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Presentazione del Prof. Philip Kotler


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Slide di Presentazione del Prof Philip Kotler per il PKMF 2015.
Milano 15 maggio 2015

Published in: Marketing
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Presentazione del Prof. Philip Kotler

  1. 1. Competing Successfully: A Humanistic Marketing Approach Milan, Italy May 15, 2015 Philip Kotler Kellogg School of Management Northwestern University
  2. 2. Managing the New Marketing 1. Meeting The Global Challenges 2. Building Your Marketing and Sales Organization 3. Moving From Traditional Marketing to Digital Marketing and Marketing Analytics 4. Moving to Marketing 3.0 and Corporate Social Responsibility Managing the New Marketing
  3. 3. 1. Meeting the Global Challenges
  4. 4. • Globalization and Chindia • Regional trade associations • Internet and social media • Hypercompetition • Shorter product life cycles • Commoditization • Retail transformation • Media proliferation • Environmental concerns • Consumer empowerment • Slow economic growth Meeting the Global Challenges
  5. 5. How Does Your Company Rate? __ Finding New Opportunities __ Using Marketing Research and Marketing Analytics __ Innovating Successfully __ Using Communications Effectively __ Running Your Sales Force Effectively __ Running Your Distribution Channels Effectively __ Having a Well-Thought-Out Marketing Strategy __ Being Well Organized for Marketing __ Corporate Social Responsibility and Environment __ 45 is maximum
  6. 6. On Finding New Opportunities • Are there opportunities in old industries? – Yes, Starbucks, Zara, Zappos • Are there opportunities in new industries? – Yes, software and apps, robotics, nanotechnology, bioengineering, 3D printing, • Are there new opportunities in other countries? – Yes, Asia is growing fast and Africa is the next frontier • Are there new opportunities in the lower end of the market? – Yes, in producing lower cost products: Tata Nano, $100 computer, sneakers for $1 • Are there new opportunities in the higher end of the market? – Yes, China and Russia now have so many new millionaires • Are there new opportunities in specific sectors of the economy? – Yes, health, education, energy
  7. 7. Recent Innovations • Digital wallet • Zip cars • Uber and Airbnb (sharing assets) • Single serve coffee maker • Kidzania • IBMs Watson • Warby Parker eye glasses at $95 • “Reverse innovation” • “Free marketing” • Nike+ (platforms)
  8. 8. Disruptive Technologies • Photographic film • Wired telephones • Store retailing • Classroom education • Offset printing • General hospitals • Open surgery • Cardiac bypass surgery • Manned fighters • Full service stock brokerage • Digital photography • Mobile telephones • On-line retailing • Distance education • Digital printing • Outpatient clinics • Endoscopic surgery • Angioplasty • Unmanned aircraft • On-line stock brokerage Source: Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator’s Dilemma, p. xxix. ; OLD NEW Disruptive Innovation Will Face You
  9. 9. Needed Tools! • Vulnerability analysis • Opportunity analysis • Scenario planning
  10. 10. 2.Building Your Marketing Organization Linden and Chris Brown, The Customer Culture Imperative, McGraw Hill, 2014
  11. 11. Winning at Marketing • Is there any difference between Selling and Marketing? • Yes! • Selling is millions of years old • Marketing is 110 years old.
  12. 12. Who was the first Sales Person? Source:
  13. 13. Marketing started because Sales departments needed others to: Conduct consumer research Find Leads Prepare brochures and other promotions
  14. 14. The Sales Funnel Prospecting Qualifying Defining Needs Contract Negotiation Developing Solutions Proposal Preparation/ Presentation Revision & Issue Resolution Implemen- tation Purchase Intention Purchase Loyalty Customer Advocacy
  15. 15. The Marketing and Sales Funnel Purchase Intention Customer Awareness Brand Awareness Brand Consider- ation Brand Preference Purchase Loyalty Customer Advocacy Marketing SalesHandoff
  16. 16. Six Ways to Improve Marketing/Sales Alignment 1. Hold regularly scheduled meetings between marketing and sales. 2. Make it easier for marketing and sales people to communicate with each other. 3. Arrange for more joint work assignments and job rotation between marketing and sales people. 4. Appoint a liason person from marketing to live with the sales force and help marketers understand sales problems better. 5. Set shared revenue objectives and reward systems. 6. Improve sales force feedback. Six Ways to Improve Marketing/Sales Alignment
  17. 17. Marketing’s Changing Focus • 1950-1970 Product orientation • 1970-1990 Customer orientation • 1990-2010 Branding orientation • 2010-2015 Value and values orientation • 2015-2020 Co-creation and crowdsourcing orientation • 2020-2030 Corporate social responsibility
  18. 18. Marketing’s Evolving Customer View • Focus on transactions • Focus on building individual customer relationships • Focus on engaging customers and building a customer community
  19. 19. On Using Marketing Research and Marketing Analytics • New in Marketing Research – Ethnographic m arketing – Neural scanning – Metaphor analysis • New in Marketing Analytics – Predictive analytics – Cluster analysis – Marketing m ix m odeling – Big Data analysis: By processing a steady stream of real- tim e data, organizations can m ake tim e-sensitive decisions faster than ever before, m onitor em erging trends, course- correct rapidly, and jum p on new business opportunities. – One on one m arketing: ““W e can tell you what m usic you are likely to buy, what m ovie you will select to buy or rent and what Apple product will m ost likely appeal to you.”
  20. 20. Big Data Marketing Examples • Tesco supermarkets – Tesco has identified 5,000 customer “needs” segments. It sends out some 300,000 variations of any given offer with redemption rates of 90%. It has formed clubs such as Baby Club, A World of Wine Club, My Time Club • Kraft – Kraft has the names of 110 million customers and 20 thousand facts for each household. Kraft launched print magazine, Food & Family, that is delivered to the homes of 2.1 million Kraft customers in 32 versions tailored to 32 segments.
  21. 21. Big Data and Analytics Marketing 1. Determining information needed 2. Big data collection 3. Apply analytics 4. Derive insights 5. Make decisions 6. Implement decisions 7. Check and learn from outcomes
  22. 22. Data Broker Industry Lists
  23. 23. Kotler Receives a Letter from a Data Broker • Hi, I hope you are doing fine. I am checking in to see if you are looking for marketing and data partners/supplier. We are providing b2b and b2c lists with email addresses and other information worldwide. We have 40 million b2b and 250 million b2c records across the world with their email addresses and other details. • The list can be used for multi-channel marketing purposes like telemarketing, fax marketing, direct marketing and email marketing. We can be your partners and would be happy to work with you as your back end partners.
  24. 24. Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization • Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) or Marketing Vice President • Brand managers • Category managers • Market segment managers • Distribution channel managers • Pricing managers • Marketing communication managers • Database managers • Direct marketers • Internet and social media managers • Etc.
  25. 25. Four CEO Views of Marketing The size and type of department depends on the type of industry, size of company, nature of buying, and other factors. Much depends on the CEO’s view of marketing. • 1P CEO • 4P CEO • STP CEO • ME CEO
  26. 26. What are the 6 Tasks of the CMO? 1. Represent the voice of the custom er (VOC) to others in the company and champion the development of a strong customer- orientation to build loyal customers. 2. Monitor the evolving business landscape and gather customer insights to help develop new products and services for achieving growth objectives. 3. Be the steward of the corporate brand and brand-building practice. 4. Upgrade marketing technology and skills in the company. 5. Bring insight into the corporate portfolio and synergies. 6. Measure and account for marketing financial performance and contain media and other service costs.
  27. 27. If You Are Appointed CMO, You Prefer That Your Office Be Located Next To: 1. CEO office 2. CFO office 3. CTO office 4. CIO office 5. VPS office ??
  28. 28. The Four Tasks of Holistic Marketing
  29. 29. Is Marketing only a Cost Center? NO. Marketing Can Help the Company Grow its Future! Can Marketing Help Grow the Company’s Future? – Marketing is in the best position to detect business opportunities, calibrate their size and estimate their likely profitability. – Marketing manages important intangible assets (brands, customer relationship, networks, market position, market information)
  30. 30. Leader Brand Mission and Vision Ingvar Kamprad IKEA Make stylish furniture affordable Richard Branson Virgin Bring excitement in boring industries Walt Disney Walt Disney Create magical world for families Herb Kelleher Southwest Airlines Make flying possible for many people Anita Roddick The Body Shop Embed social activism in business Bill Gates Microsoft Realize ubiquitous computing Steve Jobs Apple Transform how people enjoy technology Jeff Bezos Provide the biggest selection of knowledge delivered conveniently Examples of Great Marketing Vision
  31. 31. Five shifts • Creating Marketing Strategies1st Shift • Controlling the message2nd Shift • Incremental improvement3rd Shift • Managing marketing investment4th Shift • Operational Focus5th Shift Driving business Impact Galvanizing your network Pervasive innovation Inspiring marketing excellence Relentless customer focus
  32. 32. Most Companies are Short Lived • Average company may last from 10-20 years. – Hyper-competition – Changing buyer wants and budgets – Lack of an innovation culture – Short term focus and failure to invest in a longer term performance • Yet some companies have endured for hundreds of years. • What are their secrets? Most Companies are Short Lived
  33. 33. Arie de Geus • In Living Companies, Arie de Geus found that 30 companies have been around at least 100 years, including DuPont, W.R. Grace, P&G, Mitsui, Sumitomo, and Siemens. • Four traits of Living Companies: – Conservatism in financing – Sensitivity to the world around them – Awareness of their identity – Tolerance of new ideas • Four priorities: – Valuing people, not assets – Loosening steering and control – Organizing for learning – Shaping the human community Traits of Long-Living Companies
  34. 34. HYPOTHETICAL STARBUCKS BRAND POSITIONING BULLSEYE Consumer Target Discerning Coffee Drinker Consumer Insight Coffee and the drinking experience is often unsatisfying Consumer Need State Desire for better coffee and a better consum ption experience Competitive Product Set Local cafes Fast food & convenience shops Consumer Takeaw ay Starbucks gives m e the richest possible sensory experience drinking coffee Brand M antra Rich, Rewarding Coffee Experience Fairly Priced Relaxing, rewarding moments Responsible, locally involved Rich sensory consumption experience Varied, exotic coffee drinks Fresh high quality coffee 24 hour training of baristas Green & Earth Colors Siren logo Caring Contemporary Thoughtful Convenient, friendly service Triple Filtrated water Totally integrated system Stock options/ health benefits or baristas Branding is Key: The Case of Starbucks
  35. 35. B2B Companies Turn to Branding 35
  36. 36. Clothing Carpets Diet Soft Drinks Cooking Utensils Bicycle Gears Sound Systems Computer Chips Crystal Component Ingredient Companies Turn to Branding 36
  37. 37. Marketing Forges Ahead • Commercial marketing • Place marketing • Person marketing • Social marketing • Political marketing
  38. 38. 3. Moving From Traditional to Digital Marketing
  39. 39. From Traditional to Digital Media Traditional Media • Face-to-face sales calls • Trade fairs • Leaflets, posters, brochures • Billboards • Newspapers and magazines • Direct mail and catalogs • Telephone • Radio • TV • Film • Sponsorships • Street level promotion and festivals • Product placement Digital Media • Websites • Email • Banners and pop-ups • Podcasts • Webcasts • Videocasts • Expressive social media (Blogs, Facebook,Twitter,, Linkedin, YouTube) • Collaborative social media (Wikipedia, Rotten Tomatoes, Craigslist) • Mobile marketing From Traditional to Digital Marketing
  40. 40. Will your industry be the next industry to crumble?
  41. 41. On Using Communications Effectively -1 • Digitalization has led to the death of Kodak and music stores and the near death of bookstores and newspapers. • Digital products are much cheaper to produce and distribute. • Companies need to master several new digital tools: – Computers, databases, programmable devices, software, Internet, smart phones, apps, social media, Big Data, the Cloud, the Internet of Things, real time decision making • Yet companies are slow to master the new digital tools – According to a 2013 Adobe Survey, 76% say marketing has changed more in the last two years than in the last 50 – Only 9% strongly agree “I know our digital marketing is working” – 60% say digital marketing approaches are in a constant cycle of trial and error
  42. 42. On Using Communications Effectively-2 • The new media must be blended with the old media in a mutually reinforcing way. • Companies like P&G say that 25-35% of their budget now goes into new media. • Companies have to get better at search engine optimization (SEO) • Be aware that Big data requires a dramatic change in skills, leadership, organizational structures, technologies and architectures.
  43. 43. Buying Behavior is Changing Radically • A majority (58%) of all consumers now research products online before purchasing. In searching for a car, you go first to your friends for their ideas. Then you go to expert sites to see car ratings. Then you go to Google to find the best dealers. • An increasing number of people are ordering online, much to the dismay of store based retailers. • 65% of Asian Pacific consumers use online services to locate nearby products and brands. • 70% of Americans say they look at online product reviews before making a purchase. • 79% of consumers say they use a smartphone to help with shopping. Watch for mobile marketing. • B-to-B buyers don’t even want to see salespeople anymore. Power is Shifting to the Empowered Buyers
  44. 44. CMOs are Underprepared • Only 26 percent of CMOs are tracking blogs, 42 percent are tracking third party reviews and 48 percent are tracking consumer reviews. Yet tracking these sources could provide insight into what customers want and buy. • 80 percent of CMOs are still focusing primarily on traditional sources of information such as market research and competitive benchmarking. 68 percent rely on sales campaign analysis. • They don’t understand the younger generation in the U.S. and the emerging middle class in developing countries. Marketers in India have been focusing on affluent Indian consumers rather than on the Indian emerging middle class. Source: The 2011 IBM Global CMO Study of 1,734 CMOs in 19 industries and 64 countries, November 2011. Marketers Are Underprepared
  45. 45. • 63 percent of CMOs believe ROMI will be the most important measure of marketing performance by 2015, but only 44 percent feel prepared to deliver this measure. • CMOs recognize that they will need more digital, technological and financial proficiency in the coming years. • CMOs recognize that they have a strong influence over promotional activities like advertising, external communications and social media initiatives but CMOs play a smaller role in shaping the other 3Ps. – Less than half have much sway over key parts of the pricing process. – Less than half have much impact on new product development or channel selection. • Source: The 2001 IBM Global CMO Study of 1,734 CMOs in 19 industries and 64 countries, November 2011. CMOs Need to be More Financially Accountable
  46. 46. Audit Your Digital Activities - 1 • Establish a web site that people register to use and thereby accumulate a large customer database. • Buy customer information from firms that track the interest patterns of specific consumers based on the sites they navigate. • Encourage consumers to send in emails with questions, concerns, and ideas, therefore creating learning relationships with consumers. • Increase “content marketing” to customers and prospects who give permission. • Offer coupons-on-demand (Cool Savings, Netbonus) or samples of new products on demand ( • Monitor social talk for insights and trends. Increase Your Digital Activities
  47. 47. The Marketing Management Process Plan •Demand Modeling •Marketing Investment Manage •Marketing Resource Management Execute •Campaign Management •Lead Management •Events Management •Loyalty Management •Media Management Measure •Marketing Analytics •Web Analytics
  48. 48. 4. Moving to Marketing 3.0 and Corporate Social Responsibility
  49. 49. What Should Our Goal Be? • Capitalism originally assumed infinite resources and infinite human needs. We now recognize this endangers Planet Earth. • Paul Polman, the brilliant CEO of Unilever, made the following statement: “Our ambitions are to double our business, but to do that while reducing our environmental impact and footprint… It has to be done via more responsible consumption.” • Can economic growth and sustainability really be reconciled? • Should the rest of the world try to attain the U.S. standard of living?
  50. 50. INDIVIDUAL COMPANY Mind Heart Spirit Deliver SATISFACTION Realize ASPIRATION Practise COMPASSION Profit Ability Return Ability Sustain Ability Be BETTER DIFFERENTIATE Make a DIFFERENCE MISSION (Why) VISION (What) VALUES (How) Appealing to the Customer
  51. 51. Values-Based Matrix of S.C. Johnson
  52. 52. Marketing 1.0 Marketing 2.0 Marketing 3.0 MIND HEART SPIRIT PRODUCT- CENTERED CUSTOMER- ORIENTED VALUES-DRIVEN ECONOMIC- VALUE PEOPLE-VALUE ENVIRONMENT- VALUE PROFITS SOCIAL PROGRESS HUMAN HAPPINESS MOVING TOWARD MARKETING 3.0 •Where is your company now? •Where do you want it to be? •Why? •What would steps would you take? •What is Marketing 4.0?
  53. 53. Companies Americans Love Amazon, Apple, Best Buy, BMW, CarMax, Caterpillar, Commerce Bank, Container Store, Costco, eBay, Google, Harley-Davidson, Honda, IDEO, IKEA, JetBlue Johnson & Johnson, Jordan's Furniture, L L Bean, New Balance, Patagonia, Progressive Insurance, REI, Southwest, Starbucks, Timberland, Toyota, Trader Joe's, UPS, Wegmans, Whole Foods. These “firms of endearment” were highly profitable. They outperformed the market by a 9- to-1 ratio over a ten-year period. More fulfilled employees, happy and loyal customers, innovative and profitable suppliers, environmentally healthy communities.
  54. 54. Characteristics of “Firms of Endearment” 1. They align the interests of all stakeholder groups 2. Their executive salaries are relatively m odest 3. They operate an open door policy to reach top m anagem ent 4. Their em ployee com pensation and benefits are high for the category; their em ployee training is longer; and their em ployee turnover is lower 5. They hire people who are passionate about custom ers 6. They view suppliers as true partners who collaborate in im proving productivity and quality and lowering costs 7. They believe that their corporate culture is their greatest asset and prim ary source of com petitive advantage. 8. Their m arketing costs are m uch lower than their peers while custom er satisfaction and retention is m uch higher. Characteristics of Firms of Endearment
  55. 55. Corporate Social Responsibility
  56. 56. Companies Are Increasingly Being Rated on Social Responsibility • The Council on Economic Priorities evaluates company performance on a range of social dimensions and publishes Shopping for a Better World to influence consumers’ purchasing decisions. • Fortune magazine annually rates “Most Admired Companies” where social responsibility is included as a factor.” • Fortune magazine annually rates “Best Companies to Work For.” • 84% of Americans in 2002 said that they “would be likely to switch brands to one associated with a good cause, if price and quality were similar.” Companies are Increasingly Being Rated on Corporate Social Responsibility
  57. 57. Rationale for Companies Investing in Social Initiatives • Companies need to differentiate themselves. Companies with civic virtue will be preferred. • Companies need a decision framework for facing daily requests for sponsorships, improved health coverage, injury prevention, environmental protection and community contributions. • Corporate heads and boards need to understand the social pressures and opportunities facing their companies. • Companies need to build a bank of public goodwill to offset potential criticisms. • Employees, investors, and partners will be more motivated and loyal. Rationale for Investing in CSR
  58. 58. DuPont turns green. Stage 1. Focus on internal safety and meeting environmental regulations. Stage 2. Focus on making better products with less impact on the environment. Stage 3. Focus on all stages of product development from R&D efforts through selecting suppliers and determining what distributors and retailers to use. Stages in Moving toward Corporate Social Responsibility Stages in Moving toward CSR
  59. 59. Wal-Mart turns green Wal-Mart announced in 2005 that it will be a “good steward to the environment” and will spend $500 million a year to increase fuel efficiency in Wal-Mart’s truck fleet by 25% over three years; reduce greenhouse gases by 20% in seven years; reduce energy use at stores by 30%; and cut solid waste from U.S. stores and Sam’s Clubs by 25% in three years. Wal-Mart is experimenting with green roofs, corn-based plastics and green energy. It is also working with suppliers to figure out ways to cut down on packaging and energy costs and has opened two “green” supercenters Wal-Mart’s moves are mainly done for economic purposes—to save energy, save costs, and increase revenue from increasing demand for green products. Wal-Mart Moves toward Environmental Sustainability Wal-Mart Moves toward CSR
  60. 60. Timberland: “Doing Well by Doing Good” Timberland is a leader in the design, engineering and marketing of premium-quality footwear, apparel and accessories for outdoor consumers. In shoes, Timberland uses recycled materials, non-chemical substances as much as possible, made in energy-saving factories. The label gives consumers information “about the product they are purchasing, including where it was manufactured, how it was produced, and its effect on the environment”. Timberland gives back to communities. Under the Path of Service program, its employees have contributed over 200,000 total hours of service that benefited over 200 community organizations in 13 countries, 26 states and 73 cities. To commemorate Earth Day, Timberland plants a tree on behalf of each consumer who spends $150. Timberland has also done such things as offering $3,000 incentives to employees who purchase hybrid cars. Other companies in this category are Patagonia, Whole Foods Market, Fetzer Vineyards, and Herman Miller. Timberland Moves Toward Environmental Sustainability Timberland Moves Toward CSR
  61. 61. What are some major social causes that companies adopt? Avon Breast cancer General Mills Better nutrition General Motors Traffic safety Home Depot Habatat for Humanity Kraft Reducing obesity Levi Strauss Preventing AIDS Motorola Reducing solid waste Pepsi Cola Staying active Shell Coastal cleanup Petsmart Animal adoption Aleve Arthritis British Airways Children in need Starbucks Tropical rainforests Best Buy Recycle used electronics Companies Choose a Specific Higher Cause to Advocate Companies That Adopted a Higher Cause
  62. 62. What is the Relationship between Business and Society? • Old philosophy: “What is good for business is good for society!” The simple act of profit maximization is good enough. • New philosophy: “What is good for society is good for business.” (GE) – Every company should figure out not only how to improve its output but also its outcomes. A food company should improve nutrition; an energy company should improve energy; a bank should improve sound savings. Michael Porter and Michael Kramer, “The Big Idea: Creating Shared Value,” Harvard Business Review, January/February 2011. What is the Relationship between Business and Society?
  63. 63. Creating shared value.
  64. 64. Capitalism Has Become the Global Economic System • Capitalism has three ingredients: private property, economic freedom, and the rule of law. • Supply side capitalism. Excellent. Demand side capitalism. Not so good. • 14 Problems of Capitalism and Solutions
  65. 65. Conscious Capitalism • Not Command- and-Control • Not just shareholders • Not just profits Higher Purpose Stakeholder Orientation Conscious Leadership Conscious Culture Trust, Authenticity, Caring, Transparency, Integrity, Learning . Not just selling 67
  66. 66. “Within five years. If you’re in the same business you are in now, you’re going to be out of business.”