abilities they provide in order to describe, query, administer and manage resources at a semantic layer. Next, we present the vocabularies that are used in order to provide common grounds in understanding and communicating ideas and concepts. The technologies, together with the vocabularies used, altogether comprise the modern landscape of Semantic Web/Linked Data applications and serve as the basis for maintaining, analyzing datasets and building applications on top of them.