History - Chapter's 1 and 2 Notes


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History - Chapter's 1 and 2 Notes

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  3. 4. Looking At Earth <ul><li>Geography —study of Earth and its people </li></ul><ul><li>Continents —Earth is divided into seven large landmasses: </li></ul><ul><li>Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, Australia Scientists believe continents lie on large, moving plates </li></ul><ul><li>plate movements form mountains and volcanoes, cause earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Landform —naturally formed feature on Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Landforms includes islands, mountains, plateaus, plains (NOT oceans) </li></ul>5
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  5. 6. How Environment Affects People <ul><li>Your environment and climate have a big effect on the way you live </li></ul><ul><li>Weather —temperature, conditions at a particular (specific) place and time </li></ul><ul><li>Climate —weather conditions in a place over a long period of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate influences where people live, what they wear, and what crops they grow </li></ul></ul>6
  6. 7. Quiz on Chapter 1 Lesson 1 7
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  12. 13. The Geographer’s Tools 1 <ul><li>Geographers use Globes and Maps to represent the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Globes show the Earth’s true shapes, locations, relative sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Globes show how continents and oceans appear on Earth’s curved surface </li></ul><ul><li>Maps are a flat representation of Earth, they are distorted and not as accurate as a globe </li></ul><ul><li>Title – tells the subject of the map </li></ul><ul><li>Compass Rose – shows direction (north/south/east/west) </li></ul><ul><li>Legend (Key ) – lists and explains the symbols and colors on the map </li></ul>19 8
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  15. 16. The Geographers Tools 2 <ul><li>Geographers divide the globe into equal halves called hemispheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The equator divides the globe into north and south halves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The prime meridian divides the globe into east and west halves </li></ul></ul>9
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  22. 23. Different Maps for Different Purposes <ul><li>Political Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political maps show features that people created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: cities, territories, provinces; state and county boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical maps show landforms and bodies of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They show what Earth’s surface might look like from space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thematic Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic maps have certain information about a place or region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: they can show information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>such as vegetation, population density, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crops and climate </li></ul></ul>10
  23. 24. Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Quiz 11
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  28. 29. Finding Clues to the Past <ul><li>Archaeologists are scientists who learn about early people, they study traces of early settlements and prehistoric people </li></ul><ul><li>artifacts —human-made objects </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists study culture. They study beliefs, common language and shared ways of doing things </li></ul><ul><li>culture —way of life of a group of people </li></ul><ul><li>fossils —remains of early life preserved in the ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fossils include pieces of teeth, skulls and other bones </li></ul></ul>12
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  31. 32. The Search for Early Humans <ul><li>hominids —human, humanlike creatures that walk on two feet </li></ul><ul><li>Most archaeologists believe humans began in East Africa (including the Leakeys) </li></ul><ul><li>American Donald Johanson found Lucy in 1974 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lucy is a mostly complete hominid skeleton </li></ul></ul>13
  32. 33. Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Quiz 14
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  38. 39. The Historian’s Tools <ul><li>Primary source —something created by a person who witnessed the event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: letters, diaries, eyewitness articles, videos, speeches, artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary source —created after an event by person who didn’t witness it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: books, paintings and media reports based on primary sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One advantage (positive) is they can provide a more balanced view of the event </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral history —unwritten verbal accounts of events, Some cultures have no written records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: stories, customs, songs, histories and traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral histories are passed from generation to generation </li></ul></ul>15
  39. 40. Chapter 1 Lesson 4 Quiz 16
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  43. 44. Early Humans’ Way of Life <ul><li>Early humans were hunter-gatherers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They hunted animals & gathered wild plants for food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They moved to a new location when food ran out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men hunted and fished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>·Women gathered nuts, berries; cared for children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hunter-gatherers were Nomadic (nomads) </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter-gatherers were nomads (noun)—people who moved from place to place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved to new, distant lands while following animals to hunt, and they moved following seasonal plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Migration (verb)—moving from one place to settle in another </li></ul>17
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  46. 47. The Development of Tools <ul><li>Technology —all the ways people apply knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: Tools and inventions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stone tools for cutting were made at least 2 million years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the first thing invented was a tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire is not an invention!!! </li></ul></ul>18
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  48. 49. Early Human Culture <ul><li>The main elements of prehistoric culture were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>art </li></ul></ul>19
  49. 50. Chapter 2 Lesson 1 Quiz 20
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  53. 54. The Beginnings of Agriculture <ul><li>Domesticated – to raise and tend animals or plants to be of use to humans. NOT WILD </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture —planting seeds for crops </li></ul><ul><li>· Agricultural revolution —the shift from food gathering to food raising </li></ul><ul><li>· Slash-and-burn agriculture – cut and burn down trees and brush to clear land for crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when soil became poor after a few years, people moved </li></ul></ul>21
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  55. 56. Farming <ul><li>River valleys had fertile soil that brought bigger and better crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Because river valleys were so fertile early farming began in these areas . </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation —watering of crops </li></ul>22
  56. 57. Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Quiz 23
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  59. 60. Villages Around the World <ul><li>Farmers sometimes produced a surplus —more than needed to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Improved agricultural techniques brought surpluses in food </li></ul><ul><li>Surpluses in good seasons helped villages survive bad seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Surpluses let some people specialize in jobs other than raising food </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization —skill in one kind of work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Example: Potters and weavers </li></ul></ul>24
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  61. 62. Simple Villages Grow More Complex <ul><li>social classes – groups of people with similar customs, background, training and income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Example : farmers, craftspeople, priests and rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>early governments were formed as a way of creating order and providing leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They made laws to make communities safer and more stable </li></ul></ul>25
  62. 63. Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Quiz 26