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مذكرة فلسفة شاملة للصف الثالث الثانوي 2017 - موقع ملزمتي

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مذكرة فلسفة شاملة للصف الثالث الثانوي 2017 - موقع ملزمتي
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مذكرة فلسفة شاملة للصف الثالث الثانوي 2017 - موقع ملزمتي

  1. 1. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫א‬ !‫و‬ #!‫و‬.... % & ‫א‬ ' ( ) ‫א‬ *+,‫و‬ - .....& ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫א‬ / -0 1 23 4 ‫وא‬ ( # ‫وא‬ 5 ‫א‬ 63 7 8 * 93 2& :‫و‬ ( ;<%=‫א‬ > 93 % ، @ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ @A BC > D‫א‬ ‫و‬ ( @ ‫وא‬ E‫و‬ F ‫א‬ ' @<3 > !‫و‬ @ ‫א‬ BGA BC ‫ن‬ ;<%=‫א‬ 5 ‫ذج‬ K 74‫و‬ > L % ‫ذج‬ M3..... ‫س‬ D‫א‬ 2A ‫א‬ * <C O &- ‫א‬ B & ‫א‬ ‫א‬P23.QM R MS< =‫א‬ OTU = P ‫א‬ ‫و‬ ‫א‬ * <C O% TAD‫א‬ BC‫و‬ &4‫א‬ ‫א‬ V . ‫א‬ WS0 XY....A 0 O% ‫ن‬ C %‫و‬ .......‫ن‬ &< ‫א‬ Q Z‫وא‬.... ‫א‬ ‫א‬ O ‫9ل‬ 9A X ‫وزو‬..‫د‬ -C! ‫א‬P A‫و‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬:@ ‫وא‬ ^ < ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ٢٠١٦٢٠١٦٢٠١٦٢٠١٦‫دאن‬ ‫وא‬ G% % ' ( _ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬% & ‫א‬ & ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬> !‫و‬)‫ع‬ b(& d ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬.. A < 3 0 M%!..١٥−٨−٢٠١٦ ١ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ s ‫!ن‬ M C Z t‫א‬...‫א‬ !‫و‬ #!‫و‬ ‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬% & ‫א‬ ' ( ) ‫א‬ *+,‫و‬ - . @ u @' .3 ‫د‬ ‫و‬...4 ‫وא‬ ( # ‫وא‬ 5 ‫א‬ 63 7 8 * 93 2& :‫و‬ ( ;<%=‫א‬ > 93 % ، @ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ @A BC > D‫א‬ ‫و‬ ( @ ‫وא‬ E‫و‬ F ‫א‬ ' @<3 (! v‫و‬> !‫و‬ @ ‫א‬ BGA BC ‫ن‬ ;<%=‫א‬ 5 ‫ذج‬ K 74‫و‬ Q<' 2( * 3 BC B F0..wA‫د‬ ! _...> L % ‫ذج‬ M3 ‫س‬ D‫א‬ 2A ‫א‬ * <C O &- ‫א‬ B & ‫א‬ ‫א‬P23 < ‫א‬ X'x CP ‫א‬ yP B F0 ‫!ن‬‫و‬ ‫א‬ * <C O% TAD‫א‬ BC‫و‬ &4‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ CP ‫وא‬ V<T ‫א‬....‫א‬ V . ‫א‬ WS0 XY ‫ن‬ . F ‫א‬ O%‫و‬ W A G@0 O% ‫ن‬ C %‫و‬ y Y‫و‬ Z‫א‬ O A....... z 2( & ‫א‬ % {GY‫ﻛﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﻛﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﻛﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﻛﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ن‬ ;<%=‫א‬. ..‫א‬ ‫א‬ O ‫9ل‬ 9A .‫وא‬ E‫و‬...0 ‫ووא‬)Z‫א‬ 2| Y(X ‫وزو‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺹ‬‫ﺹ‬‫ﺹ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫س‬ 2A‫و‬ R‫א‬ n‫و‬٣٠‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ @ -.< ‫א‬ ‫א‬٣٩> !..‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬٤٠‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‬٢٠١٦٢٠١٦٢٠١٦٢٠١٦ ::::@ 0 - ‫א‬٤٢‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳕﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬:M2 ‫א‬ ‫+ق‬ !٤١‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬A < 3 0 M%! ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% −s ‫!ن‬ M C Z t‫א‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻲ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻲ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻲ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻲ‬‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ‬ @ u @' .3 ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ....( ;<%=‫א‬ > 93 % ، @ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ @A BC > D‫א‬ ‫و‬ ( @ ‫وא‬ E‫و‬ F ‫א‬ ' @<3 E F ‫א‬ R M_!...(! v‫و‬ Q<' 2( * 3 BC B F0 ً ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺼﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ً ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺼﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ً ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺼﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ً ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺼﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬....‫س‬ D‫א‬ 2A ‫א‬ * <C O &- ‫א‬ B & ‫א‬ ‫א‬P23 ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬< ‫א‬ X'x CP ‫א‬ yP B F0 ‫!ن‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ CP ‫وא‬ V<T ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ . F ‫א‬ O%‫و‬ W A G@0 O% ‫ن‬ C %‫و‬ y Y‫و‬ Z‫א‬ O A −z 2( & ‫א‬ % {GY ‫ﺍﳊﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﲰﻰ‬‫ﺍﳊﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﲰﻰ‬‫ﺍﳊﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﲰﻰ‬‫ﺍﳊﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﲰﻰ‬........ ‫ﺹ‬‫ﺹ‬‫ﺹ‬‫ﺹ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ١‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬‫س‬ 2A‫و‬ R‫א‬ n‫و‬ ٢‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬::::@ -.< ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ١٠> !..‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ١١‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬:::: ١٩> !..‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ٢٠‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ٢٩> !..‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻱ‬‫ﺳﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻱ‬‫ﺳﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻱ‬‫ﺳﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻫﺪﺍء‬‫ﺍﻹﻫﺪﺍء‬‫ﺍﻹﻫﺪﺍء‬‫ﺍﻹﻫﺪﺍء‬
  2. 2. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ‬ ‫ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳـﺪﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ( G... 20+TF%‫و‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 3 W&' P ‫א‬ ‫ع‬ ‫א‬-0€ ‫א‬‫م‬ @< ‫א‬ ‚ 2 ! ‚ ‫و‬ t‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ t & -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫د‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬: > - ‫א‬ ‚ . ‫א‬‫د‬ < =‫وא‬‫د‬ ‫א‬ % O% ƒ G@ ‫א‬ (‫א‬ t‫وא‬ 0 -M ‫א‬ O% 23. ‫ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬‫ﻛﺎﻵﺗﻲ‬: ‫„ل‬M ‫א‬ ‚M&0 > - ‫א‬P ‫א‬Oz T ‫א‬ Q3 ‫„ل‬M' @%ً2AOz T 3 / † %t‫א‬ ‫‡ن‬ @ ‫א‬ˆ‚M& ‫א‬ ‫א‬PS ‫א‬> - 0 3 G‰ T% @ ‡ -0 ‫!ن‬()Š( ''‡٨٧( : > - ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ @( m Y Q A _‹ ‫وא‬ ‫د‬ 3 . Œ‫א‬ ‫א‬ | ‫وא‬ R uD‫א‬ ‫ع‬ d ' T ‫א‬ ‫و‬( : n (‫ﺭﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫)ﺍﺑﻦ‬ M > - ‫א‬ • .G% F'‫و‬ ‫א‬ S ‫א‬–( T ‫א‬–z Yp‫א‬( ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ‬‫ﺍﳊﻲ‬‰Ž ‫ذ‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ • M ‫א‬‫א‬5+ D‫وא‬ ‫ن‬ (p 3 ٢ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ‬ ‫ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳـﺪﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻉ‬( G :Ž ‫ذ‬20+TF%‫و‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 3 W&' P ‫א‬ ‫ع‬ ‫א‬ & ‫وא‬P ‫א‬2 ! ‚ ‫و‬ t‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ t & -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ V .%‫ن‬ (p‫א‬% M< ‫א‬> - ‫א‬ ‚ . ‫א‬ & -. ‫א‬ ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ ‫و‬ 4Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y ‫€אم‬Y‫وא‬ƒ D‫א‬(‫א‬ t‫وא‬ 0 -M ‫א‬ O% 23 ‫ل‬ D‫א‬%‫د‬ @ ‫א‬& -. ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ yP.. ‫ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬::::‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬ "‫ﺑﻮﺃ‬‫ﺗﺒﻮﺃ‬ ‫ﻭ‬" * & ‫א‬ ‫ن‬‫ﺑﺎء‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ 7‫ﻭﺗﺒﻮﺃ‬!‫(„ل‬ < 3 Ž P‘‫א‬ −ً‫א‬‫ذ‬n‫„ل‬M ‫א‬ ‚M&0 > - ‫א‬ t‫א‬P’<'‫و‬y%@ −5‫و‬u!‫‡ن‬ @ ‫א‬ Q 5“ &0‫و‬)0 3 G‰ T% @ ‡ -0 ‫!ن‬ ‫ﺏ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ﺏ‬::::‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ‬‫ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ‬‫ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ‬‫ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ‬ ‫ل‬ @( m Y Q A _‹ ‫وא‬ ‫د‬ 3 . Œ‫א‬ ‫א‬ | ‫وא‬ R uD‫א‬ ‫ع‬ d ((‫و‬' ”& ‫א‬‫!و‬‫א‬ ‫א‬)‫و‬< =‫א‬!' T ‫א‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PM%‫ق‬٣•( &' m Y)‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬‫م‬ 5! ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬.. M > - ‫א‬ • .G% F'‫و‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬)‫א‬ S ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬‫ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬• M ‫א‬ T ‫وא‬/ Œ‫א‬‫ن‬ (p 3 Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% -‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ‬ ‫ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳـﺪﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ −‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ −‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬: MT< ‫א‬& ‫وא‬ −‫ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ ﴿−63 ‫אزن‬ < ‫א‬ % 5nV .% ﴿−& -. ‫א‬ ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ ‫و‬ 4 ﴿−‫€א‬Y‫א‬‫ق‬ @Y ‫م‬‫ل‬ D‫א‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ‬:‫ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ > 3 C2 #!=‫א‬5 @<u |M% O3‫א‬ ‫ل‬ 5‫و‬"* & ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺊ‬‫א‬R 3 R -'!7 ‫م‬ 5!‫و‬..‫ﻭﺑ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﺑﻴﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻚ‬:< 3 Ž P‘‫א‬ ‫ل‬ @( m Y Q A _‹ ‫وא‬ ‫د‬ 3 . Œ‫א‬ ‫א‬ | ‫وא‬ R uD‫א‬ ‫ع‬ d ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ‬ ))& -. ‫א‬‫!و‬‫א‬(( −‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬‫ﺑﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬‫ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ‬)PM% ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎء‬.−&' m Y ‫ﺭﺑﻪ‬(* <C VY #‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫وא‬ C‫ذ‬ O%‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬
  3. 3. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ Q3 . Œ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ yP &0 ‚ ‫د‬ @ ‫א‬..(( ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬2M •4 O•%‫و‬ .(( ;4 0 OTU BY‫א‬ % &3‫+ل‬ O% 2< ‫א‬: % FY % & -, > 3 / ‫و‬ Q ( 2 A@@ ‫ﺇﱃ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ـﺎﻧﻴﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ـﺎﺕ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌ‬ ‫ـﺎﻫﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﻈ‬ ˆ– ‫زא‬ %...‫!و‬ˆ ‫א‬ :..... v •& y • 0 '•& -. ‫א‬ً‫א‬ M<• % ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬. ‫אل‬ •, v •& ‫א‬ • A‫و‬ ‫م‬ • ‚• •••|(‫ن‬ ••• (p‫א‬“n••• & -. ‫א‬ •••> - ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬‫ﳋﺪﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺄﻫـﺎ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ‬ & -, ‫א‬ —‫و‬ Y Mz C O% ‫ﳒـﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤـﺎ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻈـﻮﺍﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻬـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘـﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬ‬ ‫ـﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻧﺘﺼ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﻠﻤ‬ ‫ـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﳋﺪﻣﺘ‬ ‫ـﺮﻯ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺗﻬ‬‫ـﻖ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﺣﻘ‬‫ـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺗﻘﺪﻣ‬ • @˜‫و‬ Q•<% •20 Mz C ’• 0‫و‬ • & -. ‫א‬ • ‫د‬ ‫א‬ % ‫+ل‬S<• ‫א‬ ™ ‫د‬ FM ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬: •š •(‫א‬ Y ‫אو‬ w•( C •0 -( •20 Mz C 6•3 A = ˜ • Y‫و‬ B3‫ن‬ • (p‫א‬‫א‬P• ‚• Q• ( ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺴـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻬﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺑـﻮ‬‫ﺕ‬ • !‫و‬ • t‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ & -, O% % › S0 & -, &0 =‫و‬ 23 (! / <‘ m‫!و‬& -, Q-u ‚<Y ‫ون‬ •T ‫وא‬• + ‫وא‬“n‫ﺧﻄـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ƒ F- ‫א‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﻘـﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﻳـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻣـﻦ‬ Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y‫و‬ & -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ Gƒ D‫א‬. Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y ‚ ˜ƒ D‫א‬‫ق‬ @Y‫و‬‫ل‬ • D‫א‬ ٣ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬: Oz T ‫א‬ Ž ‫ذ‬P ‫א‬Ž <U_9< ‫א‬ ‚ @ ‫א‬ -&0 Y ‚ y Y"‫ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ‬"))> - ‫א‬ yP &0 ‚ ‫د‬ @ ‫א‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺧﺎﺹ‬‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ (‫א‬ t‫وא‬ 0 -M ‫א‬ > 3X ‫א‬œ & ‫א‬ QC F0> - ‫א‬ yP. 5+& ‫א‬ yP %‫א‬63‫ن‬ (p‫א‬;4 0 OTU BY‫א‬ % &3 X ‫א‬‫و‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬% FY % & -, > 3 / ‫و‬ Q ( 2 A ‫ﻓﻠﺠﺄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬ •@A‫ﺃ‬‫ـﻮﺩ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﺍﳍﻨ‬ ‫ـﺎﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒ‬ ‫ـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ـﺎﻧﻴﻮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬‫و‬P‘‫وא‬%nˆ‡† #...‫!و‬ˆ– ‫زא‬ % •• Y ‫א‬ yP•• ‫ﺍﳊﻀــﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ـــﻮﺭ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﻇﻬ‬ ‫ـــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴــﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬ *•• @A‫ﺃﺭﺳـﻄﻮ‬0•@v •& y • 0 ' n‫!ن‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ *‫و‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬‫ﻫـﻴﻤﻦ‬‫אل‬ •, v •& ‫א‬ • A‫و‬ ‫م‬ • ‚• ••• -<' •••G& ‫א‬ yP••••••|( ‚ . Œ‫א‬2(!‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬& -, ‫א‬ —‫و‬ Y Mz C O% Q•(‫א‬ ‫وא‬ •' R • & ‫وא‬ • + ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ C‫و‬‫ﳒـﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﲟﻨﻬﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺒﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘـﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬ‬ ‫ـﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻧﺘﺼ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﻠﻤ‬ ‫ـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﳋﺪﻣﺘ‬ ‫ـﺮﻯ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺗﻬ‬ • @˜‫و‬ Q•<% •20 Mz C ’• 0‫و‬ • & -. ‫א‬ • ‫د‬ ‫א‬ % ‫+ل‬S<• ‫א‬ ™ ‫د‬ FM ‫א‬ Q< A. *‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺭﺓ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ •••• Y ‫א‬ yP•••• ‫א‬ ••••••••' ‫א‬ •••••••.0 ‫ن‬ • (p‫א‬ ••••••• & ‫א‬ “n *‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬‫ﺃﺛﺎﺭﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬ ١−b‫א‬ Yn•š •(‫א‬ Y ‫אو‬ w•( C •0 -( •20 Mz C 6•3 A = ˜ •-#!‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺪﺩ‬• Y‫و‬ B3 VC T ‫א‬. ٢−‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺴـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻬﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ OTU ، ‚<u ‫ل‬ 93‫!ن‬• !‫و‬ • t‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ & -, O% % › S0 ž ˆ Tu!‫و‬& -, &0 =‫و‬ 23 (! / <‘ m ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﳓﻴﺎﻫﺎ‬m• Y‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺒـﻪ‬‫ون‬ •T ‫وא‬ V(‫א‬ Ÿ&3 ‚ -0€ ‫א‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳛﺬﺭﻭﻥ‬‫ﻫـ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺛـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺬﻩ‬..‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﻘـﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﻳـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻣـﻦ‬ ‫א‬ ˜‫و‬“n: ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y‫و‬ & -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ G ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬X ‫א‬Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y ‚ ˜ %‫د‬ @ ‫א‬ ' F- ‫א‬ Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% ‫ﺛﺎ‬‫ﻧﻴ‬ ً ‫ﺎ‬:‫ﺍﳌ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬ −‫ن‬ (p‫א‬Oz T ‫א‬ Ž ‫ذ‬ ‫و‬‫و‬-&0 Y ‚ y Y ‫ﻓﺜﻤﺔ‬‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ (‫א‬ t‫وא‬ 0 -M ‫א‬ > 3 −5+& ‫א‬ yP % ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻪ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻪ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻪ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱄ‬ X ‫א‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺠﺄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ *•@A ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬ *‫ـﺪﺃﺕ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬•• Y ‫א‬ yP•• 7••% E ••4 3‫ﺍﳊﻀــﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ـــﻮﺭ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﻇﻬ‬ ‫ـــﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴــﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬ *! •••3‫ﻣـــﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠــﻢ‬ ‫ﻇﻬــﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊـــــــــﺪﻳﺚ‬ Q••••••••••••• M‰ )' t‫א‬. *Q•(‫א‬ ‫وא‬ •' R • & ‫وא‬ • + ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ C‫و‬ ‫ﲟﻨﻬﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬ‬ ‫ـﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻧﺘﺼ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻛﻠﻤ‬ ‫ـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﳋﺪﻣﺘ‬ ‫ـﺮﻯ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺗﻬ‬ • @˜‫و‬ Q•<% •20 Mz C ’• 0‫و‬ • & -. ‫א‬ • ‫د‬ ‫א‬ % ‫+ل‬S<• ‫א‬ ™ ‫د‬ FM ‫א‬ Q< A ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ‬* ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺮ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺮ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺮ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺮ‬ *¡• 3‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ •••• Y ‫א‬ yP•••• ‫א‬ ••••••••' ‫א‬ •••••••.0 Q A ‫ع‬ .< ‫א‬‫ن‬ • (p‫א‬ Q•••••••% @<3••••••• & ‫א‬ •2- ‫א‬‫!ن‬B••G'“n & -. ‫א‬ 25 Y %. ‫ﺍﻻﺣﱰﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻻﺣﱰﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻻﺣﱰﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻻﺣﱰﺍﻡ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻥ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻥ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻥ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻥ‬ *‚ ‫و‬‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ‬ *‫א‬ z •-A‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳛﺬﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫א‬ ˜‫و‬ ١−‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ٢−‫ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻅ‬‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ %‫د‬ @ ‫א‬ ' F- ‫א‬
  4. 4. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ •5+ O• •u T ‫א‬ • ‫א‬ < ‫א‬ B•Y‫א‬ ‫א‬ yP• O•‫ن‬ • (p‫א‬•> - 3 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸـﺄ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫ﺍﻧـﻪ‬‫ﺇﻻ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‚• — • t‫وא‬ • & -. ‫א‬ •> - ‫א‬ ‫•€אم‬Y‫א‬ ‫و‬ •4‫و‬ ‫א‬ •”t‫א‬ ^• <¢( • (p‫א‬P•M%‫و‬ & -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ 93−2 — t‫وא‬−• 25 ‫م‬ • ‫و‬ • t‫א‬ •Mz T ‫א‬ B•T • t‫א‬ •Y ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬−‚• ‫و‬‫!ن‬B•|0 • t‫א‬ ‫א‬ <• ‫א‬ ‚• •F- •( ‫و‬ 5 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ”t‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬))))‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭ‬(((( w( C @O' T ‫א‬ M & -. ‫א‬6 M •G ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭ‬( ‫•£ل‬ ‫وא‬ ! •- ‫א‬ &'P• ‫א‬Q•M% ‚09•0 ‫ن‬ ( ••@ ‫א‬ •• ‫و‬••& -. ‫א‬‫!و‬‫ن‬ •• T ‫א‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﺍﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻳﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬‫ﺃﻗﺪﻡ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬: ‫و‬ ” ‫א‬ G-<v & ‫א‬... ‫د‬ ‫א‬ Tž& -. ‫א‬Q5 0‫وא‬.. 63 /3‫€א‬ 3 ‫א‬ 5R uD‫א‬.. & -. ‫א‬2< A‫و‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‬: ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﻏﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬•Mz T ‫א‬ O•% ƒ •• •• ‫א‬••G(!••0 -M ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ ••@Y ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬& -. ‫א‬ Mz C ‫ــﲔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼـــﻄﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴـــﺰ‬‫ن‬ ••• (p‫א‬ ƒ • D‫א‬‫ﺍﻟﻜـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜـﻞ‬ ‫ﳛﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ & -,‫و‬‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ Q(‫א‬ ž‚5 D‫א‬ƒ 5D‫وא‬.¤‫א‬. ‫ﺴ‬‫ﻲ‬(“nŽ ‫ذ‬Q3 <C)‫ﺍﻟﻄـﺎﻭ‬( -, ¢‫ن‬ (p‫א‬:))))))))‫ﲢﺴﺐ‬ٔ‫ﲢﺴﺐ‬ٔ‫ﲢﺴﺐ‬ٔ‫ﲢﺴﺐ‬ٔ‫ﻧﻚ‬‫ا‬‫ﻧﻚ‬‫ا‬‫ﻧﻚ‬‫ا‬‫ﻧﻚ‬‫ا‬‫ـﲆ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدر‬‫ـﲆ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدر‬‫ـﲆ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدر‬‫ـﲆ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدر‬ ‫ﻪ؟‬ ‫وﲢﺴــ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻪ؟‬ ‫وﲢﺴــ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻪ؟‬ ‫وﲢﺴــ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻪ؟‬ ‫وﲢﺴــ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬ٔٔٔٔ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻻ‬‫رى‬ٔ‫رى‬ٔ‫رى‬ٔ‫رى‬ٔ‫ذ‬‫ذ‬‫ذ‬‫ذ‬‫ــﺎ‬ ‫ﳑﻜ‬‫ــﺎ‬ ‫ﳑﻜ‬‫ــﺎ‬ ‫ﳑﻜ‬‫ــﺎ‬ ‫ﳑﻜ‬............‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬ #‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻟﲀن‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫و‬‫-ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴ‬ ‫/ﺴﻌﻚ‬ ‫وﻻ‬#‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻟﲀن‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫و‬‫-ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴ‬ ‫/ﺴﻌﻚ‬ ‫وﻻ‬#‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻟﲀن‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫و‬‫-ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴ‬ ‫/ﺴﻌﻚ‬ ‫وﻻ‬#‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻟﲀن‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫و‬‫-ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴ‬ ‫/ﺴﻌﻚ‬ ‫وﻻ‬(((((((( ‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬‫ﲢﺬﻳﺮ‬1 A Q@ .'‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺩﺗـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴـﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲎ‬Q ” ‫א‬ ‫ع‬ 5‫وو‬ ٤ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ 3 ‫א‬ m' t‫א‬ ‚M&'•5+ O• •u T ‫א‬ • ‫א‬ < ‫א‬ B•Y‫א‬ ‫א‬ yP• O• • % ‫א‬ Y ‫א‬)‫ن‬ •G ‫وא‬ ‫•€אم‬Y=‫א‬ • Y %(‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸـﺄ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫ﺍﻧـﻪ‬ ‫ن‬ (p‫א‬Q-<M' v“n• !‚• — • t‫وא‬ • & -. ‫א‬ •> - ‫א‬ ‫•€אم‬Y‫א‬ ‫و‬ •4‫و‬ # & ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ A 2— 7%.. ‫ﻫﻲ‬‫!ن‬O' •T ‫وא‬ F- ‫א‬ O% )T ‫א‬‫א‬ •”t‫א‬ ^• <¢ 6 ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ ( C U @ ‫א‬ 5 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ”t‫א‬−& -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ 93 ‚ 2M% # Y:−• t‫א‬ •Mz T ‫א‬ B•T • t‫א‬ •Y ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ •2<( T‰' • ‫א‬ ' •F- ‫א‬ • ; •&A (−• t‫א‬ ‫א‬ <• ‫א‬ ‚• •F- •( ‫و‬ 7 (‫אز‬ < ‫وא‬ z‫د‬ ˆ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ‬: ‫م‬ @ ‫א‬ PM% 2— > - 3 ‫م‬ < =‫א‬T ‫א‬‫א‬5 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ”t‫א‬ 6G ‫وא‬ G%: ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ﺏ‬::::‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ > - 2-Y O ‫ن‬ ' G ‫א‬ R % 5 • ‫د‬ ‫א‬ % ‚ . ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫و‬ Y 2- ‫א‬ 20‫א‬ ”Y R M3 % ’ 0‫و‬... • ‫א‬ —‫و‬ •> - ‫א‬ yP• ‫א‬ ‫د‬ -& ‫א‬ & -. ‫א‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬: −w( C @ R % @ ‫א‬B)›)‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭ‬ −P ‫א‬‫•£ل‬ ‫وא‬ ! •- ‫א‬ &' B••CR ••uD‫א‬‫ن‬ ( ••@ ‫א‬ •• ‫و‬ 0‫א‬P ‫א‬R uL Q•••<A •••G% * •••<C( ••• (p‫א‬ •‫ﻳـﺪﺭﻛﻮﻥ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﳊﻔـﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺳـﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺣـﺪ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬‫ﺍﻹﻟـﻪ‬ ‚ - . ‫א‬ t‫א‬ ‫د‬ ¥ Š ‫و‬‫ض‬ D‫א‬. =١=‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﺍﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻳﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ١−n‫و‬ ” ‫א‬ G-< ٢−‫و‬M%‡‫א‬‫د‬ ‫א‬ Tž ٣−63 /3‫€א‬ 3 ‫א‬ 5 ٤−5‫ود‬ Y OM ‫ﺇﻋــﻼﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟــﱪﺍءﺓ‬‫ﺃﻣــﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻹﻟــﻪ‬ A •< ‫א‬ 2 2<• '‚‫•+م‬ ‫א‬ Q• @3 ••|& ‫א‬‫ـﻮﻓﻰ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘ‬ ‫ـﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛ‬ ‫ـﺎﺕ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻨ‬ ‫ـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻣ‬ ‫ـﻰ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬‫ـﺮﻯ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧ‬••25 @t‫و‬ ،‫3ﳢﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫3ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺷ‬‫اﳌﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺮم‬ ‫ﱂ‬،‫3ﳢﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫3ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺷ‬‫اﳌﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺮم‬ ‫ﱂ‬،‫3ﳢﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫3ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺷ‬‫اﳌﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺮم‬ ‫ﱂ‬،‫3ﳢﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫3ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺷ‬‫اﳌﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺮم‬ ‫ﱂ‬‫اﻟﻔ?ـﺎخ‬ ‫اﺻـﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﱂ‬‫اﻟﻔ?ـﺎخ‬ ‫اﺻـﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﱂ‬‫اﻟﻔ?ـﺎخ‬ ‫اﺻـﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﱂ‬‫اﻟﻔ?ـﺎخ‬ ‫اﺻـﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫اﳌﯿـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫اﲥﻢ‬‫ﲑ‬‫ﲝـ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲰﲀ‬ ‫اﺻﻄﺎد‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺔ‬JK‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﻓﲑ‬‫اﳌﯿـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫اﲥﻢ‬‫ﲑ‬‫ﲝـ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲰﲀ‬ ‫اﺻﻄﺎد‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺔ‬JK‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﻓﲑ‬‫اﳌﯿـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫اﲥﻢ‬‫ﲑ‬‫ﲝـ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲰﲀ‬ ‫اﺻﻄﺎد‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺔ‬JK‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﻓﲑ‬‫اﳌﯿـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫اﲥﻢ‬‫ﲑ‬‫ﲝـ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲰﲀ‬ ‫اﺻﻄﺎد‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺔ‬JK‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬‫ﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬‫ﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬‫ﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬))))‫ﺳﺪا‬‫ﺳﺪا‬‫ﺳﺪا‬‫ﺳﺪا‬((((‫ﱂ‬ ، ‫اﳉﺎري‬ ‫اﳌﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺎم‬ٔ‫ﱂ‬ ، ‫اﳉﺎري‬ ‫اﳌﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺎم‬ٔ‫ﱂ‬ ، ‫اﳉﺎري‬ ‫اﳌﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺎم‬ٔ‫ﱂ‬ ، ‫اﳉﺎري‬ ‫اﳌﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺎم‬ٔ =٢=‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ =••2|Aƒ •• •• ‫א‬ (‫א‬ t‫وא‬‫ﻟﻠ‬‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ =‫ــﺎء‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﺇﻟﻐ‬‫ــﲔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼـــﻄﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴـــﺰ‬ Mz T ‫وא‬ƒ • D‫א‬ ¨ M0& -, ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘـﺪﻳﻢ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻈـﺎﻫﺮ‬)C،R •‫ض‬ D‫وא‬ ‫ﻣﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺧـﺬﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ل‬ˆ–‫א‬ #‫و‬ =٣=u!)‫ﻻ‬‫ﺅﺗ‬‫ﺴ‬ 5 M Y‫ل‬-, ¢ ‫ﺗــﻮﱃ‬‫ﺗــﻮﱃ‬‫ﺗــﻮﱃ‬‫ﺗــﻮﱃ‬‫ﻣــﺮ‬ٔ‫ﻣــﺮ‬ٔ‫ﻣــﺮ‬ٔ‫ﻣــﺮ‬ٔ‫ﻪ؟‬ ‫وﲢﺴــ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻪ؟‬ ‫وﲢﺴــ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻪ؟‬ ‫وﲢﺴــ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬‫ﻪ؟‬ ‫وﲢﺴــ‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪس‬‫ﻣﻘﺪس‬‫ﻣﻘﺪس‬‫ﻣﻘﺪس‬................#‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻟﲀن‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫و‬‫-ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴ‬ ‫/ﺴﻌﻚ‬ ‫وﻻ‬#‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻟﲀن‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫و‬‫-ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴ‬ ‫/ﺴﻌﻚ‬ ‫وﻻ‬#‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻟﲀن‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫و‬‫-ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴ‬ ‫/ﺴﻌﻚ‬ ‫وﻻ‬#‫ا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻟﲀن‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫و‬‫-ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﲢﺴ‬ ‫/ﺴﻌﻚ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫ﻧﻬــﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘــﺪﻳﻢ‬ Q•••• 0‫و‬ ‫د‬ ••••-& ‫א‬ •••• 20‫א‬ # ‫+ل‬ u (D‫وא‬ B 0‫€א‬ ‫א‬ =٤=‫א‬P‫ﺍﳌﺒﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺩﺗـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴـﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺴﻴﻨﻪ‬‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬‫ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲎ‬ Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% −=3 ‫א‬ m' t‫א‬ ‚M&' # ‫و‬• % ‫א‬ Y ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬‫!و‬‫!ن‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 2 A ‫אزن‬ < ‫א‬=n# & ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ A 2— 7% −‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ 6 ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ ( C U @ ‫א‬ 5 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ”t‫א‬ ‫!و‬‫ذ‬ M< ‫א‬...‚ 2M% # Y • & -. ‫א‬ •> - ‫א‬ yP••2<( T‰ 7 (‫אز‬ < ‫وא‬ z‫د‬ ˆ‫א‬ ‫ﺛﺎ‬‫ﻟﺜ‬‫ﺎ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬‫ﻴﺌﻲ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ‬ ‫ن‬n‫م‬ @ ‫א‬ PM% 2— > - 3 ‫م‬ < =‫א‬ ‫א‬# © U @ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬::::‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ −^FC> - 2-Y O ‫ن‬ ' G ‫א‬ R % 5 −‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻘﺪﺭ‬• ‫د‬ ‫א‬ % ‚ . ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫و‬ Y 2- ‫א‬ 20‫א‬ ”Y R M3 % ’ 0‫و‬ −‫ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺪﺭ‬5•• ‫א‬ —‫و‬ •> - ‫א‬ yP• ‫א‬ ‫د‬ -& ‫א‬ & -. ‫א‬ =١=‫م‬ •••5!Q•••<A •••G% * •••<C )‫ﺍﳌﻮﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬(MA• ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺳـﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺣـﺪ‬ ‚ - . ‫א‬ t‫א‬ ‫د‬ ¥ Š ‫و‬ =٢=)‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳــﺬﺓ‬‫ﺇﻋــﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‬(X ‫א‬A •< ‫א‬ 2 2<• ' ••' Ž••••2'!Q•• p‫א‬••|& ‫א‬ ‫ـﺎﺕ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻨ‬ ‫ـﻪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻣ‬ ‫ـﻰ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ل‬ @ A:.))))،‫3ﳢﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫3ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺷ‬‫اﳌﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺮم‬ ‫ﱂ‬،‫3ﳢﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫3ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺷ‬‫اﳌﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺮم‬ ‫ﱂ‬،‫3ﳢﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫3ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺷ‬‫اﳌﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺮم‬ ‫ﱂ‬،‫3ﳢﺎ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫3ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺷ‬‫اﳌﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺮم‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫اﳌﯿـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫اﲥﻢ‬‫ﲑ‬‫ﲝـ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲰﲀ‬ ‫اﺻﻄﺎد‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺔ‬JK‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﻓﲑ‬‫اﳌﯿـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫اﲥﻢ‬‫ﲑ‬‫ﲝـ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲰﲀ‬ ‫اﺻﻄﺎد‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺔ‬JK‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﻓﲑ‬‫اﳌﯿـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫اﲥﻢ‬‫ﲑ‬‫ﲝـ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲰﲀ‬ ‫اﺻﻄﺎد‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺔ‬JK‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﻓﲑ‬‫اﳌﯿـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫اﲥﻢ‬‫ﲑ‬‫ﲝـ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲰﲀ‬ ‫اﺻﻄﺎد‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺔ‬JK‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺎﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﰴ‬ٔ ‫ﱂ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻮﲰﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﰴ‬ٔ ‫ﱂ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻮﲰﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﰴ‬ٔ ‫ﱂ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻮﲰﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬‫ﰴ‬ٔ ‫ﱂ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻮﲰﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬))))‫ﺿﻊ‬ٔ‫ﺿﻊ‬ٔ‫ﺿﻊ‬ٔ‫ﺿﻊ‬ٔ((((‫ﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬‫ﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬‫ﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬‫ﺎﺋﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ‬Y‫ﺟ‬ٔ[‫ﻣ‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ﻃﻔﺊ‬ٔ‫ﺔ‬Y‫ﺟ‬ٔ[‫ﻣ‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ﻃﻔﺊ‬ٔ‫ﺔ‬Y‫ﺟ‬ٔ[‫ﻣ‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ﻃﻔﺊ‬ٔ‫ﺔ‬Y‫ﺟ‬ٔ[‫ﻣ‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ﻃﻔﺊ‬ٔ((.((.((.((. =٣=‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ‬ Aw( T‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻈـﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫و‬(..‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻞ‬‫ﻣﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺧـﺬﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬‫ﺇﳛﺎءﺍﺕ‬Tu93‫ل‬ =٤=‫ﺗﻘــﺪﻳﺲ‬‫ﺍﳌﺼــﺮﻱ‬‫ﻧﻬــﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘــﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ـــﻞ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴ‬Q•••• 0‫و‬ ‫د‬ ••••-& ‫א‬ •••• 20‫א‬ # ‫+ل‬ u (D‫وא‬ B 0‫€א‬ ‫א‬
  5. 5. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ً ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬ T ‫א‬ ‫אن‬ % Q0 % 2 n ! O%‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺿﺢ‬)‫אن‬ '‫ود‬ ™& ‫א‬ ™ ‫وא‬ ! <- ‫א‬(..‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻨﺎﺋﻌﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫א‬ 5D‫وא‬ Š3+ ‫وא‬ ( - ‫א‬ ‫و‬ b ˜‫ﻋ‬‫ﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍء‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﺒﺎﺋﻌﻬﻢ‬Ž P B)% * 4‫و‬ ،‫دאن‬ ‫א‬ 5p‫א‬ _90 %‫و‬t‫א‬)G%‫و‬( 20 G’u O' T0‫ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰﺓ‬E 3 ‫ط‬ -(=‫وא‬ ‫و‬ ‫وא‬‫ون‬ ' =‫و‬‫א‬ 5! ‫-+د‬ ‫א‬‫د‬ - ‫א‬m Y‫ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰﺓ‬ ‫אط‬ Ap‫وא‬ ‫„ن‬t‚<Y V5‫א‬ & ‫א‬ |( ‫ون‬ '5O% 6<M* -t‫א‬ 20‫א‬ % A m' ; Q<% @% O% -C V( ‫ون‬ O3‫א‬ {G ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻣﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺌﻮﻧﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ‬2<5+ ‫و‬‫ن‬ (p 3' , O: ‫ن‬ • (p‫א‬. • ‫א‬ • ‫و‬ ‫و‬ •& -. ‫א‬ •2M% ‫د‬ <• =‫وא‬ • ‫د‬ ‫א‬ % ‫אج‬ ’<• ‫وא‬ •> - ‫א‬ • ‫ن‬ • (p‫א‬ . ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬: ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﻌﺎﳉﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻡ‬. ٥ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬: ‫ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﲣﺼﺼﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﰲ‬: 1 A y -< 3 % 2 p‫א‬ O% ' & ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫9و‬A Ž ‫وذ‬ > - ‫א‬ T ‫א‬ ‫אن‬ % ‫ﺍﻷﺑﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ % 2 p‫א‬ yP O%‫و‬: −‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ً ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬ T ‫א‬ ‫אن‬ % Q0 % 2 n ! O%‫و‬ > - ‫א‬: ١−‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺔ‬Q< «‫و‬ ‫م‬ ’< ‫א‬ V<T ‫א‬ C † š Q0‫א‬ @A B% T0‫و‬ ، Q<5‫ود‬ > - ‫א‬ A ‫ول‬ M<0 X ‫א‬ # & ‫א‬.. ٢−‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺿﺢ‬ ™ ‫وא‬ ! <- ‫א‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻨﺎﺋﻌﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫א‬ 5D‫وא‬ Š3+ ‫وא‬ ( - ‫א‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ B% u BTF3‫و‬ .¨ m Y ‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ _90‫و‬ > - ‫א‬ %+ %‫و‬ ‫ن‬ T ‫א‬ {z G• M ‫وא‬ <’ ‫א‬ M ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ GA‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻂ‬ G% F<M0 X ‫א‬.. ٣−b ˜ ‫ﻭﻃﺒﺎﺋﻌﻬﻢ‬ 5p‫א‬ _90 %‫و‬ 20 G’u O' T0 ‫ط‬ -(=‫وא‬ ‫و‬ ‫وא‬ ŠT&3‫-+د‬ ‫א‬ 3‫אط‬ Ap‫وא‬ ‫„ن‬t 2(!‫ون‬ ' 20‫א‬ % A ‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺱ‬O% ‫ن‬ T ‫א‬ Ž ‫ذ‬ _! ‫ن‬ 3 B !‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻬﻢ‬.. ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺍﺗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬ ٤−m' ; Q<% @% O% -C V( ‫ون‬ O3‫א‬ {G ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺌﻮﻧﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺭﺍء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ‬ 2M 3 ‫دل‬ -< ‫א‬ _9< ‫א‬ #.. B 0 O : M ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ +TF‫ن‬ • (p‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫א‬ %&3 2— 5 OT0 v... =‫و‬•2M% ‫د‬ <• =‫وא‬ • ‫د‬ ‫א‬ % ‫אج‬ ’<• ‫وא‬ •> - ‫א‬ • ‫ن‬ • (p‫א‬ . Q0 ”Y‫و‬ Q< M#‫و‬ Q0 t ‫و‬ 4 ‰.. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﻌﺎﳉﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﳚﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺮ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻡ‬ Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ −‫ﺑﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻞ‬‫ﲣﺼﺼﻪ‬ 1 A y -< 3 % 2 p‫א‬ O% ' & ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫9و‬A G% V -,‫و‬Ž ‫وذ‬ > - ‫א‬ T ‫א‬ ‫אن‬ % 3 <C)‫ﺍﻷﺑﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺭﺽ‬(% 2 p‫א‬ yP O%‫و‬ ١−‫ﻗﺪﻡ‬3 <C‫ﺍﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺔ‬ V<T ‫א‬ C † š Q0‫א‬ @A B% T0‫و‬ ، Q<5‫ود‬ > - ‫א‬ A ‫ول‬ M<0 X ‫א‬ # & ‫א‬ ٢−‫א‬ ‫د‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ B% u BTF3‫و‬ .¨ m Y ‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ _90‫و‬ > - ‫א‬ %+ %‫و‬ ‫ن‬ T ‫א‬ {z G <’ ‫א‬ M ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ GA ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺑﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬G% F<M0 X ‫א‬ ٣−‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ن‬ T ‫א‬ Ž ‫ذ‬ _! ‫ن‬ 3 B ! ‫ﻋﻼﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻬﻢ‬ ٤−‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺪ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺍﺗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪﻫﻢ‬.. ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺐ‬ −‫ﺗﺘﻌﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﱂ‬‫ﺍﻵﺭﺍء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ 2M 3 ‫دل‬ -< ‫א‬ _9< ‫א‬ # ‫ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬‫ﺇﱄ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬:‫א‬ ‫!ن‬B 0 O : M ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ +TF 2‫ذ‬ M< ‫وא‬‫د‬ ‫א‬ % ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬=‫و‬ Q0 ”Y‫و‬ Q< M#‫و‬ Q0 t ‫و‬ 4 ‰ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴ‬‫ﺎ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬ #-‫ﺍﻫﺘﻢ‬‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﻌﺎﳉﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﳚﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺮ‬
  6. 6. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﺭﳚﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻡ‬ ‫وא‬ 3 - . ‫وא‬ ( #١#‫ﺷﺎﺭﻙ‬‫ﺭﳚﺎﻥ‬‫د‬ M“n‚ — t‫א‬ ‫אن‬ t‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y. #٢#%ً‫א‬ M<% ‚ 7 ‫א‬ 23 O%‹': )‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺇﻳﺬﺍء‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬‫ﻷﺟﻞ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺔ‬‫ﲨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﳊﻘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻙ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍء‬‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬‫ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺫﻯ‬‫ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬‫ﻏ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﲑ‬( O% 5 | ! ‚ P ‫א‬ ‫!و‬ R @F ‫وא‬ ‫د‬ & 3 &F ‫א‬ ‚ ‫د‬ 5 (‫א‬ t‫א‬ 20 3 Y 2 M ‫ﺳـﻨﺠﺮ‬ •(‫א‬ t‫א‬ •4 ‫س‬ •› QA+ ‫!و‬ & ‫א‬ * < ‫א‬. ‫ﺍﻻﻳﻜﻮﻟـﻮﺟﻲ‬‫ود‬ •Y = ¬n‫ض‬ D‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬‫ﺇﺯﺍء‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ |M'Q(‫א‬ ‚ Q M2 A T;< ‫وא‬ |M'2 n‚2(!O, %‫ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ “n2 A ƒ‫د‬ ” Q(‫א‬ ‚ Q ( yP ‚ -A †‫ض‬ D‫א‬# M A T3 ‫ﻳﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬: ‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺗﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬.. ‫ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬‫؟‬‫؟‬ C! •• &3 m••;-0 ••2(D••)7••5‫א‬ ‫א‬•• & ‫א‬••5+& v •••••& ‫א‬ 7•••••%•••••& -. ‫א‬B•••••# < ‫وא‬“n •• A <M<•• ‫א‬••)C!••@O•••• -< 3 ••> - ‫א‬ R YD‫א‬ ‫ض‬ D‫א‬ ‚Q‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲝﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬،20‫ذא‬ ž 5 ً”'! ˆ‫و‬.. - 0 B ! O%t‫א‬' t‫א‬. ً ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻐﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﻥ‬.. ٦ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﱰ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ‬‫ﳊ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻘﻮﻕ‬‫وא‬ 3 - . ‫وא‬ t‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ BC 63‫ﺇﱃ‬‫ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻌﻲ‬)‫م‬ <M3Q )š !( ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪ‬ % & ‫א‬ & M ‫א‬P ‫א‬{M'O% 5 | ! ‚ ‫س‬ M ‫א‬ O% 5... P ‫א‬ ‫!و‬ R @F ‫وא‬ ‫د‬ & 3 &F ‫א‬ ‚ ‫د‬ 5 (‫א‬ t‫א‬ % › F- ‫א‬ B)% 2 )%‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬F- ‫א‬ ‚‫!ن‬‫א‬ &”'20 3 Y B% & ‫א‬& M ‫א‬ B3 @%X ‫א‬82 M * < ‫א‬ O%X ‫א‬‫אن‬ t‫א‬ ‚ 2' 8 ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬B•-5 O•% •2< % &% O• Y‫و‬‫ﺳـﻨﺠﺮ‬ ^M& ‫א‬ # BC @( m YX• ‫א‬•(‫א‬ t‫א‬ •4 ‫س‬ •› 2M% ‫د‬ < =‫א‬ ‫ض‬ S3 2&% B% &< ‫א‬QA+ ‫!و‬ & ‫א‬ * < ‫א‬ Aldo Leopold‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬: ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ‬ ‫ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬‫ﺍﻻﻳﻜﻮﻟـﻮﺟﻲ‬ 3€ ‫א‬y ‫وא‬‫!و‬ (‫א‬ t‫وא‬ 0 -M ‫وא‬= ¬n ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻮ‬: ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑ‬ ‫ض‬ D‫א‬... ( Q A O,‫א‬ %‫و‬ ƒ‫د‬ ”(، ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻻ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬|M' ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬|M' ‫•€אم‬•Y‫א‬R ••” D‫א‬Q•• R+%„•• ‫وא‬ Q0‫ذא‬ ž 7 <¥‫א‬ ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬. ‫!ن‬ Q|M'“n S-M A‫!ن‬yP ‚ -A † ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬: V P% Š' (‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬...‫ﻳﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﻞ‬‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ‬‫ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ FBTC.. œ •& •2 A O•% B•C O• •|M ‫א‬ Ÿ•S3‫א‬ •z‫א‬ ‫א‬• & M C! •• &3 m••;-0 ••2(D ( ••••• (p‫א‬v •••••& ‫א‬ 7•••••% •• A <M<•• ‫א‬ ‫وع‬ A O% AR YD‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬‫ض‬ D‫א‬ ‚ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻳﺴﻬﻤ‬‫ﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺮﺍء‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ‬..=n- 0 B ! O% ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬' F- ‫א‬ ¨‫و‬20 A @_‫و‬ ً ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻐﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﻥ‬ Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% #١#‫ﺳﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ‬ t‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ BC 63 ‫ﻭﻳﻜﻤ‬‫ﻦ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬:! -%% & ‫א‬ & M ‫א‬ ‫د‬ & ‫א‬™CD‫س‬ M ‫א‬ O% 5 ‫ﻭﲟﺎ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬P ‫א‬ ‫!و‬ R @F ‫وא‬ ‫د‬ & 3 &F ‫א‬ ‚ ‫د‬ 5 (‫א‬ t‫א‬ vD‫وא‬% › F- ‫א‬ B)% 2 )% ( &%yP(‫א‬ t‫א‬ mY - ‫א‬& ‫א‬* < ‫א‬ O% #-‫ﺃﻧﻬﺎ‬‫ﺩﻋﻮﺓ‬‫ﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ Q -0!‫و‬^M& ‫א‬ # BC @( m Y 2< 3 0 @' ,‫،و‬2M% ‫د‬ < =‫א‬ ‫ض‬ S3 2&% B% &< ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭ‬‫ﻟﻴﻮ‬‫ﺑﻮﻟﺪ‬Aldo Leopold −‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ‬ ‫ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬ 7 <¥‫א‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺘﻀﻢ‬3€ ‫א‬ −‫ﺃﻛﺪ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑ‬ )‫ﻣﻦ‬7 <¥ &< %‫ض‬ D‫א‬ )‫ﺇﱃ‬Q A O,‫א‬ %‫و‬ ƒ‫د‬ ” ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺇﻧﻬ‬••”<@0Q••M%‫•€אم‬•Y‫א‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬Q0‫ذא‬ ž 7 <¥‫א‬ ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ )‫ﺃﺭ‬‫ﻧ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻧﺎﻳﺲ‬(‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ −‚M-0( !V P% Š' ( ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻡ‬‫ﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ & ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫39ن‬ ‫د‬ @< =‫א‬F S-M'n‫•€אم‬Y‫ق‬ •@Yœ •& •2 A O•% B•C ‫وא=زد‬O• •|M ‫א‬ Ÿ•S3 ƒ F- ‫א‬ ‫אم‬ ’< + −‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ١−‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻭﺗﺮﻋﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ٢−‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺛ‬‫ﺮﺍء‬‫ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻉ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ٣−‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬‫ﻠﺒﺸﺮ‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ‬ ٤−‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺗﺮﻋﺮﻉ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬
  7. 7. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ، ً‫א‬ ^ )C' 74 ‫وא‬'‫<„א‬‫¯א‬R. ‫א‬ '‫د‬ G<5=‫א‬ D‫א‬A @)' 'p‫وא‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲦﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬#D‫א‬ @ ‫א‬ ‫ع‬ 4‫!و‬ % 5p‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﲟﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬... ‫‹و‬ ‫א‬My‫+ل‬ O% -‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬‫ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‬: ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬‫ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻬﻢ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﻊ‬M(!G ‫א‬ B)K z ‫א‬2 _‹ % BC V 3..M 7@' _ O%‫و‬RV‫!ن‬ 2&”(R M_! M0 3 Y!B&A yP’<(4 t‫א‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺑﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ﲡﺎﻩ‬ V ‫א‬ ‫א‬& -. ‫א‬B#9< ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ D‫א‬... ‫א‬ °z <( O% B&: @' .3 1 G<' =Q &A t‫א‬ %‫א‬ C( (p‫א‬B-@< ‫א‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬‫ﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬B3”'! ‫ﻋﺎﺗﻖ‬‫ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺿ‬‫ﲡﻨﺐ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬X ‫א‬‫ن‬ T<!20 t t‫א‬“n'‫د‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ G ‫א‬ Ž 0 ' 20 .. 6-( O% B-@< 3 &<0 ‫ذא‬n 5+ D‫א‬: @Y+ ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ D‫א‬ yP 2 <&0 ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻣﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫و‬: %‫א‬ T3 œ & ‫א‬ B-@< ‫א‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻌﻞ‬ ٧ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ ‫ﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬‫ﺍﳊﺎﱄ‬‫א‬v &F- ‫א‬ ¨، ً‫א‬ ^ )C ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺪ‬D2(- ‫א‬ ‚ _‹0>‫א‬ '‫د‬ G<5=‫א‬ D‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﲑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲦﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻳﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﲟﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻮﻧﺎﺱ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬• 4 0 OTU‫+ق‬ !‫‹و‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ‬‫ﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬:‫ﺏ‬- ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬‫ﺍﳊﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﺕ‬‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬A7 .< ' 2‫!ن‬± ' 2 ˜‫و‬ 20 &-0 Q &A _ O%‫و‬... ‫<„אم‬ =‫א‬@ ‫א‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻴﺔ‬ A Mz T ‫א‬ )C!‫د‬ ‫א‬.. − ‫ﲡﺎﻫ‬‫ﻬﻢ‬ z ‫א‬ V 3 2&”( yP’<( ‫‹و‬ ‫א‬My ‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ً ‫ﺎ‬ S-M'‫!ن‬<20 ‫ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ‬ −‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬B3”'!O%V ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ (p‫א‬yP y :‫ل‬ D‫א‬ AS-Mz‫دא‬!‫א‬ °z <( O% B&: @' .3 1 G<' = % 0ً‫א‬Š Dt‫א‬ %‫א‬ C ‫ﻭﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ −‫ﳚﻌﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ @0 +R20 ž...' m ž@‚ 7‫ﻋﺎﺗﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ AVM0 5 ƒ‫0‹د‬ =!M &A!‫و‬t‫א‬ <’ ‫א‬ 20‫وא‬ )3 & -. ‫א‬ ‫א‬ @ ‫وא‬.. ‫ن‬nM< ‫‹و‬ %6-( O% B-@< 3 &<0 ‫ذא‬n 5+ D‫א‬ -‫ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬B-@< ‫א‬. -‫ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺮﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬@Y+ ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ D‫א‬ yP 2 <&0 ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻡ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺲ‬‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﱰﺍﻣﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺃﻻ‬‫ﺑﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺼﺮﻑ‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬: -@ ‫א‬.٢−@%‫ل‬ !%‫א‬ T3 œ & ‫א‬ B-@< ‫א‬ 2t G% O 2 A‫د‬# ‫א‬‫ﳚﺐ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﻪ‬‫ﺇﱄ‬‫ﺣﺪ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬... Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% ٥-‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬‫ﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬ ٦−PŽ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺪ‬ ٧−‫ن‬ T‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻹﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﲑ‬ ٨−‫ﻳﺆﻳﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻧﺰ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻮﻧﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﻣﻌﲎ‬ −‫!ن‬ O% 7-M0‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﺎ‬‫ﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫‹و‬ ‫א‬2 ˜‫و‬ 20 &-0 Q &A _ O%‫و‬ ‫א‬P ‫و‬‫ﻳﻔﺮﺽ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫<„אم‬ =‫א‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻪ‬A Mz T ‫א‬ )C! −+ ! „ ›‫ق‬‫‹و‬ ‫א‬ Q(93‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬‫ﺃﺧﻼﻗ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬m YS-M' B-@< 3‫ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻠﺔ‬ −‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺠﺪﺭ‬‫ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﻭﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺗﻬ‬‫ﻢ‬‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ R‫زא‬nB-@< ‫א‬ )−& -. ‫א‬ B-@< % −‫!و‬B-@< %‫ل‬ D‫א‬ %‫د‬ @ ‫א‬ ' F- ‫א‬( ‫ﻛﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬=‫ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ١−‫د‬ ‫و‬‫ل‬ D‫א‬-@ ‫א‬ *=‫ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬2t G% O 2 A‫د‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﻪ‬
  8. 8. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ -@< ‫א‬AG‫ق‬ @t ‫ق‬ ) % ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫و‬Q3 ‫ع‬ < < =‫א‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺛﻪ‬‫ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﳌﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻠﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ض‬ D‫א‬‫!و‬& -. ‫א‬ ‫אزن‬ < ‫א‬.. ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻪ‬ Y‫א‬ ‫א‬t‫א‬.. ‫אد‬ AD‫وא‬‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ 2%‫ودوא‬ 25 @Y ² 0.. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ Mz T ‫א‬ 7 ¬ ‫ق‬ @Y — t‫وא‬‫ﻧﺸﺄ‬‫ﺓ‬ 2(93 2 ' &0 OTU‫و‬: ‫ن‬ M,‫א‬ % 2 |M' •3 ‫א‬ 1 2< 0 =‫س‬ !)−5n−‫دو‬( ‫د‬ Bz %‫ق‬ @Y B -5 O%‫ن‬ (p‫א‬‫!و‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬|M% Q 2< C X ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 9 ‫א‬ |M ‫א‬ yP ‫39ن‬ ‫د‬ @< =‫א‬ •-#! 5‫و‬P M0 Y 20„2 !< ‫א‬ ‫دو‬ '‫و0„א‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬PM% v & ‫א‬' 2(‫ن‬ @ ‫א‬ ... P M0 ‫ص‬ t‫وא‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫א‬ _9< ‫א‬ O% ; Bz ‫وو‬ M@0 ‫د‬ < ‫א‬> - ‫א‬ Cp‫א‬ Q &%> - ‫א‬ =+< °%‫א‬ 33€ ‫א‬> - ‫א‬ (‫אز‬ < ‫א‬ ‫<+ل‬ 3 ‫د‬ 20 X ‫א‬> - ‫א‬ ٨ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ ‫ﻧﺎﺱ‬ y G(!‫و‬‫ق‬ @Y — ;‫ل‬ D‫א‬-@< ‫א‬ C‹': ‫ﻛﻮﻛﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺄ‬‫ﻣﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ /3‫وא‬ ‫وא‬< =‫א‬.. ‫ﻛﻮﻛﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﱰﻙ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ﲡﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺛﻪ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ‬‫ﻋﻼﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬... ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬‫!ن‬‫ﺑﺮﻗﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﻔﻆ‬‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬t‫א‬VC T3‫ض‬ D‫א‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺎﺫ‬‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻪ‬ @;< 23 ;”' = Q(! O% C9< ‫وא‬& M ‫א‬‫!و‬Y‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺚ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬¨ |M ‫وא‬% Tt‫א‬‫אد‬ AD‫وא‬ ‫ل‬ D‫א‬-@ ‫א‬& 0 X ‫وא‬n2%‫ودوא‬ 25 @Y ² 0 ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﲪﺎﻳﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ‬' t> - ‫א‬Mz T ‫א‬ 7 ¬ ‫ق‬ @Y — t‫وא‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬...2(93 2 ' &0 OTU‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻋﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬‫ن‬ M,‫א‬ % 2 |M' •3 ‫א‬ 1 2< 0 = ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬‫د‬ Bz % B . ‫א‬ ‫!و‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻮﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫א‬ 9 ‫א‬ |M ‫א‬ yP ‫39ن‬ ‫د‬ @< =‫א‬ •-#! 5‫و‬ B u‫و‬ ‫ول‬ ‫א‬ „ Q2 ‫א‬ %20„2 ! .. ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ‬‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫א–ن‬‫ﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﲣﺬ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬‫ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ &' F< ‫א‬z+ ‫א‬' t> - ‫א‬P M0 ‫ص‬ t‫وא‬ & ‫א‬ m;- ‫א‬ 7 F0A @) ‫وא‬> - ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ >F ‫د‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ O% R„ { G‘> - ‫א‬ ‫א‬ _9< ‫א‬ O% ; Bz ‫وو‬ M@0 ‫د‬ < ‫א‬ b < ‫א‬ O% ^ ’< ‫א‬> - ‫א‬‫وא‬C C F ‫א‬‫دא‬ 2d' ´> - ‫א‬ F(A @) ‫א‬> - ‫א‬' , O‫م‬ 2 p‫א‬°%‫א‬ 3 BC Q2 ‫א‬ %. D‫א‬(‫אز‬ < ‫א‬ ‫<+ل‬ 3 ‫د‬ 20 X ‫א‬ Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% ‫ﺩﻋﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ﻳﻮ‬‫ﻧﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﲦﺮﺕ‬‫ﺩﻋﻮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻳﻮﻧﺎﺱ‬ ‫ل‬ D‫א‬-@ ‫א‬C‹' ١−‫ﻟﻸﺟﻴﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﻛﻮﻛﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬A @) ‫وא‬/3‫وא‬ ‫وא‬ ٢−‫ﻛﻮﻛﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﱰﻙ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ‬‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ٣−‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ٤−‫ﺍﲣ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ‬@;< 23 ;”' = Q(! O% C9< ‫وא‬ ٥−‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺚ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ 6 ’<%‫ل‬ D‫א‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‬:-‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ −‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻋﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬ −‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬ > - ‫א‬‫!و‬! ‫א‬B . ‫א‬ ‫!و‬ −5‫و‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻮﺭ‬ %D‫א‬;< ‫א‬‫א‬ 9 ‫א‬ |M ‫א‬ yP ‫39ن‬ ‫د‬ @< =‫א‬ •-#! 5‫و‬ 7' F ‫א‬( (p‫א‬ 5p‫א‬‫و‬ ‫وא‬.. −@ ‫و‬‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫و‬ F 7 < ‫א‬‚<Y ١-‫ﻳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ &' F< ‫א‬ & ‫א‬ m;- ‫א‬ 7 F0 ٢-‫ﻳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ٣-‫ﻳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬
  9. 9. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ v & ‫א‬' %: ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬ 3 S ‫وא‬ ;- ‫א‬ |A Œ‫א‬‫د‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬& -. ‫א‬ O% t‫א‬; D‫א‬'‫و‬ M ‫א‬ ‫א‬ - ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ &< ‫א‬ O ’< ‫א‬'‫و‬ T ‫א‬ ‫אع‬ (! 7 ¬t‫א‬'™ ‫א‬# ‫و‬‫د‬ 2 ‫א‬ (‫א‬ ; Q & -, R F(n'™ ‫א‬ < ‫א‬ O% (‫א‬ ; & -, / C ‫אزن‬ < ‫א‬ — t 3 V .0‫و‬ ' ”5‫و‬ O% ‫م‬ ‫א‬ ‫!و‬ * @& ‫א‬ O% A Š 5 0=‫א‬ yP Q ( ‫ص‬ t‫א‬ O% ‫ع‬ MC ‫دא‬ %‫<„א‬ ‫א‬D‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ y Y‫و‬ M0 Y & -. ‫وא‬ Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @ž 2 Q0 . ‫و‬ƒ D‫א‬ µ‫د‬ -% 745+& ‫א‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 63& -. ‫وא‬ Y+.#=‫א‬> -... ‫ﺃﺷﺮﺡ‬ ‫אد‬ -< =‫وא‬ ‫ن‬ (p‫א‬> - 3‫ﺍﺷﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺐ‬ ٩ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﻏﲑ‬‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬v & ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ .0% TY ¨)š ‫א‬ Y٤٠‫دو‬39‫و‬‫و‬‫و‬ 3!T' % F ‫وא‬.. 2z ” !n_+_1=!” ^ <’‰ 6 ‫ز‬ %R !v & ‫א‬ −' ´3 S ‫وא‬ ;- ‫א‬ −|A Œ‫א‬ −O% t‫א‬ −‫א‬ - ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ &< ‫א‬ O ’< ‫א‬ % ‫א‬ ˆ Q % TY ¨ Q |M% ‫وع‬ A٢٦Q ‫دو‬ ‫د‬ BG'2 , ’M% ‫ن‬ %‫ط‬ ’M% −' ´‫אع‬ (! 7 ¬ ‫אض‬ @(= 3 −‫א‬(‫א‬ ; Q & -, R F(n −' ´3 S ‫א‬< ‫א‬ O% (‫א‬ ; & -, / C ' ;- ‫א‬A 0‫و‬' t‫א‬R YL' ;- ‫א‬ ' ‫א‬ 5 ’ ‫א‬ b < ‫א‬ O% ;- ‫א‬ / Œ‫א‬ (‫א‬ t‫وא‬ 0 -M ‫وא‬ 3 S ‫א‬'™ ‫א‬.. ‫ﻭﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﳏﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬. |M%‫و‬ *‫„א‬Y! w TF0 C'O 7A‫א‬ 0> - ‫א‬‫אزن‬ < ‫א‬ — t 3 V .0‫و‬ ' ”5‫و‬ Mz T ‫א‬ BC‫و‬ (‫א‬ t‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y‫و‬ > - ‫א‬t‫א‬. ‫ﻭﻛﺸﻌﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‬‫<„אم‬ =‫א‬ƒ ; 3O% ‫م‬ ‫א‬ ‫!و‬ * @& ‫א‬ O% A Š 5 0=‫א‬ yP Q ( ‫ص‬ t‫א‬ O% ‫ع‬ MC ‫دא‬ %‫<„א‬ ‫א‬ > 3|(. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬: > - ‫א‬=n4 t‫א‬ G& ‫א‬... Š' @< ‫وא‬ Q 9< ‫א‬ Y %Y ‫א‬“‫و‬D‫א‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 63& -. ‫وא‬ ‫+ل‬S< ‫א‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬> - 3Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @ž 2 Q0 . ‫و‬ D‫א‬5+& ‫א‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 63> - ‫وא‬µ‫د‬ -% 74 :‚M& ‫א‬S ‫א‬> -−‚M& ‫א‬Y+.#=‫א‬ 2-Y O R % @ ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ ' G ‫א‬ ^FC> -2 ' @0‫و‬...‫ﻭﺿﺢ‬ ‫د‬ ‫א‬ Tž& -. ‫א‬Q5 0‫وא‬....‫ﺃﺷﺮﺡ‬ > - ‫وא‬BY‫א‬ % &3....Ž ‫ذ‬ R 4... ‫ن‬ G ‫א‬ Y %‫€אم‬Y=‫وא‬2@ ‫א‬ Y %‫و‬‫אد‬ -< =‫وא‬ & -. ‫א‬O%Bz‫!وא‬BY‫א‬ ‫א‬X ‫א‬5+ •4 0‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺐ‬‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬))))‫ﺑﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺲ‬‫ﺑﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺲ‬‫ﺑﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺲ‬‫ﺑﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺲ‬(((( Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% B& ‫و‬! O%‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ‬ -|M%.0 ‫א‬ Y 3 M ‫א‬F ‫وא‬ −BG'2z ” ! ^ <’‰ 6 ‫ز‬ % ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ‬ −ˆ Q % TY ¨ Q |M% ‫وع‬ A −‫د‬ BG' n٤,٧‫ن‬ % −*−b 0 7M%y ‫א‬' ;- ‫א‬ −*−' ´' ‫א‬ 5 ’ ‫א‬ −*−' ´b < ‫א‬ O% ;- ‫א‬ / Œ‫א‬ −*−' ´(‫א‬ t‫وא‬ 0 -M ‫وא‬ 3 S ‫א‬ -‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ‬‫ﻭﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﳏﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ −|M%‫و‬ *‫„א‬Y! w TF0 C Mz T ‫א‬ BC‫و‬ (‫א‬ t‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y‫و‬ > - ‫א‬ -‫ﻭ‬‫ﻭﻛﺸﻌﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‬ O' –‫א‬Kn‫و‬Q ( ‫ص‬ t‫א‬ O% ‫ع‬ MC ‫دא‬ %‫<„א‬ ‫א‬ 7 ‫א‬ Y‫و‬> 3 ‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ١−9·FM0 v‫א‬> - ‫א‬ ٢−Š' @< ‫وא‬ Q 9< ‫א‬ Y % ٣−w < ‫א‬Y %‫+ل‬S< ‫א‬ ٤−w ‫د‬Y ‫א‬D‫א‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‬ −2-Y O R % @ ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ ' G ‫א‬ ^FC −wM%‡‫א‬M G ‫א‬‫د‬ ‫א‬ Tž −‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 5+ %> - ‫وא‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺭﻥ‬‫ن‬ G ‫א‬ Y % −Š' @0 Y %& -. ‫א‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬
  10. 10. ‫د‬‫א‬٠١٢٨٣٢٥٥٠٩٥ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺃ‬––––‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אد‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ . ‫א‬Q: Y %: Š' @< ‫وא‬ Q 9< ‫א‬ Y+.#‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ^' &0( ƒ D‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ “n ‫ن‬ ' + ‫א‬ B& & -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ' 20)‫ﺩﻟﻞ‬( ( ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬( ‫ﺩﺭﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻮء‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﺢ‬( ‫ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺮﺯ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ‬( 5+ ! |M% O% > - ‫א‬ &‰ O' # & ‫א‬ + ‫א‬ O% )C ‚M)‫ﲟﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﺢ‬( & M ‫א‬ V P ‫א‬ “n ‫אن‬ t‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y y ‫א‬ 5n M M< ‫א‬)‫ﻧﺎﻗﺶ‬( * <T'٦‫ط‬ @(( B-@< ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ ! ž R @0 + 5+ D‫א‬ > ‫א‬ ‫س‬ ( 3 B&)‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻞ‬( ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻞ‬( B-@< ‫א‬ B ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ C‹0 X ‫א‬ ‫س‬ ( 3 2&4‫و‬ X ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @t‫א‬ % > - ‫א‬ ' ´ “n X ‫א‬ Q % TY S ‫א‬ |M 3 ‫د‬ G@ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ Y ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬٢‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬( ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺮﺯ‬( ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺗ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﺢ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﺩﺭﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻮء‬ ‫ﰲ‬( 4 t‫א‬ G& ‫א‬ =n > - ‫א‬ ‫א‬ FM0 v * @< ‫א‬ C“nZ‫א‬ ‫وא‬ ‫א‬Mz T ‫א‬ 7 ¬ 63t‫א‬ “nZ‫א‬ ( (p‫א‬ t‫א‬ %‫א‬ C Š D % 0 & ‫א‬ °z <M ‫א‬ O% B&: b % ¨ ‫ن‬ T' ‫ن‬ 3 ‫ض‬ D‫א‬ VC C t‫א‬ -@ ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ L ١٠ .M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬*( ) ‫א‬ m ) ‫א‬ ^G*‫אد‬ n:‫د‬/ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T%*٠١٠١٤٠٠٧٧٠٠‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬٢٠١٧ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬: ‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 2 A 7”& -.w( C‫و‬. ‫א‬ ƒ D‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y O m' t‫א‬ ‫م‬ 20 - ! O% . ‫وא‬–‫€אم‬Y=‫א‬‫ن‬ G ‫وא‬–Š' @< ‫وא‬ Q 9< ‫א‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬ ******************* > - ‫א‬ 3 ‫د‬ G@ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ Y ' S > - ‫א‬ ^' &0Y+.#‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ^' &0 ‫س‬ ( 3 „( M > ‫א‬ ‫+ق‬ 93 > - ‫א‬ ' t ´D‫א‬ ‫+م‬ ‫א‬ |M‰ ƒ D‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ “n ‫ن‬ ' + ‫א‬ B& & -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ' 20 Q-Y O ' @ ‫א‬ G ‫א‬ ^FC> - ' F ‫א‬)‫ﲟﺜﺎﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻞ‬( 6 M G ‫א‬ M & -. ‫א‬‫و‬ . ! B)›)‫ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺐ‬( BY‫א‬ % Š¸ > - ‫وא‬ ‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 63 ‫א‬ 5+& ‫א‬ BY‫א‬ %)‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫א–ن‬ s X ‫א‬ Y ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ G ‫وא‬ ‫€אم‬Y=‫א‬ Y %)‫ﺩﺭﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻮء‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﺢ‬ ' t‫א‬ & ‫א‬ 2— 7% ! 3 . ‫وא‬ ‫+ل‬S< =‫א‬ Y %m)‫ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺮﺯ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﱰﺗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬)F- ‫א‬ & ‫א‬ ‫م‬ @0 V(‫א‬( 5+ ! |M% O% > - ‫א‬ &‰ O' # & ‫א‬ + ‫א‬ O% )C ‚M & M ‫א‬ V P ‫א‬ “n ‫אن‬ t‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y y ‫א‬ 5n M M< ‫א‬ µ‫د‬ - ‫א‬ O% ' & ‫א‬ @ & ‫א‬ T'=‫א‬ w&4‫و‬٠)‫ﻭﺿﺢ‬* <T' B-@< ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ ! ž R @0 + 5+ D‫א‬ > ‫א‬ ‫س‬ ( 3 B& -.< ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫وع‬ A Y‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫א‬ &0@)‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻞ‬ B-@< ‫א‬ B ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ C‹0 X ‫א‬ ‫س‬ ( 3 2&4‫و‬ X ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @t‫א‬ % > - ‫א‬ ' ´ “n X ‫א‬ Q % TY S ‫א‬ |M 3 ‫د‬ G@ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ Y B ‫א‬ ‫א‬ O% ' & ‫א‬ Q % TY S ‫א‬ & ‫א‬ B P‘‫א‬)‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ O% ' & ‫א‬ ” D‫א‬ ‫+م‬ ‫א‬ |M% < =‫א‬)‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺮﺯ‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ ( 5 ‫و‬ # & ‫وא‬ + ‫א‬ ‫د‬ 2 O °<()‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺗ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﺢ‬ ... :4 t‫א‬ G& ‫א‬ =n > - ‫א‬ ‫א‬ FM0 v S ‫א‬Y+.#=‫وא‬> -‫ن‬ A‫%€אد‬ t‫א‬ ' @ ‫א‬ G ‫א‬‫ع‬ —> - ‫א‬* @< ‫א‬ C 6 M G ‫א‬‫ن‬ ( @ ‫א‬ 7% B_ <'& -. ‫א‬ v & ‫א‬ <3 Š' @< ‫א‬ Y % w < ‫א‬& -. ‫א‬ y ‫א‬ 5n‫אن‬ t‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y“n‫م‬‫وא‬ ‫א‬ “nV P ‫א‬T'=‫א‬m' t‫א‬ 5+& ‫א‬63‫+ق‬ D‫א‬> ‫وא‬ Q% < ‫א‬ ' @ ‫א‬ G ‫א‬> - 3C* @<“n ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺴﺐ‬‫ﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺐ‬( M0 3 Y 7”( ‫!ن‬ S-M'B% & ‫א‬ (‫א‬ t‫א‬ ( &% Q@' .3 1 G<' = ‫!ن‬ R ‫א‬ ‚ S-M'( (p‫א‬ t‫א‬ %‫א‬ C Š D % 0 & ‫א‬ °z <M ‫א‬ O% B&: b % ¨ ‫ن‬ T' ‫ن‬ 3 ‫ض‬ D‫א‬ VC C t‫א‬ -@ ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ L Tt‫א‬ CP%:.M ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ 0 - T %+ p‫א‬ ‫א‬ V<T% −‫ﺃﺧﱰ‬‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ =Y ‫א‬X ‫א‬‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 2 A 7” =ƒ D‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y O m' t‫א‬ ‫م‬ 20 - ! O% )< ‫א‬–‫+ل‬S< =‫א‬. ‫وא‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬ ******************* )١(> - ‫א‬ 3 ‫د‬ G@ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ Y )٢(‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰ‬)' S > - ‫א‬ ^' &0 )٣(‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ‬‫س‬ ( 3 „( M > ‫א‬ ‫+ق‬ 93 )٤(‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ‬> - ‫א‬ ' t ´D‫א‬ ‫+م‬ ‫א‬ |M‰ )٤(ƒ D‫א‬ Mz T ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ “n ‫ن‬ ' + ‫א‬ B& & -. ‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ' 20 )٥(Q-Y O ' @ ‫א‬ G ‫א‬ ^FC )٦(6 M G ‫א‬ M & -. ‫א‬ )٧(BY‫א‬ % Š¸ > - ‫وא‬ ‫ن‬ (p‫א‬ 63 ‫א‬ 5+& ‫א‬ BY‫א‬ % )٨(‫א–ن‬ s X ‫א‬ Y ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ G ‫وא‬ ‫€אم‬Y=‫א‬ Y % )٩(' t‫א‬ & ‫א‬ 2— 7% ! 3 . ‫وא‬ ‫+ل‬S< =‫א‬ Y % )١٠(‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﱰﺗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ )١١(5+ ! |M% O% > - ‫א‬ &‰ O' # & ‫א‬ + ‫א‬ O% )C ‚M )١٢(& M ‫א‬ V P ‫א‬ “n ‫אن‬ t‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @Y y ‫א‬ 5n M M< ‫א‬ )١٣(µ‫د‬ - ‫א‬ O% ' & ‫א‬ @ & ‫א‬ T'=‫א‬ w&4‫و‬ )١٤(B-@< ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ ! ž R @0 + 5+ D‫א‬ > ‫א‬ ‫س‬ ( 3 B& )١٥(-.< ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫وع‬ A Y‫א‬ > - ‫א‬ ‫א‬ &0 )١٦(B-@< ‫א‬ B ‫€אم‬Y‫א‬ C‹0 X ‫א‬ ‫س‬ ( 3 2&4‫و‬ X ‫א‬ ‫ق‬ @t‫א‬ % )١٧(> - ‫א‬ ' ´ “n X ‫א‬ Q % TY S ‫א‬ |M 3 ‫د‬ G@ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ Y )١٨(B ‫א‬ ‫א‬ O% ' & ‫א‬ Q % TY S ‫א‬ & ‫א‬ B P‘‫א‬ )١٩(O% ' & ‫א‬ ” D‫א‬ ‫+م‬ ‫א‬ |M )٢٠(> - ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ ( 5 ‫و‬ # & ‫وא‬ + ‫א‬ ‫د‬ 2 O °<( )٢١(‫ﺧﻄﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬... : )١(‚M& ‫א‬S ‫א‬ )٢(± ‫!د‬t‫א‬ ' @ ‫א‬ G ‫א‬ )٣(‫و‬ . !M6 M G ‫א‬ )٤(v & ‫א‬ <3 Š' @< ‫א‬ Y % w < ‫א‬ )٥(‫د‬M )٦(<M'Š' (“n )٧(B ¨‫א‬‫س‬ ( '5+& ‫א‬ )٨(Q% < ‫א‬ ' @ ‫א‬ G ‫א‬ )٢٢)(‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺴﺐ‬ )١(M0 3 Y 7”( ‫!ن‬ S-M' )٢(Q@' .3 1 G<' = ‫!ن‬ R ‫א‬ ‚ S-M' )٣(b % ¨ ‫ن‬ T' ‫ن‬ 3 ‫ض‬ D‫א‬ VC C t‫א‬ -@ ‫א‬ ‫ل‬ L

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