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Introduction to Geography's most important concepts


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Introduction to Geography's most important concepts

  1. 1. Geography is the science of place and space. Geographers ask where things are located on the surface of the earth, why they are located where they are, how places differ from one another, and how people interact with the environment.
  2. 2. Aims • To identify the Important Geographical Ideas (IGIs or Concepts). • To define and give examples of the important concepts covered in Geography.
  4. 4. WHAT ARE THE? = Important Geographic Ideas (Concepts) As we go through this presentation you need to write down a definition for each IGI, as they will be used throughout the year in Geography I.G.I’s are the concepts that you need to understand when learning about Geography. They help you make sense of all the content you will be covering. Do you remember the IGI’s?
  5. 5. Location Distance Accessibility Pattern Process Region Systems Perception Change Culture Interaction
  6. 6. All of the pictures on your sheet represent one of the important concepts in geography. In your pairs write each concept (listed below) next to the picture which you think best represents it. Pattern, change, perception, interaction, systems, culture, region, accessibility, process, distance, location.
  7. 7. THE ASIAN TSUNAMI: Examples of the IGI’s To understand why these concepts are important and show how they relate to people, we are going to look at the major catastrophic event that occurred on Boxing Day 2004: The Asian Earthquake and Tsunami. This photo was taken in China, 2002 The word “Tsunami” comes from Japan and literally means “Harbour Wave”. It is not a tidal wave, as a Tsunami has nothing to do with tides. WHAT IS A TSUNAMI?
  8. 8. LOCATION and DISTANCE • Where something is found • How far away something is
  9. 9. LOCATION AND DISTANCE • Where was the Tsunami located? • What distance did the Tsunami travel?
  10. 10. PATTERN • The arrangement of features in space.
  11. 11. PATTERNS • The Tsunami was caused by an earthquake near Indonesia. The Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate collided. The up-lift of the plate caused a displacement of water which triggered the tsunami.
  12. 12. Earthquakes around the world (represented by black dots) Study this map very carefully before moving onto the next slide
  13. 13. What pattern is produced from Earthquakes? (note that this map is not centered on the Pacific Ocean, like the previous map)
  14. 14. REGION • An area with at least one common feature
  15. 15. REGION - What did the region look like before? Coral Reefs around tropical Indian Ocean waters. Beautiful white sandy beaches. Areas of cultivation – such as rice fields Lush, tropical vegetation.
  16. 16. What did the REGION look like after the Tsunami…
  17. 17. Much of the environment has been washed away.
  18. 18. CULTURE • A common way of life shared by a group of people
  19. 19. CULTURE • Who are the people that live in this region? - What cultures are found here? • Culture refers to the way of life of people… Market in Sri LankaYoung girls dancing in a Thai school concert Transport in Indonesia
  20. 20. • How have peoples culture changed? What happened to people during this event? People after the event Women in Sri Lanka overcome with grief. Lives were lost - bodies need to be recovered quickly. Mass graves needed to be dug.
  21. 21. Many tourists stay on and either help in the clean-up or continue their holidays. Influence on tourist culture? People are evacuated from small low- lying areas. Their home, cultural lands are gone. Extended families have been severely affected – break-down of traditional family structure.
  22. 22. What other cultural activities have been influenced by the Tsunami? Cultures have been bought together are influencing each other….
  23. 23. CHANGE • Occurs in different places at different times and rates. Change makes something different.
  24. 24. CHANGE • How has the natural and cultural landscape changed by the Tsunami? Patong main street, Phuket, Thailand. Before After
  25. 25. BEFORE Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 23rd of June 2004
  26. 26. AFTER Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 28th of December 2004
  27. 27. BEFORE Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 23rd of June 2004
  28. 28. AFTER Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 28th of December 2004
  29. 29. PERCEPTION • People’s values and culture influence the way in which they perceive and use their environment.
  30. 30. How has this event changed people’s perceptions ? PERCEPTION This image was seen by millions of Muslims around the world. Many viewed it as proof that Allah had intervened and saved the mosques.
  31. 31. What perceptions do tourists have? Have their perceptions changed? Tourists and locals are getting tattoos to symbolise the Tsunami. Photo on the right shows this Swedish tourist with a Tattoo reading: Phuket, Tsunami 2004 tattooed on his chest.
  32. 32. ACCESSIBILITY • How easy it is to get to a place
  33. 33. ACCESSIBILITY How Accessible are resources that they people need? How do people get around? How do they get clean water and food? How will building materials get to isolated areas?
  34. 34. Access to basic necessities such as… WATER
  35. 35. HOUSING FOOD
  36. 36. • How have people’s livelihoods been affected? Fishing industries have been destroyed – the fish are still there, but the boats are ‘stuck’ miles inland!
  37. 37. Market places near the coast are destroyed. Where will people buy food? How will they earn an income? A market place in Aceh has been destroyed.
  38. 38. The Tourism Industry supports many families – will tourists return? How will this impact on peoples livelihoods? Beaches are covered in debris and water is polluted. Emotional reunions as tourists reunite with their families.
  39. 39. The damage of this region has made some areas inaccessible for equipment such as bull-dozers to clean up. To make the areas more accessible, elephants have been used.
  40. 40. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are so isolated that it took many days for relief teams reach them. Aid took even longer.
  41. 41. INTERACTION • A two-way action that takes place in the natural and cultural environment
  42. 42. INTERACTION People interacting with each other – influencing each other and effecting each other… What is the interaction you can see here?
  43. 43. Interaction of victims and health care workers from around the world… trying to make it accessible for everyone in the affected region.
  44. 44. SYSTEM • A set of features linked together to form a whole
  45. 45. SYSTEMS • Aid can be seen as a system… Inputs Money Food Aid Workers Processes Transportation Communication Outputs Clean water Healthy children Feedback Child grows up and becomes an aid worker or donates money.
  46. 46. Food and Water is delivered as quickly as possible – inputs and processes in action! Aid arrives at a isolated Sri Lankan village A young boy ‘helps’ distribute food in Sumatra, Indonesia.
  47. 47. PROCESS • A sequence of related actions
  48. 48. PROCESS The process of body identification and burial… What are the sequence of related events happening here? 1 – find the bodies 2 – identify the bodies 3 – burial of bodies
  49. 49. THE PROCESS OF AID: The children of the Tsunami show amazing resilience as they live with the after affects of this disaster. Who will ensure they are cared for? How will aid and support for children be organised.
  50. 50. Worldwide Aid The cricket games have raised millions! $50,000 for every ‘6’ and $1,000 for every run! Globalisation is highlighted as countries come together to help those in need.
  51. 51. Women in Indonesia collect donations in umbrellas Governments such as NZ send members of the Defence Force to help. Concerts are held all over the world – like Sydney Opera House where Scribe featured Tsunami Aid concert in the US featured a huge range of stars.
  52. 52. Geographic Concepts Quiz • 1. Location. Describe the location of Mt Ruapehu in New Zealand. • 2. Distance. Describe the distance in travel time by car between Wellington and Taupo. • 3. Accessibility. Which is more accessible to Wellington by bicycle, Levin or Masterton? • 4. Culture. Name one distinct cultural feature of Porirua. • 5. Perception. Describe the difference in perception of music between yourself and your parents. • 6. Pattern. How does the climate and land change as you move from the North Pole towards the equator. • 7. Change. How has the way we buy music changed from your parents to your generation? • 8. Region. Describe one feature of the Fiordland region. • 9. Interaction. Describe one way that humans have interacted positively with the environment in Wellington. • 10. Systems. How is a city a system? • 11. Process. Describe one process that leads to changes in the shape of the land.
  53. 53. World Facts Did you know . . ? • The most populous country in the world? China… 1, 295, 401, 418 as of 5:00 p.m., May 27, 2004. • The largest continent? – Asia with its 17,212,000 square miles. • The largest island? – Greenland with its 839,999 square miles. • The largest ocean? – Pacific Ocean …60, 060, 700 square miles.
  54. 54. • The largest sea? The Mediterranean Sea which is 1, 144, 800 square miles. • The largest lake? The Caspian Sea at 152, 239 square miles. • The longest river in the world? The Nile in Africa, measuring 4,180 miles in length. • The longest mountain range? The Andes of South America measuring 5,000 miles in length. • The lowest spot on earth? The Dead Sea is 1,290 feet below sea level.
  55. 55. • The largest waterfall? Angel Falls in Venezuela. It rises 3, 212 feet in height. • The highest mountain? Mount Everest in the Himalayan Mountains, Nepal-Tibet. It rises 29,035 feet above sea level. • The highest underwater peak? Mount Pico of the Azores Islands. It is 7,613 feet above sea surface, 20,000 feet below sea surface to sea floor. • The deepest underwater trench? Mariana Trench which lies 200 miles southwest of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. It is 36,198 feet below the ocean surface. • The deepest ocean? The Pacific with an average depth 13, 215 feet.
  56. 56. • The most destructive known earthquake? Occurred in Shansi China on January 23, 1556, killing 830,000 people. • The lowest recorded temperature? -129 degrees F. Occurred in Antarctica in 1989. • The highest recorded temperature? 136.4 degrees F. Occurred in Libya in 1922. • The country that produces the most wheat? China • The country that produces the most crude oil? Saudi Arabia