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1
Getting Started with
MongoDB
TCF IT Professional Conference
March 14, 2014
Michael P. Redlich
@mpredli
about.me/mpredli/...
Who’s Mike?
• BS in CS from
• “Petrochemical Research Organization”
• Ai-Logix, Inc. (now AudioCodes)
• Amateur Computer G...
Objectives
• What is MongoDB?
• What is NoSQL?
• Getting Started with MongoDB
• Basic CRUD Operations
• Live Demos (yea!)
...
What is MongoDB? (1)
• “...an open-source document database that
provides high performance, high availability, and
automat...
What is MongoDB? (2)
• “...an open-source database used by
companies of all sizes, across all industries and
for a wide va...
What is NoSQL?
• Developed to address shortcomings of a
traditional SQL relational database, namely:
• big data
• frequenc...
How is MongoDB
Used?
7
Sunday, March 16, 14
Who is Using
MongoDB?
8
Sunday, March 16, 14
Features of MongoDB
• Document-Oriented
Storage
• Full Index Support
• Replication and High
Availability
• Auto-Sharding
•...
Nomenclature (1)
10
RDBMS MongoDB
Database Database
Table Collection
Row Document
Index Index
Join Embedding & Linking
For...
Nomenclature (2)
11
Sunday, March 16, 14
What is a Document?
• Basic unit of data
• analogous to a row in a RDBMS
• An ordered set of fields (keys) with
associated ...
What is BSON?
• “...a binary-encoded serialization of JSON-like
documents.”
BSON Web Site, http://www.bsonspec.org/
• Bina...
What is a Collection?
• A group of documents
• analogous to a table in a RDBMS
• Schema-less
14
Sunday, March 16, 14
Advantages of
Documents
• Documents correspond to native data
types in many programming languages
• Embedded documents and...
Document Structure
{
lastName : “Redlich”,
firstName : “Michael”,
email : “mike@redlich.net”
role : {
officer : “President...
Field Names
• Strings
• Cannot contain:
• null
• dots (.)
• dollar sign ($)
• No duplicate field names
17
Sunday, March 16,...
Conventions Used in
This Presentation
• Command Prompt ($)
• MySQL prompt (mysql>)
• MongoDB prompt (>)
• Keywords (db, fi...
Example Database
• ACGNJ Board of Directors:
• lastName
• firstName
• roles (embedded documents)
• tenure
19
Sunday, March ...
Getting Started
• Download MongoDB
• Create a default data directory
•/data/db
•C:datadb
• Create your first MongoDB databa...
Starting MongoDB
• Start an instance of the MongoDB server:
$ mongod
• Start an instance of the MongoDB client (a
JavaScri...
Mongo Shell (1)
• Show the list of shell commands:
> help
• Show the list of databases:
> show dbs
• Show the current data...
Mongo Shell (2)
• Specify the database to use or create:
> use database
• Show the collections within the current
database...
Mongo Shell (3)
• Show the recent system.profile
entries:
> show profile
• Tab completion
• Command history
24
Sunday, Mar...
Primary Key
• Denoted by a special field, _id
• It can be generated:
• Implicitly:
• {_id : ObjectID(value)}
• Explicitly:
...
ObjectIDs
• Default type for _id
• A 12-byte hexadecimal BSON type:
26
Sunday, March 16, 14
Live Demo!
27
Sunday, March 16, 14
Create
28
Sunday, March 16, 14
Create a Database
• Create a database in MySQL:
mysql> CREATE DATABASE database;
• Create a database in MongoDB:
> use dat...
Create a Collection
• Create a new table in MySQL:
mysql> CREATE TABLE table(column
datatype,...);
• Create a new collecti...
Insert Data
• Insert a row in MySQL:
> INSERT INTO table(column,...)
VALUES(value,...);
• Insert a document in MongoDB:
>
...
Insert Data with Loops
• Insert multiple documents with an array:
> for(int i = 0;i < j;++i)
db.collection.insert({field:a...
Live Demo!
33
Sunday, March 16, 14
Read
34
Sunday, March 16, 14
Query (1)
• Retrieve all rows in MySQL:
mysql> SELECT * FROM table;
• Retrieve all documents in MongoDB:
> db.collection.f...
Query (2)
• Retrieve specified columns in MySQL:
mysql> SELECT column1,column2 FROM
table;
• Retrieve specified fields in Mon...
Query (3)
• Retrieve specific rows in MySQL:
mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE
column = value;
• Retrieve specific documents ...
Query (4)
• Retrieve specific rows in MySQL:
mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE
column = value ORDER BY value ASC;
• Retrieve...
Query (5)
• Query for multiple documents (returns a
cursor):
> db.collection.find()
• Query for one document (returns a si...
Query Selectors
• Scalar:
• $ne, $mod, $exists, $type, $lt, $lte,
$gt, $gte
• Vector:
• $in, $nin, $all, $size
40
Sunday, ...
Query (6)
• Retrieve specific rows in MySQL:
mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE
column != value;
• Retrieve specific documents...
Query (7)
• Retrieve specific rows in MySQL:
mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE
column1 = value OR column2 = value;
• Retriev...
Query (8)
> db.members.aggregate({$project:
{officer:"$roles.officer"}})
> db.members.find({tenure:
{$gt:ISODate("2014-12-...
Query (9)
>
db.members.find({"roles.director":
{$all:["Director"]}})
>
db.members.find({"roles.committee":
{$in:["Historia...
Live Demo!
45
Sunday, March 16, 14
Update
46
Sunday, March 16, 14
Update (1)
• Update a row in MySQL:
mysql> UPDATE table SET column =
value WHERE id = id;
• Update a document in a MongoDB...
Update (2)
• Update a row in MySQL:
mysql> UPDATE table SET column1 =
value WHERE column2 > value;
• Update a document in ...
Update (3)
• Update a document using findOne():
> redlich =
db.members.findOne({lastName:
"Redlich"})
> redlich.roles = [{...
Atomic Update
Operators
• Scalar:
• $inc, $set, $unset
• Vector:
• $push, $pop, $pull, $pushAll,
$pullAll, $addToSet
50
Su...
Update (4)
> db.members.update({lastName:
"Redlich"},{$set:
{"ISODate("2016-12-31")}})
> db.members.update({"roles.sig"},
...
Delete
52
Sunday, March 16, 14
Delete (1)
• Delete all rows in MySQL:
mysql> DELETE FROM table;
• Delete all documents in MongoDB:
> db.collection.remove...
Delete (2)
• Delete specific rows in MySQL:
mysql> DELETE FROM table WHERE
column = value;
• Delete specific documents in Mo...
Delete (2)
• Delete a MySQL database
mysql> DROP DATABASE database;
• Delete a MongoDB database
> use database
> db.dropDa...
Backup/Restore
56
Sunday, March 16, 14
Export (1)
• Export a collection to a JSON file
• Ensure mongod is running
$ mongoexport --db database --
collection collec...
Export (2)
• Export a collection to a CSV file
• Ensure mongod is running
• A list of fields is required
$ mongoexport --db ...
Import
• Import a collection from a JSON, CSV, or
TSV file
• Ensure mongod is running
$ mongoimport --db database --
collec...
Dump
• Dump a specified MySQL database:
$ mysqldump -u root --opt database
> path.filename.sql
• Dump all MongoDB databases...
Live Demo!
61
Sunday, March 16, 14
Package Components
(1)
• Core Processes
• mongod - core DB process
• mongos - controller & query router (sharding)
• mongo...
Package Components
(2)
• Binary Import and Export
• mongodump - creates BSON dump files
• mongorestore - restores BSON dump...
Package Components
(3)
• Data Import and Export
• mongoimport - imports JSON, CSV, or TSV
data formats
• mongoexport - exp...
Package Components
(4)
• Diagnostic Tools
• mongostat - captures database operations by
type (insert, query, etc.)
• mongo...
Package Components
(5)
• GridFS
• mongofiles - provides a command-line
interaction to a GridFS storage system
66
Sunday, M...
MongoDB Resources
(1)
67
Sunday, March 16, 14
68
MongoDB Resources
(2)
•mongodb.org
•docs.mongodb.org
•mongodb.org/books
•mongodb.com/products/mongodb
•mongodb.com/refe...
Upcoming Events (1)
• Trenton Computer Festival
• March 14-15, 2014
• tcf-nj.org
• Emerging Technologies for the Enterpris...
70
Upcoming Events (2)
Sunday, March 16, 14
71
Thanks!
mike@redlich.net
@mpredli
javasig.org
Sunday, March 16, 14
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Getting Started with MongoDB (TCF ITPC 2014)

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An introduction to MongoDB, a popular NoSQL database, that includes basic CRUD operations with a juxtaposition of MySQL commands.

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Getting Started with MongoDB (TCF ITPC 2014)

  1. 1. 1 Getting Started with MongoDB TCF IT Professional Conference March 14, 2014 Michael P. Redlich @mpredli about.me/mpredli/ Sunday, March 16, 14
  2. 2. Who’s Mike? • BS in CS from • “Petrochemical Research Organization” • Ai-Logix, Inc. (now AudioCodes) • Amateur Computer Group of New Jersey • Publications • Presentations 2 Sunday, March 16, 14
  3. 3. Objectives • What is MongoDB? • What is NoSQL? • Getting Started with MongoDB • Basic CRUD Operations • Live Demos (yea!) • MongoDB Resources 3 Sunday, March 16, 14
  4. 4. What is MongoDB? (1) • “...an open-source document database that provides high performance, high availability, and automatic scaling.” MongoDB Web Site, http://www.mongodb.org/ • It’s name derived from “humongous” • Written in C++ 4 Sunday, March 16, 14
  5. 5. What is MongoDB? (2) • “...an open-source database used by companies of all sizes, across all industries and for a wide variety of applications. It is an agile database that allows schemas to change quickly as applications evolve, while still providing functionality developers expect from traditional databases...” MongoDB Products Web Site, http://www.mongodb.com/products/mongodb/ 5 Sunday, March 16, 14
  6. 6. What is NoSQL? • Developed to address shortcomings of a traditional SQL relational database, namely: • big data • frequency of access to big data • performance and scalability 6 Sunday, March 16, 14
  7. 7. How is MongoDB Used? 7 Sunday, March 16, 14
  8. 8. Who is Using MongoDB? 8 Sunday, March 16, 14
  9. 9. Features of MongoDB • Document-Oriented Storage • Full Index Support • Replication and High Availability • Auto-Sharding • Querying • Fast In-Place Updates • Map/Reduce • GridFS • Professional Support by MongoDB 9 Sunday, March 16, 14
  10. 10. Nomenclature (1) 10 RDBMS MongoDB Database Database Table Collection Row Document Index Index Join Embedding & Linking Foreign Key Reference Sunday, March 16, 14
  11. 11. Nomenclature (2) 11 Sunday, March 16, 14
  12. 12. What is a Document? • Basic unit of data • analogous to a row in a RDBMS • An ordered set of fields (keys) with associated values stored in BSON format • similar to JSON 12 Sunday, March 16, 14
  13. 13. What is BSON? • “...a binary-encoded serialization of JSON-like documents.” BSON Web Site, http://www.bsonspec.org/ • Binary JSON • Designed to be lightweight, traversable, and efficient 13 Sunday, March 16, 14
  14. 14. What is a Collection? • A group of documents • analogous to a table in a RDBMS • Schema-less 14 Sunday, March 16, 14
  15. 15. Advantages of Documents • Documents correspond to native data types in many programming languages • Embedded documents and arrays reduce the need for expensive joins • Dynamic schema support fluent polymorphism 15 Sunday, March 16, 14
  16. 16. Document Structure { lastName : “Redlich”, firstName : “Michael”, email : “mike@redlich.net” role : { officer : “President”, sig : “Java Users Group” } } 16 field value embedded document Sunday, March 16, 14
  17. 17. Field Names • Strings • Cannot contain: • null • dots (.) • dollar sign ($) • No duplicate field names 17 Sunday, March 16, 14
  18. 18. Conventions Used in This Presentation • Command Prompt ($) • MySQL prompt (mysql>) • MongoDB prompt (>) • Keywords (db, find(), etc.) • Variables (variable) 18 Sunday, March 16, 14
  19. 19. Example Database • ACGNJ Board of Directors: • lastName • firstName • roles (embedded documents) • tenure 19 Sunday, March 16, 14
  20. 20. Getting Started • Download MongoDB • Create a default data directory •/data/db •C:datadb • Create your first MongoDB database 20 Sunday, March 16, 14
  21. 21. Starting MongoDB • Start an instance of the MongoDB server: $ mongod • Start an instance of the MongoDB client (a JavaScript-based shell): $ mongo 21 Sunday, March 16, 14
  22. 22. Mongo Shell (1) • Show the list of shell commands: > help • Show the list of databases: > show dbs • Show the current database: > db 22 Sunday, March 16, 14
  23. 23. Mongo Shell (2) • Specify the database to use or create: > use database • Show the collections within the current database: > show collections • Show the users within the database: > show users 23 Sunday, March 16, 14
  24. 24. Mongo Shell (3) • Show the recent system.profile entries: > show profile • Tab completion • Command history 24 Sunday, March 16, 14
  25. 25. Primary Key • Denoted by a special field, _id • It can be generated: • Implicitly: • {_id : ObjectID(value)} • Explicitly: • {_id : 2 }, { _id : “MPR”} 25 Sunday, March 16, 14
  26. 26. ObjectIDs • Default type for _id • A 12-byte hexadecimal BSON type: 26 Sunday, March 16, 14
  27. 27. Live Demo! 27 Sunday, March 16, 14
  28. 28. Create 28 Sunday, March 16, 14
  29. 29. Create a Database • Create a database in MySQL: mysql> CREATE DATABASE database; • Create a database in MongoDB: > use database 29 Sunday, March 16, 14
  30. 30. Create a Collection • Create a new table in MySQL: mysql> CREATE TABLE table(column datatype,...); • Create a new collection in MongoDB: > db.collection.insert({field:value,. ..}) 30 Sunday, March 16, 14
  31. 31. Insert Data • Insert a row in MySQL: > INSERT INTO table(column,...) VALUES(value,...); • Insert a document in MongoDB: > db.collection.insert({field:value,. ..}) 31 Sunday, March 16, 14
  32. 32. Insert Data with Loops • Insert multiple documents with an array: > for(int i = 0;i < j;++i) db.collection.insert({field:array[i ]}); • Insert multiple documents with variable: > for(int i = 0;i < j;++i) db.collection.insert({field:i}) 32 Sunday, March 16, 14
  33. 33. Live Demo! 33 Sunday, March 16, 14
  34. 34. Read 34 Sunday, March 16, 14
  35. 35. Query (1) • Retrieve all rows in MySQL: mysql> SELECT * FROM table; • Retrieve all documents in MongoDB: > db.collection.find() 35 Sunday, March 16, 14
  36. 36. Query (2) • Retrieve specified columns in MySQL: mysql> SELECT column1,column2 FROM table; • Retrieve specified fields in MongoDB: > db.collection.find({}, {field1:true,field2:true}) 36 Sunday, March 16, 14
  37. 37. Query (3) • Retrieve specific rows in MySQL: mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE column = value; • Retrieve specific documents in MongoDB: > db.collection.find({field:value}) 37 Sunday, March 16, 14
  38. 38. Query (4) • Retrieve specific rows in MySQL: mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE column = value ORDER BY value ASC; • Retrieve specific documents in MongoDB: > db.collection.find({field:value}).s ort({field:1}) 38 Sunday, March 16, 14
  39. 39. Query (5) • Query for multiple documents (returns a cursor): > db.collection.find() • Query for one document (returns a single document): > db.collection.findOne() 39 Sunday, March 16, 14
  40. 40. Query Selectors • Scalar: • $ne, $mod, $exists, $type, $lt, $lte, $gt, $gte • Vector: • $in, $nin, $all, $size 40 Sunday, March 16, 14
  41. 41. Query (6) • Retrieve specific rows in MySQL: mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE column != value; • Retrieve specific documents in MongoDB: > db.collection.find({field: {$ne:value}}) 41 Sunday, March 16, 14
  42. 42. Query (7) • Retrieve specific rows in MySQL: mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE column1 = value OR column2 = value; • Retrieve specific documents in MongoDB: > db.collection.find({$or: [{field:value},{field:value}]) 42 Sunday, March 16, 14
  43. 43. Query (8) > db.members.aggregate({$project: {officer:"$roles.officer"}}) > db.members.find({tenure: {$gt:ISODate("2014-12-31")}}) > db.members.find({"roles.officer": {$exists:true}}).sort({"roles.offic er":1}) 43 Sunday, March 16, 14
  44. 44. Query (9) > db.members.find({"roles.director": {$all:["Director"]}}) > db.members.find({"roles.committee": {$in:["Historian","Newsletter"]}}) > db.members.find({roles:{$size: 3}}) 44 Sunday, March 16, 14
  45. 45. Live Demo! 45 Sunday, March 16, 14
  46. 46. Update 46 Sunday, March 16, 14
  47. 47. Update (1) • Update a row in MySQL: mysql> UPDATE table SET column = value WHERE id = id; • Update a document in a MongoDB: > db.collection.update({_id:value}, {$set:{field:value}},{multi:true}) 47 Sunday, March 16, 14
  48. 48. Update (2) • Update a row in MySQL: mysql> UPDATE table SET column1 = value WHERE column2 > value; • Update a document in MongoDB: > db.collection.update({field1: {$gt:value}},{$set:{field2:value}}, {multi:true}) 48 Sunday, March 16, 14
  49. 49. Update (3) • Update a document using findOne(): > redlich = db.members.findOne({lastName: "Redlich"}) > redlich.roles = [{sig:"Java Users Group"}] > db.members.update({lastName: "Redlich"},redlich) 49 Sunday, March 16, 14
  50. 50. Atomic Update Operators • Scalar: • $inc, $set, $unset • Vector: • $push, $pop, $pull, $pushAll, $pullAll, $addToSet 50 Sunday, March 16, 14
  51. 51. Update (4) > db.members.update({lastName: "Redlich"},{$set: {"ISODate("2016-12-31")}}) > db.members.update({"roles.sig"}, {$set:{"roles.sig":"JUG"}}) 51 Sunday, March 16, 14
  52. 52. Delete 52 Sunday, March 16, 14
  53. 53. Delete (1) • Delete all rows in MySQL: mysql> DELETE FROM table; • Delete all documents in MongoDB: > db.collection.remove() 53 Sunday, March 16, 14
  54. 54. Delete (2) • Delete specific rows in MySQL: mysql> DELETE FROM table WHERE column = value; • Delete specific documents in MongoDB: > db.collection.remove({field:value}) 54 Sunday, March 16, 14
  55. 55. Delete (2) • Delete a MySQL database mysql> DROP DATABASE database; • Delete a MongoDB database > use database > db.dropDatabase() 55 Sunday, March 16, 14
  56. 56. Backup/Restore 56 Sunday, March 16, 14
  57. 57. Export (1) • Export a collection to a JSON file • Ensure mongod is running $ mongoexport --db database -- collection collection --out path/ filename.json 57 Sunday, March 16, 14
  58. 58. Export (2) • Export a collection to a CSV file • Ensure mongod is running • A list of fields is required $ mongoexport --db database -- collection collection --fields field1,field2,... --csv --out path/ filename.json 58 Sunday, March 16, 14
  59. 59. Import • Import a collection from a JSON, CSV, or TSV file • Ensure mongod is running $ mongoimport --db database -- collection collection < path/ filename.json 59 Sunday, March 16, 14
  60. 60. Dump • Dump a specified MySQL database: $ mysqldump -u root --opt database > path.filename.sql • Dump all MongoDB databases: • Ensure mongod is not running $ mongodump --dbpath /data/db --out path 60 Sunday, March 16, 14
  61. 61. Live Demo! 61 Sunday, March 16, 14
  62. 62. Package Components (1) • Core Processes • mongod - core DB process • mongos - controller & query router (sharding) • mongo - interactive JavaScript-based shell 62 Sunday, March 16, 14
  63. 63. Package Components (2) • Binary Import and Export • mongodump - creates BSON dump files • mongorestore - restores BSON dump files • bsondump - converts BSON to JSON • mongooplog - streams oplog entries 63 Sunday, March 16, 14
  64. 64. Package Components (3) • Data Import and Export • mongoimport - imports JSON, CSV, or TSV data formats • mongoexport - exports to JSON, CSV, or TSV data formats 64 Sunday, March 16, 14
  65. 65. Package Components (4) • Diagnostic Tools • mongostat - captures database operations by type (insert, query, etc.) • mongotop - tracks read/write activity • mongosniff - provides tracing/sniffing view into database activity • mongoperf - performance testing tool 65 Sunday, March 16, 14
  66. 66. Package Components (5) • GridFS • mongofiles - provides a command-line interaction to a GridFS storage system 66 Sunday, March 16, 14
  67. 67. MongoDB Resources (1) 67 Sunday, March 16, 14
  68. 68. 68 MongoDB Resources (2) •mongodb.org •docs.mongodb.org •mongodb.org/books •mongodb.com/products/mongodb •mongodb.com/reference •bsonspec.org •education.mongodb.com Sunday, March 16, 14
  69. 69. Upcoming Events (1) • Trenton Computer Festival • March 14-15, 2014 • tcf-nj.org • Emerging Technologies for the Enterprise • April 22-23, 2014 • phillyemergingtech.com 69 Sunday, March 16, 14
  70. 70. 70 Upcoming Events (2) Sunday, March 16, 14
  71. 71. 71 Thanks! mike@redlich.net @mpredli javasig.org Sunday, March 16, 14

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