The 1950s: Peace, Prosperity and Progress Rebelling Against Conformity
Postwar Politics  <ul><li>When WW II ended, President Harry Truman had an enormous challenge-converting the country back t...
Rocky Transition-Wartime to Peace <ul><li>As the war ended, millions of wartime workers lost their jobs.  In addition wart...
Actions of Congress <ul><li>1947 Congress passed the 22 nd  Amendment, limiting the President to 2 terms of office. </li><...
1948 Election <ul><li>Between Truman (D) and Thomas E. Dewey (R). </li></ul><ul><li>Pollsters and headline writers predict...
(Truman holding up a copy of the  Chicago Tribune  after he won)
<ul><li>Over the next four years, Truman presented his Fair Deal programs to Congress, but was denied. </li></ul><ul><li>(...
Election of 1952 <ul><li>Republicans nominate the popular Dwight  “ Ike ”  Eisenhower, who served as the supreme commander...
Economic Growth Creates an  Age of Affluence <ul><li>Affluence -a large amount of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of ...
Mc D ’ s!
Consumer Demands Spur Economic Growth <ul><li>As the economy grew, incomes rose! </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 1950s...
Birth of Franchises <ul><li>In 1954 Ray Kroc convinced the McDonalds brothers to hire him as a franchising agent. </li></u...
Economic Growth-Franchises <ul><li>Other service industries soon followed-Holiday Inn (motels). </li></ul>
The Workforce Shift. <ul><li>When the 1950s started most workers were  blue-collar workers .  These are people who work in...
The Baby Boom <ul><li>During the depression marriage and birthrates dropped. </li></ul><ul><li>After WW II ended, millions...
Roles for Women <ul><li>Women had entered the workforce during WW II.  After the war, women were encouraged to retake trad...
“ June Cleaver ”  from  Leave it to Beaver
Population Shifts <ul><li>Middle-class families move to the suburbs. </li></ul>
Middle class to the Suburbs <ul><li>Between 1950 and 1956, the number of Americans living in suburban communities increase...
Migrations to the  ‘ Sunbelt ’ <ul><li>Many people moved from cities and states of the North to warm-weather states which ...
1950s and the Automobile <ul><li>The Middle Class Dream was to have  two cars in every garage! </li></ul><ul><li>Cars beca...
 
Advances in Life Expectancy! <ul><li>During the 1950s Dr. Jonas Salk created the first polio vaccine! </li></ul><ul><li>Su...
First Computers! <ul><li>In 1946 two engineers from the University of Pennsylvania developed the earliest electronic digit...
 
Chapter 42  Rebelling Against Conformity <ul><li>Picture page 548: </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the  </li></ul><ul><...
Doris Kearns Goodwin <ul><li>As a teenager, Doris Kearns Goodwin, like many other teens at the time, started listening to ...
Marlin Brando <ul><li>Brando became a symbol of youth rebellion against authority. </li></ul>
Critics of Suburbia <ul><li>“ Suburbia ” - is a term to describe the nations suburbs and the people who lived there. </li>...
<ul><li>Cartoon page 550: </li></ul><ul><li>The cartoon pokes fun at conformity in suburbia. </li></ul><ul><li>Identical h...
Critics of Television <ul><li>Many people grew critical of the television.  Television brought  “ high culture, ”  works o...
In Defense of Suburbia <ul><li>Where some critics saw conformity, people who actually lived in suburbs often experienced d...
Nonconformity <ul><li>Despite the widespread conformity, many people (teenagers) became nonconformists. </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Beat Movement <ul><li>The beat movement was formed by a group of writers and poets who were nonconformists.  The movem...
Beatniks <ul><li>Beatniks  rejected all forms of  convention , or customary ways of living. </li></ul><ul><li>Beat writers...
Youth Culture <ul><li>Teens rebelled against the world of their parents in the music they listened to, the dances they dan...
Alan Freed and Rock n ’  Roll <ul><li>Freed was a DJ in  Cleveland, Ohio . He heard that white teenagers were buying recor...
The Effects of the Transistor <ul><li>At one time, many parents would simply stop their children from hearing rock n ’  ro...
Elvis Presley <ul><li>At one point most boys sported crew cuts. Elvis wore his hair slicked back with long sideburns. </li...
Elvis Presley <ul><li>Elvis blended African American rhythm and blues with white country music to create a new sound. ’ </...
Sock Hops <ul><li>Teenagers often gathered at  “ sock hops ”  where they could listen and dance to the latest hit records....
Movies of the 50s <ul><li>Movies were made where young people were misunderstood by adults. </li></ul><ul><li>In  Rebel Wi...
Teenagers ’  Language <ul><li>Teenagers developed their own language so that  “ big daddies ”  (older people) would not un...
Comic Books <ul><li>Comic books went from featuring wholesome crime-fighting characters to gruesome covers and violent sto...
Art-Abstract Expressionism <ul><li>Artists began to make abstract art-art that rarely depicts recognizable objects. </li><...
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The 1950s History Alive Ch. 41 and 42

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The 1950s History Alive Ch. 41 and 42

  1. 1. The 1950s: Peace, Prosperity and Progress Rebelling Against Conformity
  2. 2. Postwar Politics <ul><li>When WW II ended, President Harry Truman had an enormous challenge-converting the country back to a peacetime economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Deal- He called for Congress to raise minimum wage, increase aide to agriculture education, and enact a national health insurance program. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rocky Transition-Wartime to Peace <ul><li>As the war ended, millions of wartime workers lost their jobs. In addition wartime price controls were lifted and prices skyrocketed! </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation soared as workers demanded higher wages! </li></ul><ul><li>In 1946, republicans gained control of the House and the Senate first time since the 20s! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Actions of Congress <ul><li>1947 Congress passed the 22 nd Amendment, limiting the President to 2 terms of office. </li></ul><ul><li>The Taft-Harley Act placed limits on the power of labor unions. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman established the President ’ s Committee on Civil Rights to investigate segregation and discrimination, BUT the Congress refused to act on its recommendations. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1948 Election <ul><li>Between Truman (D) and Thomas E. Dewey (R). </li></ul><ul><li>Pollsters and headline writers predicted an upset (On election night some newspapers ran headlines saying Dewey won-before the results were final). </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Truman won election! </li></ul>
  6. 6. (Truman holding up a copy of the Chicago Tribune after he won)
  7. 7. <ul><li>Over the next four years, Truman presented his Fair Deal programs to Congress, but was denied. </li></ul><ul><li>(Southern Democrats and Republicans denied Truman's efforts to push towards ending segregation and discrimination). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Election of 1952 <ul><li>Republicans nominate the popular Dwight “ Ike ” Eisenhower, who served as the supreme commander of the Allied forces in WW II, and head member of NATO. </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower swept the victory in gaining 39 out of 48 states. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Economic Growth Creates an Age of Affluence <ul><li>Affluence -a large amount of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 1950s, middle class families were experiencing wealth that could have only been dreamed about 20 years before! </li></ul><ul><li>In 1940, Dick and Mac McDonald opened a drive in restaurant in San Bernardino, CA. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed an assembly line process to speed service at lower costs! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mc D ’ s!
  11. 11. Consumer Demands Spur Economic Growth <ul><li>As the economy grew, incomes rose! </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 1950s, the average American family had twice as much income to spend than the average family of the 1920s! </li></ul><ul><li>Rising income, easy credit, and aggressive marketing helped create a “ culture of consumption ” during the 1950s. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Birth of Franchises <ul><li>In 1954 Ray Kroc convinced the McDonalds brothers to hire him as a franchising agent. </li></ul><ul><li>A franchise is an agreement to operate a business and carry a company ’ s name and sell it ’ s products. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Kroc ’ s leadership by 1963 McDonald ’ s began dotting the landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1963 McDonald ’ s had served 1 billion hamburgers! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economic Growth-Franchises <ul><li>Other service industries soon followed-Holiday Inn (motels). </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Workforce Shift. <ul><li>When the 1950s started most workers were blue-collar workers . These are people who work in factories or at skilled trades, such as plumbing or auto repair. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 1950s white-collar workers outnumbered blue collar. </li></ul><ul><li>White-collar workers include professionals such as doctors and lawyers, engineers, salespeople, managers and office staff. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Baby Boom <ul><li>During the depression marriage and birthrates dropped. </li></ul><ul><li>After WW II ended, millions of Americans got married. The result was a baby boom , or a large increase in the number of births in proportion to the size of the population. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Roles for Women <ul><li>Women had entered the workforce during WW II. After the war, women were encouraged to retake traditional roles in the household. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-media reinforced traditional family roles. Magazines, movies and advertisements portrayed the ideal family as one with a male “ breadwinner ” and a wife who stayed at home. </li></ul>
  17. 17. “ June Cleaver ” from Leave it to Beaver
  18. 18. Population Shifts <ul><li>Middle-class families move to the suburbs. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Middle class to the Suburbs <ul><li>Between 1950 and 1956, the number of Americans living in suburban communities increased by 46%. </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbanites were largely white and middle-class. In many places, homes in the suburbs were to sold to African Americans. (Discrimination) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Migrations to the ‘ Sunbelt ’ <ul><li>Many people moved from cities and states of the North to warm-weather states which stretched across the southern third of the US from Florida to California. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1950s and the Automobile <ul><li>The Middle Class Dream was to have two cars in every garage! </li></ul><ul><li>Cars became a status symbol or a sign of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>ROADS TO EVERYWHERE! </li></ul><ul><li>In 1956 the Congress passed a bill to create a nationwide Interstate Highway System . </li></ul>
  22. 23. Advances in Life Expectancy! <ul><li>During the 1950s Dr. Jonas Salk created the first polio vaccine! </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical techniques advanced during the 1950s-The first open heart surgery occurred and first kidney transplant! </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in medicine brought a rise in life expectancy-in 1950=68, 1960=69.7! </li></ul>
  23. 24. First Computers! <ul><li>In 1946 two engineers from the University of Pennsylvania developed the earliest electronic digital computer (it was as large as 2 small houses). </li></ul><ul><li>By 1959 transistors replaced bulky unreliable vacuum tubes, and it became a reliable system to store data. </li></ul><ul><li>As they shrank in size, record keepers, such as librarians and tax collectors. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Chapter 42 Rebelling Against Conformity <ul><li>Picture page 548: </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the </li></ul><ul><li>things you notice about </li></ul><ul><li>1950s culture from the </li></ul><ul><li>picture? </li></ul><ul><li>( “ Sock hop ” ) </li></ul>
  25. 27. Doris Kearns Goodwin <ul><li>As a teenager, Doris Kearns Goodwin, like many other teens at the time, started listening to rock n ’ roll. </li></ul><ul><li>Many teens during the 1950s began to question their social world. </li></ul><ul><li>The 50s are seen as an age of conformity -a time when everyone behaved in socially expected ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Many teens began to rebel! </li></ul>
  26. 28. Marlin Brando <ul><li>Brando became a symbol of youth rebellion against authority. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Critics of Suburbia <ul><li>“ Suburbia ” - is a term to describe the nations suburbs and the people who lived there. </li></ul><ul><li>Many critics viewed suburbia as a wasteland of conformity and materialism , or preoccupation with the pursuit of wealth. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Cartoon page 550: </li></ul><ul><li>The cartoon pokes fun at conformity in suburbia. </li></ul><ul><li>Identical husbands going into identical houses. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Critics of Television <ul><li>Many people grew critical of the television. Television brought “ high culture, ” works of art, such as plays and concerts into US homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Many called the TV as an “ idiot box. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Other worried about the TV ’ s isolating effects. </li></ul>
  30. 32. In Defense of Suburbia <ul><li>Where some critics saw conformity, people who actually lived in suburbs often experienced diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Most suburbs had a broad mixture of religious and ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Many neighborhoods excluded African Americans in the 1950s  </li></ul>
  31. 33. Nonconformity <ul><li>Despite the widespread conformity, many people (teenagers) became nonconformists. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonconformity is rebellion against conventional behavior. </li></ul>
  32. 34. The Beat Movement <ul><li>The beat movement was formed by a group of writers and poets who were nonconformists. The movement spread from New York ’ s Greenwich Village to San Francisco. </li></ul><ul><li>A newspaper columnist in SF called members of the movement “ beatniks ” and the name stuck. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Beatniks <ul><li>Beatniks rejected all forms of convention , or customary ways of living. </li></ul><ul><li>Beat writers made a significant contribution to American literature. Their subject matter consisted of their own feelings and adventures. </li></ul><ul><li>They used stream of consciousness , a writing technique where thoughts are presented randomly-from the writer ’ s mind. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Youth Culture <ul><li>Teens rebelled against the world of their parents in the music they listened to, the dances they danced, the movies they watched, and the slang they used. </li></ul><ul><li>Two (2) factors that supported youth culture: 1) number of baby boomers, 2) affluence-kids had money! </li></ul>
  35. 37. Alan Freed and Rock n ’ Roll <ul><li>Freed was a DJ in Cleveland, Ohio . He heard that white teenagers were buying records buy black rhythm and blues artists, who used amplified instruments (electric guitar). </li></ul><ul><li>Before long white musicians began blending rhythm and blues amplified music with country music and popular songs. New sound was called rock n ’ roll. </li></ul>
  36. 38. The Effects of the Transistor <ul><li>At one time, many parents would simply stop their children from hearing rock n ’ roll, but with transistors, teenagers could listen freely. This made rock n ’ roll the sound of their generation. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Elvis Presley <ul><li>At one point most boys sported crew cuts. Elvis wore his hair slicked back with long sideburns. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Elvis Presley <ul><li>Elvis blended African American rhythm and blues with white country music to create a new sound. ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Although tame by today ’ s standards, Presley ’ s sexually suggestive dancing offended many! </li></ul>
  39. 41. Sock Hops <ul><li>Teenagers often gathered at “ sock hops ” where they could listen and dance to the latest hit records. </li></ul><ul><li>They were held in gyms where shoes were not permitted. </li></ul>
  40. 42. Movies of the 50s <ul><li>Movies were made where young people were misunderstood by adults. </li></ul><ul><li>In Rebel Without a Cause , James dean played an intense, young misfit. </li></ul><ul><li>In The Wild One , Marlin Brando played a rebellious motorcycle gang leader. </li></ul>
  41. 43. Teenagers ’ Language <ul><li>Teenagers developed their own language so that “ big daddies ” (older people) would not understand them. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Boss ” meant great. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Threads ” were clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Radioactive ” to describe an attractive person. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Square ” dull person. </li></ul>
  42. 44. Comic Books <ul><li>Comic books went from featuring wholesome crime-fighting characters to gruesome covers and violent storylines. </li></ul><ul><li>Mad made fun of just about everything-books to popular television, to foreign policy and espionage. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Art-Abstract Expressionism <ul><li>Artists began to make abstract art-art that rarely depicts recognizable objects. </li></ul><ul><li>They rebelled against highly realistic styles of painting. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best known is Jackson Pollock </li></ul>

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