Heart Anatomy


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Heart Anatomy

  1. 1. HEART ANATOMY<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />By:<br />Dr Mohammed Faez<br />Medical Student VI Cycle – USAT University– Chiclayo – Peru<br />Medical English<br />1<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  2. 2. HEART<br />A hollow muscular organ.<br />Located in thoraxbetween 2 lungs.<br />4 Chambers.<br />4 Valves.<br />2 Atriums & 2 Ventricles.<br />2 separatepumps (R&L sides)<br />Rightsidereceivesbloodfromthebody and sendsittothelungs (pulmonary)<br />Leftsidereceivesbloodfromlungs and sendsittothebody (systemic)<br />2<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  4. 4. HEART<br />The heart is surrounded by membrane called Pericardium.<br />4<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  5. 5. The Pericardium<br />The pericardium is a fibroserous sac that encloses the heart and the roots of the great vessels.<br />The pericardium lies within the middle mediastinum.<br />5<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  6. 6. The Pericardium<br />Its function is to restrict excessive movements of the heart as a whole and to serve as a lubricated container in which the different parts of the heart can contract.<br />6<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  7. 7. Heart Wall<br />Endocardium<br />deepest layer of the heart<br />smooth lining to reduce friction of bloodflow<br />Myocardium<br />middle layer of the heart<br />location of muscle fibers responsible for pumping<br />Pericardium<br />outer protective layer<br />composed of :<br />visceral pericardium<br />paricardial cavity<br />parietal pericardium<br />7<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  8. 8. Heart Wall<br />8<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  9. 9. The Heart Chambers<br />Four chambers<br />Two atria (Right and Left)<br />Two ventricles (Right and Left)<br />9<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  10. 10. The Heart Chambers<br />Atria <br />Features <br /><ul><li>small, thin-walled chambers </li></ul>Functions <br /><ul><li>receiving chambers for blood returning to the heart from the circulation
  11. 11. push the blood into the adjacent ventricles.</li></ul>10<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  12. 12. The Heart Chambers<br />Atria <br />Receive blood from <br /><ul><li>Right side
  13. 13. Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
  14. 14. Left side
  15. 15. Pulmonary Veins</li></ul>11<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  16. 16. The Heart Chambers<br />Ventricles <br />Features <br /><ul><li>make up most of the mass of the heart
  17. 17. the walls of the left ventricle are 3X thicker than those of the right </li></ul>12<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  18. 18. The Heart Chambers<br />Ventricles <br />Functions <br /><ul><li>discharging chambers of the heart
  19. 19. propel blood to Pulmonary Trunk (right ventricle), Aorta (left ventricle) </li></ul>13<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  20. 20. The Right Atrium<br />• Receives deoxygenated blood from the inferior vena cava below and from the superior vena cava above.<br />14<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  21. 21. The Right Ventricle<br />Receives blood from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve .<br />15<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  22. 22. The Left Atrium<br />Receives oxygenated blood from four pulmonary veins which drain posteriorly.<br />16<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  23. 23. The Left Atrium<br />The mitral (bicuspid) valve guards the passage of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle.<br />17<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  24. 24. The Left Ventricle<br />The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right ventricle but the structure is similar. <br />The thick wall is necessary to pump oxygenated blood at high pressure through the systemic circulation. <br />18<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  25. 25. The Heart Valves<br />Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart<br />Composed of an endocardium with a connective tissue core.<br />Two major types<br />Atrioventricular valves<br />Semilunar valves<br />19<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  26. 26. 20<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  27. 27. Atrioventricular (AV) Valves<br />Atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the atria and the ventricles<br />R-AV valve = tricuspid valve<br />L-AV valve = bicuspid or mitral valve<br />AV valves prevent backflow of blood into the atria when ventricles contract<br />21<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  28. 28. Semilunar Heart Valves<br />Semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles<br />Aortic semilunar valve lies between the left ventricle and the aorta <br />Pulmonary semilunar valve lies between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk<br />Heart sounds (“lub-dup”) due to valves closing<br />“Lub” - closing of atrioventricular valves<br />“Dub”- closing of semilunar valves<br />22<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  29. 29. SemilunarValve<br />23<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  30. 30. The Heart Valves<br />Atrioventricular valves Semilunar valves<br />Right AV (Tricuspid)<br />separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. Prevents backflow into atrium.<br />Left AV (Bicuspid)<br />separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. Prevents backflow into atrium.<br />Pulmonary valve<br />separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary arteries. Prevents backflow after ventricular contraction.<br />Aortic valve<br />separates the left ventricle from the aorta. Prevents backflow after ventricular contraction .<br />24<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  31. 31. The Heart Valves<br />Pulmonary<br />semilunar valve<br />Right AV<br />(tricuspid)<br />valve<br />Aortic<br />semilunar valve<br />Chordai<br />tendineae<br />Papillary<br />muscle<br />Left AV<br />(bicuspid)<br />valve<br />25<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  32. 32. Arterial Supply of the Heart<br />The arterial supply of the heart is provided by the right and left coronary arteries, which arise from the ascending aorta immediately above the aortic valve.<br />26<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  33. 33. Right coronary artery<br />Branches<br />Right marginal arteries (acute marginal artery)<br />Posterior interventricular artery. (in post. IV sulcus)<br />Sinoatrial nodal artery.<br />Atrioventricular nodal artery.<br />27<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  34. 34. Left coronary artery<br />Branches<br />Left anterior descending (LAD) or anterior interventricular artery. (lies in anterior IV sulcus)<br />Septal branches.<br />Diagonal branches<br />Left marginal artery. (Obtuse marginal artery)<br />Left circumflex artery.<br />28<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  35. 35. Coronary Arteries <br />29<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  36. 36. Venous Drainage of the Heart<br />Most blood from the heart wall drains into the right atrium through the coronary sinus ,which lies in the posterior part of the atrioventricular groove .<br />It is a continuation of the great cardiac vein.<br /> It opens into the right atrium to the left of the inferior vena cava<br />30<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  37. 37. Venous Drainage of the Heart<br />31<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  38. 38. Nerve Supply of the Heart<br />The heart is innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system via the cardiac plexuses situated below the arch of the aorta.<br />32<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />
  39. 39. THANX<br />33<br />Jesús A. Custodio Marroquín<br />