World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes


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World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes

  1. 1. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1
  2. 2. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization The Origins of Islam Preview • Starting Points Map: Arabia • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The Arabian Peninsula • Muhammad the Messenger • Map: Islam in Arabia • Basic Ideas of Islam Section 1
  3. 3. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Section 1
  4. 4. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 The Origins of Islam Main Idea 1. Muhammad, a merchant whom Muslims believe was the last prophet, reported that he received messages from God. The religion he taught—Islam—drew many followers. Reading Focus • What was Arabia like at the time of Muhammad’s birth? • What were Muhammad’s messages, and how were they received? • What are some basic ideas of Islam?
  5. 5. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization The Arabian Peninsula Arabia was sparsely populated 1,500 years ago. Small bands of bedouins moved their herds between scattered oases in the desert. The Setting • Farming limited in Arabia • Commerce lively – Trade routes converged at Arabian Peninsula – Ideas as well as merchandise exchanged – Trade-dependent towns rose near coasts • Mecca, near Red Sea, most important of coastal towns Religious Function • The Kaaba, cube-shaped structure, at heart of Mecca • 500s, already ancient, considered sacred • Possible meteorite built into one wall, “relic from heaven” • Idols of local gods inside • Site drew religious pilgrims • One god considered supreme: Allah
  6. 6. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 Muhammad the Messenger Early Life Muhammad’s Faith • Muhammad ibn Abd Allah born 570 • Had always been religious man, but faiths of others probably also influenced Muhammad’s thinking • Parents died, Muhammad raised by uncle, powerful clan leader • Grew up to have successful career in Mecca as merchant • Married to older woman at age 25, fathered seven children, all but one of whom died young • Met followers of Judaism, Christianity while traveling on business • Took frequent spiritual retreats • Angel appeared to him during retreat, commanded him to speak messages from Allah • Muhammad disturbed by visitation, unsure of meaning • After more visits from angel, Muhammad concluded God had chosen him to be prophet
  7. 7. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization The Revelations Messages • Among many messages from angel, Muhammad reported Allah one and only true and all-powerful God • Other messages, instructions on how to live to please Allah, live in paradise Public Preaching • Muhammad originally told only wife, few friends about experiences • Began to preach in public after about three years, attracted many followers • Some powerful Meccans did not accept teachings Safety • Many disliked Muhammad’s criticism of traditional beliefs in many gods • Only protection of uncle kept him safe • After uncle’s death Muhammad knew he and followers not safe in Mecca
  8. 8. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 Sharing the Revelations Hegira • 622, Muhammad moved to Yathrib, came to be called Medina, “the Prophet’s City”; journey from Mecca to Medina came to be known as hegira • Later Muslims marked year of hegira as first year of Islamic calendar Building Faith • Muhammad spent decade building community of fellow believers • Called faith Islam, meaning “achieving peace through submission to God” • Followers known as Muslims 2. Mecca • People of Mecca who wanted Muhammad stopped did not give up • Fought several battles with Muhammad, followers, ultimately lost ground • 630, Muhammad controlled Mecca, influence unmatched
  9. 9. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1
  10. 10. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Sequence What events led up to Muhammad’s taking control of Mecca? Answer(s): Muhammad moved to Medina, number of followers grew; Meccans fought him and his followers but lost
  11. 11. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Basic Ideas of Islam • As Muhammad gained political power, revelations continued • Muhammad could not read, write; recited revelations • Followers memorized words, some wrote them down • Writings Muslims believe as direct revelations from God collected in Qur’an, sacred test of Islam Qur’an • Muslims read from Qur’an to hear Allah’s teachings • Seek religious experience in rhythm, beauty of words • Full meaning known only in original Arabic language • Translations not true representation Five Pillars of Islam • Five basic acts of worship central to Islam, Five Pillars of Islam • Profession of faith • Performance of five daily prayers • Giving of alms to poor, needy • Fasting during month of Ramadan • Make pilgrimage to Mecca
  12. 12. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Five Pillars of Islam Profession of Faith • “There is no god but God…” • By affirmation, Muslim signals acceptance of the faith • Denies existence of other gods, accepts Muhammad as prophet Five Daily Prayers • Worshippers say daily prayers five times during day • Always face Mecca to pray, no matter where they are Giving Alms to Poor, Needy Fasting During Ramadan • Muslims supposed to give percentage of income to charity • Muslims required to go without food, drink, dawn to dusk • Even those with little encouraged to help others • Ramadan when Muhammad began to report messages written down in Qur’an
  13. 13. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Mecca Pilgrimage to Mecca • Muslims physically, financially able required to go to Mecca • Journey called the hajj – Gather to pray in mosque – Perform various rituals, walk seven times around Kaaba – Climb Mount Arafat, site of Muhammad’s last sermon
  14. 14. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 3. Guidelines for Behavior • Qur’an provides guidelines for moral behavior • Muslims may not eat pork, drink alcohol, must wash before praying • Qur’an prohibits murder, lying, stealing • Requires jihad, to defend Muslim community, also means “holy war” Sunna and Sharia • Record of Muhammad’s behavior, teachings known as Sunna, “tradition,” provides guidance in personal relationships, business • Muslim legal system known as Sharia, reflects various rules by which Muslims should live, outlines method of reasoning, argument for legal cases, made up of opinions, writings over several centuries
  15. 15. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 People of the Book • Islam monotheistic like Jewish, Christian faiths • Islamic beliefs: – Allah the same as God in Jewish, Christian traditions – Abraham, Moses, Jesus messengers from God – Muhammad, last of God’s prophets – Qur’an represents God’s final message – Muslims told to respect Jews, Christians as “people of the book;” share tradition of prophets who taught, received God’s revelations
  16. 16. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Summarize What are the acts of worship required of all Muslims? Answer(s): The Five Pillars of Islam—profession of faith, five daily prayers, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, and the hajj