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Lesson 5 Caliphate and the Great Split

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Part 5 of the series - Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This

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Lesson 5 Caliphate and the Great Split

  1. 1. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 1 A Special Topic Course Presented by: www.IslamicStateOfAmerica.com Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Lesson 5: Rise of the Caliphate, and the Great Split
  2. 2. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split Review: Muhammad, Qur’an, and Hadith • Muhammad lived 570 – 632 AD • Revelations in the cave of Hira, thought he heard from Satan • Wife (Khadijah) encourages that he is hearing from God • Revelations last 22 years. Recites everything he hears from Jibreel • Cast out of Mecca, to Medina. Later conquers Mecca • Cleans out the Kaaba, establishes pilgrimage and worship of Allah • Unites Arabia, marries 11 women, final sermon in 632 AD • Not sure of his own salvation, has dark view of death • Revelations captured in book form by 652 AD • Qur’an is considered final and authoritative word, Arabic preferred • Hadith capture traditions of Muhammad and his relatives • Significant lack of agreement across sects on veracity of hadith 2
  3. 3. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split Review: Biblical Tests of a Prophet • 100% prophetic accuracy – Deuteronomy 18:22, Jeremiah 28:9 • Biblical faithfulness – Deuteronomy 13:1-4 • Exalts Jesus – 1 John 4:1-2, Revelation 19:10 • Commandment-keeping – Isaiah 8:20, 1 Corinthians 14:37 • Spiritual fruit – Matthew 7:20 • Tested by Scripture – 1 Thessalonians 5:20-21, Ephesians 4:11-13, 2 Peter 1:19 Does Muhammad and his his compiled revelation pass the Biblical test? Prophet… or antichrist? 1 John 2:22-23 1 John 4:2-4 3
  4. 4. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 4 Why This Lesson? • What we don’t know about history is hurting us… – The rise of Islam and the establishment of the Caliphate is essential history in order to understand the motivations of jihadists and Islamists like Bin Laden and the Muslim Brotherhood • They seek the reestablishment of an Islamic empire and the Caliph – Every Muslim knows the early history of Islam and its spread across Arabia into north Africa, Spain, and east to Asia – We need to learn this history, too • Ergun Caner: “Westerners do not recognize that tragedies today grow out of fourteen hundred years of struggle between two religious and political giants—Islam and Christendom…. As Islam reverts back to a model that guided its first millennium, unbelievers of any race, creed or background are fair game to the Muslim warrior. In the new crusades, the West is engaged in a battle that is political in process, but religious in essence.”
  5. 5. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 5 First “Horseman of Muhammad” • Abu Bakr (632 – 634 AD): Securing the Religion • Father in law to Muhammad (Aisha was his daughter.) • Named Caliph (Khalifa) or deputy successor at death of Muhammad • Led holy war (Jihad) to secure the Arabian peninsula from chaotic revolt and fulfill Muhammad’s command that “no two religions are to exist on the Arabian peninsula.” – Wars of Apostasy fought against rebelling tribes. Pushed north against Byzantine Empire and Romans in Syria, through to Damascus Abu Bakr was “an intimate companion” of Muhammad. Responsible for collecting the recitations of the Qur’an into written form
  6. 6. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 6 Second “Horseman of Muhammad” • Umar (634 – 644 AD): The “Apostle Paul of Islam” – Took over on death of Abu Bakr, who died of sickness – Major conquests across Middle East and north Africa • Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Persia. Made Jerusalem submit to Muslim control – Political genius and masterful administrator. – Venerated by Muslims as “the most just of the Caliphs” • Defined protection to be given to Christians and Jews. Protection only provided after submission to Islamic rule. – The other view. These rules are in effect today • Christians have no right to build new places of worship. • Christians may not remodel churches in conquered lands • Christians must pay the jizya tax to Islamic authorities • Muslims can take places of worship by force in conquered areas • Muslims may destroy places of worship in conquered areas
  7. 7. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 7 Third “Horseman of Muhammad” • Uthman (644 – 656 AD) – Muslim view: Elected by committee to succeed Umar. – Other view: Persian slave who murdered Umar in his home while he was reading the Qur’an – Muslim view: Economic reformer who codified the Qur’an – Other view: Selfish ruler hated by the people, whose rule led to a period of widespread Islamic civil war – Led conquest of North Africa – Assassinated in his palace – Body left to rot for three days – Sunni and Shia dispute story Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uthman_Ibn_Affan
  8. 8. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 8 Fourth “Horseman of Muhammad” • Ali bin Au Taleb (656 – 661 AD on Gregorian calendar) – Uthman’s son-in-law, cousin of Muhammad – Dismissed many of the provincial governors established by Uthman – Bitterly opposed by Aisha. Led to civil war (fitna) with no victor – Ali assassinated in 661 AD, leading to Shi’a-Sunni split – As a descendant of Muhammad, he is considered by Shi’a Muslims to be the first infallible Caliph Burial Place of Ali in An-Najaf, Iraq http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali
  9. 9. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 9 The Fruit of Jihad • 661 – 1095 AD – Internal strife subsided and Islam gained larger focus: Conquest – Cyprus 647 AD – Tunisia, northern Afghanistan (Kabul) 670 – Rhodes 672 – Constantinople 677 – Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem 691 – North Africa 700, Spain 711 – Turkestan 715, Morocco 722 – Damascus, Syria was capital Source: http://www.gmi.org/products/islamoht.htm
  10. 10. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 10 The Spread of Islam
  11. 11. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 11 The Northern Advance Ends Source: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caliph The Islamic advance into Europe ends with the Battle of Tours, 732 AD. Charles Martel and Franks (The Hammer) halt invasion into what is now France. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tours
  12. 12. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 12 The Expansion of Islam Today Major demographic changes in Europe with flow of refugees
  13. 13. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split Global Distribution of Muslims 13
  14. 14. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 14 Video: Islam and Politics: Crash Course World History https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ka8csjsmX6I
  15. 15. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split Sunni Islam • Sunnah… “The way of the Prophet” or “Traditions” – Sunni = largest ‘denomination’ within Islam • Agreed to elect Muhammad’s successors = Caliph (Kalifa) Shari’a law systematized by Sunnis in 819 AD Shari’a = “The way to the watering hole” Religious duty = ibadat Ethics = m’Amalat Jurisprudence = fiqh 15
  16. 16. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split Sunni Islam • Sunni Islam has six articles of faith known as the six pillars of iman that all Sunni Muslims are united on in belief,[along with the 105 key points of creed mentioned in Aṭ-Ṭaḥāwī's Islamic Theology. – Reality of the one true God – Existence of the angels of God – Authority of the books of God which are scrolls of Abraham, the scrolls of Moses, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel, and the Quran – Following the prophets of God – Preparation for and belief in the Day of Judgment – Supremacy of God's will, i.e. belief in predestination good or bad is from God alone • The predominant sect of Islam across the world, with the exception of Shi’a (Iran, Iraq, Syria), Sufi (Egypt, other) • Believe that leaders are elected, not necessarily related to Muhammad 16
  17. 17. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split Shi’a and the Great Split • Muawiyah held Egypt; marched on Iraq in 657 AD at Battle of Sifin – Bribed Caliph Ali’s forces to turn against him. Ali forced to make peace. Umayyad Caliphate was subsequently established • Ali assassinated – Killed with a poison coated sword while praying in the Mosque at Kufa on 19th day of Ramadan (Jan 27, 661 AD) • Ali asked before that he be buried in secret – Most believe he is entombed in Iraq (An Najaf), others say Afghanistan (Mazari Sharif) • Shi’a means “of a faction of Ali” Battle of Sifin, 657 AD 17
  18. 18. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split Husayn and the Battle of Karbala 18 • October 10, 680 AD (Islamic year 61 AH) – In area of modern Iraq (Karbala) – Small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad’s grandson Husayn ibn Ali (32 horsemen, 40 infantry) fought off a much larger detachment (1000 infantry, 5000 horsemen) of the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad Caliph – Husayn was killed and beheaded along with most of his family, including his 6-month old son. He asked for time to pray before being killed. The warrior betrayed him and cut off his head during the prayers. – Battle of Karbala has a central place in Shi’a history • Holy Day of Ashura • Self-flagellation rituals
  19. 19. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split The Shi’a Mahdi • Caliph Ali was followed by a series of Imams (spiritual guides) in whom Shi’a Muslims placed their trust • 7th Imam was Muhammad ibn Ismail => Ismaili Muslims • 12th Imam (born 868 AD) was Muhammad Al’ Mahdi – Hidden by Allah at age 5, is still alive but in an “occultation” awaiting the time that Allah has decreed for him to return – He will be a young man of medium build… he will not come in an odd year… will announce himself in Mecca near the Kaaba. He will call people to pay allegiance to him – The Hidden Imam will return as the Mahdi with a company of “chosen ones.” His enemies will be led by the one-eyed Dajjal (Anti-Christ), fighting in an apocalyptic battle where the Mahdi prevails over evil near Mecca. • Note: Many Sunnis say that Shi’a Mahdi = Sunni Dajjal (antichrist) 19
  20. 20. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split 20 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5KLvjs7Yrtw Video: What's the Difference Between Sunni and Shia Muslims?
  21. 21. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split Review: The Spread of Islam The Caliphs Abu Bakr – 632 -634 AD Umar - 634 – 644 AD (died of sickness ??) Uthman - 644 – 656 AD (murdered in his palace) Ali bin Au Taleb - 656 – 661 AD (assassinated) - Shi’a follow descendants of Ali Ali at the Battle of Badr, 624 AD 21
  22. 22. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Rise of the Caliphate and the Great Split In the Next Lesson • Lesson 6 – “Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi” – The foundation of Shi’a belief – Sunni and Sufi beliefs – Rise of the Mahdi – End times and Islamic belief – What does the Bible say • About other prophecies? • About end times? • Pray! 22

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