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  1. 1. Lungs Prepared By : Dr. mohaned Abu lehea
  2. 2. • During life, the right and left lungs are soft and spongy and very elastic. • In the child, they are pink, but with age, they become dark and mottled because of the inhalation of dust particles.
  3. 3. • They are therefore separated from each other by the heart and great vessels and other structures in the mediastinum. • Each lung is covered with visceral pleura, and suspended free in its own pleural cavity, being attached to the mediastinum only by its root.
  4. 4. • Each lung has a blunt apex, which projects upward into the neck for about 1 in. • A concave base that sits on the diaphragm; a convex costal surface, which corresponds to the concave chest wall; and a concave mediastinal surface, which is molded to the pericardium and other mediastinal structures.
  5. 5. • At about the middle of this surface is the hilum, a depression in which the bronchi, vessels, and nerves that form the root enter and leave the lung.
  6. 6. • The anterior border is thin and overlaps the heart. • The posterior border is thick and lies beside the vertebral column.
  7. 7. Right Lung • The right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided by the oblique and horizontal fissures into three lobes: the upper, middle, and lower lobes.
  8. 8. • The oblique fissure runs from the inferior border upward and backward across the medial and costal surfaces until it cuts the posterior border about 2.5 in below the apex.
  9. 9. • The horizontal fissure runs horizontally across the costal surface at the level of the fourth costal cartilage to meet the oblique fissure in the midaxillary line.
  10. 10. • The middle lobe is thus a small triangular lobe bounded by the horizontal and oblique fissures.
  11. 11. Left Lung • The left lung is divided by a similar oblique fissure into two lobes: the upper and lower lobes • There is no horizontal fissure in the left lung.
  12. 12. Bronchopulmonary Segments • The bronchopulmonary segments are the anatomic, functional, and surgical units of the lungs. • Each lobar (secondary) bronchus, which passes to a lobe of the lung, gives off branches called segmental (tertiary) bronchi.
  13. 13. • Each segmental bronchus passes to a structurally and functionally independent unit of a lung lobe called a bronchopulmonary segment.
  14. 14. • The segmental bronchus is accompanied by a branch of the pulmonary artery, but the tributaries of the pulmonary veins. • Each segment has its own lymphatic vessels and autonomic nerve supply.
  15. 15. • On entering a bronchopulmonary segment, each segmental bronchus divides repeatedly . • As the bronchi become smaller, the U-shaped bars of cartilage found in the trachea are gradually replaced by irregular plates of cartilage, which become smaller and fewer in number.
  16. 16. • The smallest bronchi divide and give rise to bronchioles, which are less than 1 mm in diameter. • Bronchioles possess no cartilage in their walls.
  17. 17. • The bronchioles then divide and give rise to terminal bronchioles , which show delicate out-pouchings from their walls. • Gaseous exchange between blood and air takes place in the walls of these outpouchings, which explains the name respiratory bronchiole.
  18. 18. • The respiratory bronchioles end by branching into alveolar ducts, which lead into tubular passages with numerous thin-walled outpouchings called alveolar sacs. • The alveolar sacs consist of several alveoli opening into a single chamber.
  19. 19. • Each alveolus is surrounded by a rich network of blood capillaries.
  20. 20. • The root of the lung is formed of structures that are entering or leaving the lung. • It is made up of the bronchi, pulmonary artery and veins, lymph vessels, bronchial vessels, and nerves.
  21. 21. Blood Supply of the Lungs • The bronchi and the visceral pleura receive their blood supply from the bronchial arteries, which are branches of the descending aorta. • The bronchial veins drain into the azygos and hemiazygos veins.
  22. 22. Nerve Supply of the Lungs • At the root of each lung is a pulmonary plexus composed of efferent and afferent autonomic nerve fibers. • The plexus is formed from branches of the sympathetic trunk and receives parasympathetic fibers from the vagus nerve.
  23. 23. Thanks