Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
• The respiratory system consists of the nose,
pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea
...
Structurally, the respiratory system consists of
two parts:
1. The upper respiratory system includes the
nose, nasal cavit...
1. The conducting zone consists of a series
of interconnecting cavities and tubes both
outside and within the lungs.
These...
2. The respiratory zone consists of tubes
and tissues within the lungs where gas
exchange occurs.
These include the respir...
Respiratory mucosa
• It is a layer of pseudostratified ciliated
columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus.
• Found in n...
NOSE
• It provides an entrance for air in which air is
filtered by hairs inside the nostrils.
• It has two portions : the ...
• The external portion is supported by a
framework of bone and cartilage covered
with skin and lined with mucous
membrane....
NASAL CAVITY
• The entrance of the respiratory system that is
divided into an external portion and an internal
portion cal...
• The anterior portion of the nasal cavity just
inside the nostrils, called the nasal vestibule,
is surrounded by cartilag...
PARANASAL SINUSES
• Four bones of the skull contain paired air spaces
called the paranasal sinuses - frontal, ethmoidal,
s...
PHARYNX
• The pharynx is a funnel-shaped tube
about 13 cm long that starts at the
internal nares and extends to the level ...
• Its wall is composed of skeletal muscles and
is lined with a mucous membrane.
• The muscles of the entire pharynx are
ar...
• Pharynx is divided into three regions
– Nasopharynx - uppermost portion
– Oropharynx - middle portion
– Laryngopharynx -...
Nasopharynx
• Superior-most region of the pharynx.
• Covered with pseudostratified ciliated
columnar epithelium.
• Location:
– posterior to the nasal cavity
– superior to the soft palate.
– lateral walls of the nasopharynx connect to t...
• Through the internal nares, the nasopharynx
receives air from the nasal cavity along with
packages of dust-laden mucus. ...
OROPHARYNX
• The middle pharyngeal region.
• Immediately posterior to the oral cavity.
• Opens to the oral cavity via an a...
• Boundaries:
– superiorly edge of the soft palate.
– inferiorly the hyoid bone.
• Common respiratory and digestive pathwa...
LARYNGOPHARYNX
• Laryngopharynx or hypopharynx
• Inferior, narrowed region of the pharynx.
• Boundaries
– Superiorly hyoid...
Lower Respiratory Tract
It includes conducting airway and respiratory
portion
 Composed of trachea, bronchial tree, lungs...
Larynx
• Larynx or Voice box is a short, cylindrical
airway ends in the trachea. It is about 5 cm
long.
• Boundaries:
– Su...
• Position: It lies in the midline of the neck
anterior to the esophagus and the fourth
through sixth cervical vertebrae (...
• It conducts air into the lower respiratory tract.
• Produces sounds.
• It is composed of a framework of nine pieces of
c...
Cartilages of larynx:
• Nine c-rings of cartilage form a framework of the
larynx.
• 3 unpaired
• 3 paired
• 3 unpaired car...
• Thyroid cartilage – (Adam’s apple) consists of
two fused plates of hyaline cartilage that form
the anterior wall of the ...
• Arytenoid cartilages – are triangular pieces
of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the
posterior, superior border of th...
Epithelium of Larynx
• The lining of the larynx superior to the vocal
folds is non keratinized stratified squamous
epithel...
Vocal folds
• The mucous membrane of
the larynx forms two pairs
of folds. A superior pair
called the ventricular folds
(fa...
Vocal Folds
• Vocal cords contain elastic fibers and are
responsible for vocal sounds, which are
created when air is forced between th...
• Glottis – a triangular slit opening containing
between the true vocal cords. Its closure
helps to prevent food or liquid...
Blood supply of larynx
• Blood is supplied to the larynx by the
superior and inferior laryngeal arteries and
drained by th...
Epiglottis
• The epiglottis is a large, leaf shaped piece of
elastic cartilage that is covered with epithelium
• The “stem...
Parts of larynx
• Vocal cords
• Glottis
• Epiglottis
• Subglottis
• Supraglottis
TRACHEA
Trachea
Flexible cylindrical tube - Size is 4 – 5 in long & 1 in diameter,
it is also called windpipe. Lined by ciliated p...
• At the level of the sternal angle, the trachea divides
into two smaller tubes, called the right and left
primary bronchi...
Bronchial tree
It is a highly branched system of air-conducting passages that
originate from the left and right primary br...
• Primary bronchi supply each lung
• Secondary bronchi supply each lobe of the lungs (3
right + 2 left)
• Tertiary bronchi...
• Successive branching reduces the number
of cartilage decreases and the number of
smooth muscle increases, this allows fo...
ALVEOLI
• Lungs contain small saccular out pocketing called alveoli.
• They have a thin wall specialized to promote diffusion of
g...
Cells in Alveolus
1. Type I alveolar cells – simple squamous cells
where gas exchange occurs
2. Type II alveolar cells (se...
Anatomy of the Lungs
• Lung occupies most of the space within the thoracic cavity.
It has a conical shape.
• Toward the mi...
Coastal and Mediastinal
Surfaces of Lungs
Costal surface of the lung.
• The relatively broad, rounded
surface in contact with the
thoracic wall is called the costal...
• The superior end of each lung forming the point of
the cone and the inferior end forming the base.
• The superior end of...
Left lung
• Divided into 2 lobes by oblique fissure
• Smaller than the right lung
• Cardiac notch accommodates the heart
•...
Right lung
• Superior lobe
1. Apical segment
2. Posterior segment
3. Anterior segment
• Middle lobe
4. Lateral segment
5. ...
Pleura and Pleural Cavity
The rib cage is separated from the lung by a two-
layered membranous coating called the pleura.
...
• The outer surface of each lung and the adjacent
internal thoracic wall are lined by a serous
membrane called pleura.
• T...
Blood supply of Lungs
• Pulmonary circulation – Supplies deoxygenated blood
pumped from the right ventricle and it is carr...
A. Right clavicle
B. Right scapula
C. Right fourth anterior rib
D. Right eighth rib
E. Right costophrenic angle
F. Left lu...
left lateral chest radiograph
A. Esophagus
B. Trachea
C. lung hili
D. heart silhouette
E. lung apices
F. Scapulae
G. thora...
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Respiratory System - Anatomy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Respiratory System - Anatomy

1,115 views

Published on

Respiratory System - Anatomy

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Respiratory System - Anatomy

  1. 1. THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • The respiratory system consists of the nose, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi, and lungs.
  2. 2. Structurally, the respiratory system consists of two parts: 1. The upper respiratory system includes the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx and associated structures. 2. The lower respiratory system includes the larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.
  3. 3. 1. The conducting zone consists of a series of interconnecting cavities and tubes both outside and within the lungs. These include the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles. Their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs
  4. 4. 2. The respiratory zone consists of tubes and tissues within the lungs where gas exchange occurs. These include the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli. (Gas exchange occur in these zone)
  5. 5. Respiratory mucosa • It is a layer of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus. • Found in nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx and trachea • Mucus can trap contaminants –Cilia move mucus up towards mouth
  6. 6. NOSE • It provides an entrance for air in which air is filtered by hairs inside the nostrils. • It has two portions : the external and internal. – External nares (choanae) - opening to exterior – Internal nares opening to pharynx
  7. 7. • The external portion is supported by a framework of bone and cartilage covered with skin and lined with mucous membrane. • The internal portion is a large cavity in the skull, merging with the external nose anteriorly and communicating with the throat posteriorly.
  8. 8. NASAL CAVITY • The entrance of the respiratory system that is divided into an external portion and an internal portion called the nasal cavity. • Interior area of the nose; lined with a sticky mucous membrane and contains tiny surface hairs called cilia. It divided medially by the nasal septum. • Particles trapped in the mucus are carried to the pharynx by ciliary action, swallowed, and carried to the stomach where gastric juice destroys any microorganisms in the mucus.
  9. 9. • The anterior portion of the nasal cavity just inside the nostrils, called the nasal vestibule, is surrounded by cartilage. • The superior part of the nasal cavity is surrounded by bone. • A vertical partition, the nasal septum, divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides. The anterior portion of the nasal septum consists primarily of hyaline cartilage.
  10. 10. PARANASAL SINUSES • Four bones of the skull contain paired air spaces called the paranasal sinuses - frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, maxillary. • Add resonance to voice. • Communicate with the nasal cavity by ducts. • Lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
  11. 11. PHARYNX • The pharynx is a funnel-shaped tube about 13 cm long that starts at the internal nares and extends to the level of the cricoid cartilage, the most inferior cartilage of the larynx. • The pharynx lies just posterior to the nasal and oral cavities, superior to the larynx, and anterior to the cervical vertebrae. • It is a common passageway for air and food.
  12. 12. • Its wall is composed of skeletal muscles and is lined with a mucous membrane. • The muscles of the entire pharynx are arranged in two layers, an outer circular layer and an inner longitudinal layer. • Relaxed skeletal muscles help keep the pharynx patent and contraction of the skeletal muscles assists in deglutition (swallowing).
  13. 13. • Pharynx is divided into three regions – Nasopharynx - uppermost portion – Oropharynx - middle portion – Laryngopharynx - lowermost portion
  14. 14. Nasopharynx • Superior-most region of the pharynx. • Covered with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
  15. 15. • Location: – posterior to the nasal cavity – superior to the soft palate. – lateral walls of the nasopharynx connect to the auditory/eustachian tubes which open into middle ear. • Normally, only air passes through. • Material from the oral cavity and oropharynx is typically blocked from entering the nasopharynx by the uvula of soft palate, which elevates when swallow. • Posterior nasopharynx wall also houses a single pharyngeal tonsil (commonly called the adenoids).
  16. 16. • Through the internal nares, the nasopharynx receives air from the nasal cavity along with packages of dust-laden mucus. The cilia in nasopharynx cilia move the mucus down toward the most inferior part of the pharynx. • The nasopharynx also exchanges small amounts of air with the auditory tubes to equalize air pressure between the pharynx and the middle ear.
  17. 17. OROPHARYNX • The middle pharyngeal region. • Immediately posterior to the oral cavity. • Opens to the oral cavity via an archway called the fauces.
  18. 18. • Boundaries: – superiorly edge of the soft palate. – inferiorly the hyoid bone. • Common respiratory and digestive pathway through which both air and swallowed food and drink pass. • Contains nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelim. • Lymphatic organs provide the first line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign materials. • Two pairs of tonsils, the palatine tonsils and lingual tonsils are found in the oropharynx.
  19. 19. LARYNGOPHARYNX • Laryngopharynx or hypopharynx • Inferior, narrowed region of the pharynx. • Boundaries – Superiorly hyoid bone • Inferior end it opens into the esophagus (food tube) posteriorly and the larynx (voice box) anteriorly. • Lined with a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. • Permits passage of both food and air.
  20. 20. Lower Respiratory Tract It includes conducting airway and respiratory portion  Composed of trachea, bronchial tree, lungs, alveolus and alveoli.  Alveoli is the functional unit of lungs. • Conducting airways (pharynx, trachea, bronchi, up to terminal bronchioles). • Respiratory portion of the respiratory system (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli).
  21. 21. Larynx • Larynx or Voice box is a short, cylindrical airway ends in the trachea. It is about 5 cm long. • Boundaries: – Superiorly it attaches to hyoid bone and opens into th laryngopharynx – Inferiorly trachea. – Posteriorly esophagus
  22. 22. • Position: It lies in the midline of the neck anterior to the esophagus and the fourth through sixth cervical vertebrae (C4–C6).
  23. 23. • It conducts air into the lower respiratory tract. • Produces sounds. • It is composed of a framework of nine pieces of cartilage (three individual pieces and three cartilage pairs) that are held in place by ligaments and muscles. • Except for the epiglottis, all laryngeal cartilages are hyaline cartilages. • Muscles of larynx: extrinsic muscles and intrinsic muscles. • The extrinsic muscles of the larynx connect the cartilages to other structures in the throat. • The intrinsic muscles connect the cartilages to one another.
  24. 24. Cartilages of larynx: • Nine c-rings of cartilage form a framework of the larynx. • 3 unpaired • 3 paired • 3 unpaired cartilages – Thyroid cartilage – Cricoid cartilage – Epiglottis • 3 paired cartilages – Arytenoid – Cuneiform – Corniculate cartilages
  25. 25. • Thyroid cartilage – (Adam’s apple) consists of two fused plates of hyaline cartilage that form the anterior wall of the larynx and give it a triangular shape. The ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone is called the thyrohyoid membrane. • Cricoid cartilage – ring-shaped, hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx. • Epiglottis – large, leaf shaped piece of elastic cartilage that is covered with epithelium.
  26. 26. • Arytenoid cartilages – are triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the posterior, superior border of the cricoid cartilage. They form synovial joints with the cricoid cartilage and have a wide range of mobility. • Cuneiform cartilages - club-shaped elastic cartilages anterior to the corniculate cartilages, support the vocal folds and lateral aspects of the epiglottis. • Corniculate cartilages - horn-shaped pieces of elastic cartilage, are located at the top of each arytenoid cartilage
  27. 27. Epithelium of Larynx • The lining of the larynx superior to the vocal folds is non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The lining of the larynx inferior to the vocal folds is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium consisting of ciliated columnar cells, goblet cells, and basal cells. • The mucus produced by the goblet cells helps to trap dust which is not removed in the upper passages.
  28. 28. Vocal folds • The mucous membrane of the larynx forms two pairs of folds. A superior pair called the ventricular folds (false vocal cords) and an inferior pair called the vocal folds (true vocal cords). • The space between the ventricular folds is known as the rima vestibuli.
  29. 29. Vocal Folds
  30. 30. • Vocal cords contain elastic fibers and are responsible for vocal sounds, which are created when air is forced between these folds, causing them to vibrate from side to side. This action generates sound waves, which can be formed into words by changing the shapes of the pharynx and oral cavity and by using tongue and lips.
  31. 31. • Glottis – a triangular slit opening containing between the true vocal cords. Its closure helps to prevent food or liquid from entering the trachea. Glottis
  32. 32. Blood supply of larynx • Blood is supplied to the larynx by the superior and inferior laryngeal arteries and drained by the thyroid veins, which join the internal jugular vein. Nerve supply of larynx • The parasympathetic nerve supply is from the superior laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal nerves, which are branches of the vagus nerves, and the sympathetic nerves are from the superior cervical ganglia, one on each side
  33. 33. Epiglottis • The epiglottis is a large, leaf shaped piece of elastic cartilage that is covered with epithelium • The “stem” of the epiglottis is the tapered inferior portion that is attached to the anterior rim of the thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone. • The broad superior “leaf” portion of the epiglottis is unattached and is free to move up and down like a trap door. Prevents food and drink from entering airway when swallowing
  34. 34. Parts of larynx • Vocal cords • Glottis • Epiglottis • Subglottis • Supraglottis
  35. 35. TRACHEA
  36. 36. Trachea Flexible cylindrical tube - Size is 4 – 5 in long & 1 in diameter, it is also called windpipe. Lined by ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium. • Extends through the mediastinum and lies anterior to the esophagus and inferior to the larynx. • Anterior and lateral walls of the trachea supported by 15 to 20 C-shaped tracheal cartilages. • Cartilage provide rigidity to the tracheal wall • Posterior part of tube lined by trachealis muscle Layers of trachea: – Innermost layer (mucosa) = pseudostratified columnar with cilia & goblet cells – outer layer (submucosa) = loose connective tissue & mucous glands
  37. 37. • At the level of the sternal angle, the trachea divides into two smaller tubes, called the right and left primary bronchi. • Each primary bronchus projects laterally toward each lung. • The inferior tracheal cartilage separates the primary bronchi and forms an internal ridge called the carina.
  38. 38. Bronchial tree It is a highly branched system of air-conducting passages that originate from the left and right primary bronchi. Incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage support the walls of the primary bronchi to ensure that they remain open. Right primary bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the left primary bronchus. • The left lung has two secondary bronchi. The right lung has three secondary bronchi. • They further divide into tertiary bronchi.
  39. 39. • Primary bronchi supply each lung • Secondary bronchi supply each lobe of the lungs (3 right + 2 left) • Tertiary bronchi splits into successive sets of Intralobular bronchioles that supply each bronchopulmonary segment ( right = 10, left = 8) • Bronchioles split into Terminal bronchioles and these split into Respiratory Bronchioles • Respiratory Bronchioles splits into multiple Alveolar ducts which end in an Alveolar sac
  40. 40. • Successive branching reduces the number of cartilage decreases and the number of smooth muscle increases, this allows for variation in airway diameter, during exertion and also sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions. (Bronchodilation, bronchoconstriction) • The epithelial cells gradually changes from ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium to simple cuboidal epithelium in terminal bronchioles
  41. 41. ALVEOLI
  42. 42. • Lungs contain small saccular out pocketing called alveoli. • They have a thin wall specialized to promote diffusion of gases between the alveolus and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. • Gas exchange can take place in the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts as well as in the alveoli, (range: 274–790 million). The spongy nature of the lung is due to the packing of millions of alveoli together.
  43. 43. Cells in Alveolus 1. Type I alveolar cells – simple squamous cells where gas exchange occurs 2. Type II alveolar cells (septal cells) – free surface has microvilli – secrete alveolar fluid containing surfactant (reduces surface tension). Hydrophilic region and hydrophobic region) 3. Alveolar dust cells – wandering macrophages remove debris
  44. 44. Anatomy of the Lungs • Lung occupies most of the space within the thoracic cavity. It has a conical shape. • Toward the midline, the lungs are separated from each other by the mediastinum and this is called the mediastinal surface • The medial aspect of each lung and the site of entrance or exit are called the hilum of lung. • The structures connecting lung to the mediastinum are called Root of the lung, it includes – Bronchus ( Rt and Lt) – Bronchial vessels – Pulmonary artery – 2 Pulmonary veins – Pulmonary nerve plexuses – Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes and lymphatics.
  45. 45. Coastal and Mediastinal Surfaces of Lungs
  46. 46. Costal surface of the lung. • The relatively broad, rounded surface in contact with the thoracic wall is called the costal surface of the lung. • The lungs extend laterally from the heart to the ribs on both sides of the chest and continue posteriorly toward the spine.
  47. 47. • The superior end of each lung forming the point of the cone and the inferior end forming the base. • The superior end of the lungs narrows to a rounded tip known as the apex. • The apex projects superiorly to a point that is slightly superior and posterior to the clavicle. • The inferior end of the lungs, known as the base.
  48. 48. Left lung • Divided into 2 lobes by oblique fissure • Smaller than the right lung • Cardiac notch accommodates the heart • Weight- left lung - 550 gms Right lung • Divided into 3 lobes by oblique and horizontal fissure • Located more superiorly in the body due to liver on right side • Weight- right lung - 600 gms
  49. 49. Right lung • Superior lobe 1. Apical segment 2. Posterior segment 3. Anterior segment • Middle lobe 4. Lateral segment 5. Medial segment • Inferior lobe 6. Superior segment 7. Medial-basal segment 8. Anterior-basal segment 9. Lateral-basal segment 10. Posterior-basal segment Left lung • Superior lobe 1. Apico-posterior segment(merger of "apical" and "posterior") 2. Anterior segment • Lingula of superior lobe 3. Inferior lingular segment 4. Superior lingular segment • Inferior lobe 5. Superior segment 6. Anteromedial basal segment (merger of "anterior basal" and "medial basal") 7. Posterior basal segment 8. Lateral basal segment
  50. 50. Pleura and Pleural Cavity The rib cage is separated from the lung by a two- layered membranous coating called the pleura. The potential space between the serous membrane layers is a pleural cavity. • The pleural membranes produce a thin, serous pleural fluid that circulates in the pleural cavity and acts as a lubricant, ensuring minimal friction during breathing.
  51. 51. • The outer surface of each lung and the adjacent internal thoracic wall are lined by a serous membrane called pleura. • The outer surface of each lung is tightly covered by the visceral pleura. • while the internal thoracic walls, the lateral surfaces of the mediastinum, and the superior surface of the diaphragm are lined by the parietal pleura. • The parietal and visceral pleural layers are continuous at the hilum of each lung.
  52. 52. Blood supply of Lungs • Pulmonary circulation – Supplies deoxygenated blood pumped from the right ventricle and it is carried by pulmonary arteries. When blood passes through the capillaries the alveoli becomes oxygenated. • Bronchial circulation – Supplies oxygenated blood pumped from the left ventricle and it is carried by bronchial arteries. This circulation is otherwise called systemic circulation. The bronchial arteries supply blood to the bronchi and connective tissue of the lungs. They travel with and branch with the bronchi, ending about at the level of the respiratory bronchioles. They anastomose with the branches of the pulmonary arteries Pulmonary arteries, the bronchial arteries supply nutrition to the lungs.
  53. 53. A. Right clavicle B. Right scapula C. Right fourth anterior rib D. Right eighth rib E. Right costophrenic angle F. Left lung apex G. Aortic arch H. Hilum I. Heart J. Left lung base K. Right hemidiaphragm (white arrow).
  54. 54. left lateral chest radiograph A. Esophagus B. Trachea C. lung hili D. heart silhouette E. lung apices F. Scapulae G. thoracic vertebra H. thoracic intervertebral foramen I. superimposed posterior ribs J. costophrenic angles K. diaphragm (yellow arrows).

×