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Geography is the science of
place and space. Geographers
ask where things are located
on the surface of the earth, why
they are located where they
are, how places differ from one
another, and how people
interact with the environment.
Aims
• To identify the Important Geographical
Ideas (IGIs or Concepts).
• To define and give examples of the
important concepts covered in Geography.
IMPORTANT
GEOGRAHPIC
IDEAS
WHAT ARE THE? = Important
Geographic Ideas (Concepts)
As we go through this presentation
you need to write down a definition
for each IGI, as they will be used
throughout the year in Geography
I.G.I’s are the
concepts that you
need to understand
when learning about
Geography. They help
you make sense of all
the content you will be
covering.
Do you remember the
IGI’s?
Location
Distance
Accessibility
Pattern
Process
Region
Systems
Perception
Change
Culture
Interaction
All of the pictures on your sheet represent one of the important concepts in
geography.
In your pairs write each concept (listed below) next to the picture which you think
best represents it.
Pattern, change, perception, interaction, systems, culture, region, accessibility,
process, distance, location.
THE ASIAN TSUNAMI:
Examples of the IGI’s
To understand why these
concepts are important and show
how they relate to people, we are
going to look at the major
catastrophic event that occurred
on Boxing Day 2004: The Asian
Earthquake and Tsunami.
This photo was taken in China, 2002
The word “Tsunami” comes from
Japan and literally means
“Harbour Wave”. It is not a tidal
wave, as a Tsunami has nothing
to do with tides.
WHAT IS A TSUNAMI?
LOCATION and
DISTANCE
• Where something is found
• How far away something is
LOCATION AND DISTANCE
• Where
was the
Tsunami
located?
• What
distance
did the
Tsunami
travel?
PATTERN
• The arrangement of features in
space.
PATTERNS
• The Tsunami was caused by an earthquake near Indonesia. The
Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate collided. The up-lift of the
plate caused a displacement of water which triggered the tsunami.
Earthquakes around the world (represented by black dots)
Study this map very carefully before moving onto the next slide
What pattern is produced from Earthquakes?
(note that this map is not centered on the Pacific Ocean, like the
previous map)
REGION
• An area with at least one
common feature
REGION - What did the region look like before?
Coral Reefs around tropical
Indian Ocean waters.
Beautiful white
sandy beaches.
Areas of cultivation – such as rice
fields
Lush, tropical vegetation.
What did the REGION look like after the
Tsunami…
Much of the environment has been
washed away.
CULTURE
• A common way of life
shared by a group of people
CULTURE
• Who are the people that live
in this region? - What
cultures are found here?
• Culture refers to the way of
life of people…
Market in Sri LankaYoung girls dancing in a
Thai school concert
Transport in Indonesia
• How have peoples culture
changed? What happened to
people during this event?
People after the event
Women in
Sri Lanka
overcome
with grief.
Lives were
lost -
bodies
need to be
recovered
quickly.
Mass
graves
needed to
be dug.
Many tourists stay on and either
help in the clean-up or continue
their holidays. Influence on tourist
culture?
People are evacuated from small low-
lying areas. Their home, cultural
lands are gone.
Extended families have been
severely affected – break-down of
traditional family structure.
What other cultural activities have been influenced by the
Tsunami? Cultures have been bought together are
influencing each other….
CHANGE
• Occurs in different places at
different times and rates.
Change makes something
different.
CHANGE
• How has the natural and cultural landscape
changed by the Tsunami?
Patong main street, Phuket, Thailand.
Before After
BEFORE
Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 23rd
of June 2004
AFTER
Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 28th of December 2004
BEFORE
Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 23rd of June 2004
AFTER
Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 28th of December 2004
PERCEPTION
• People’s values and culture
influence the way in which they
perceive and use their
environment.
How has
this event
changed
people’s
perceptions
?
PERCEPTION
This image was
seen by millions
of Muslims
around the world.
Many viewed it as
proof that Allah
had intervened
and saved the
mosques.
What perceptions do tourists have? Have
their perceptions changed?
Tourists and locals are getting tattoos
to symbolise the Tsunami. Photo on
the right shows this Swedish tourist
with a Tattoo reading: Phuket,
Tsunami 2004 tattooed on his chest.
ACCESSIBILITY
• How easy it is to get to a place
ACCESSIBILITY
How Accessible are
resources that they
people need?
How do people get around?
How do they get clean water
and food? How will building
materials get to isolated areas?
Access to basic necessities such as…
WATER
HOUSING FOOD
• How have people’s
livelihoods been
affected?
Fishing industries have been
destroyed – the fish are still there,
but the boats are ‘stuck’ miles
inland!
Market
places
near the
coast are
destroyed.
Where will
people buy
food?
How will
they earn
an
income?
A market place in Aceh has been
destroyed.
The Tourism Industry supports many families – will tourists
return? How will this impact on peoples livelihoods?
Beaches
are
covered
in debris
and water
is
polluted.
Emotional reunions as tourists
reunite with their families.
The damage of this region has made some areas
inaccessible for equipment such as bull-dozers to clean up.
To make the areas more accessible, elephants have been
used.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are so isolated
that it took many days for relief teams reach them.
Aid took even longer.
INTERACTION
• A two-way action that takes place
in the natural and cultural
environment
INTERACTION
People interacting with each other – influencing
each other and effecting each other…
What is the interaction you can see here?
Interaction of victims and health care workers from around the
world… trying to make it accessible for everyone in the affected
region.
SYSTEM
• A set of features linked together to
form a whole
SYSTEMS
• Aid can be seen as a system…
Inputs
Money
Food
Aid Workers
Processes
Transportation
Communication
Outputs
Clean water
Healthy children
Feedback
Child grows up and becomes an
aid worker or donates money.
Food and Water is delivered as quickly as possible
– inputs and processes in action!
Aid arrives at a isolated Sri
Lankan village
A young boy ‘helps’ distribute food
in Sumatra, Indonesia.
PROCESS
• A sequence of related actions
PROCESS
The process of body
identification and burial…
What are the sequence of
related events happening
here?
1 – find the bodies
2 – identify the bodies
3 – burial of bodies
THE PROCESS OF AID: The
children of the Tsunami show
amazing resilience as they live
with the after affects of this
disaster. Who will ensure they
are cared for? How will aid and
support for children be
organised.
Worldwide Aid
The cricket games have
raised millions!
$50,000 for every ‘6’ and
$1,000 for every run!
Globalisation is
highlighted as
countries come
together to help those
in need.
Women in
Indonesia
collect
donations
in
umbrellas
Governments
such as NZ
send members
of the Defence
Force to help.
Concerts
are held all
over the
world –
like
Sydney
Opera
House
where
Scribe
featured
Tsunami
Aid
concert in
the US
featured a
huge
range of
stars.
Geographic Concepts Quiz
• 1. Location. Describe the location of Mt Ruapehu in New Zealand.
• 2. Distance. Describe the distance in travel time by car between Wellington and
Taupo.
• 3. Accessibility. Which is more accessible to Wellington by bicycle, Levin or
Masterton?
• 4. Culture. Name one distinct cultural feature of Porirua.
• 5. Perception. Describe the difference in perception of music between yourself and
your parents.
• 6. Pattern. How does the climate and land change as you move from the North Pole
towards the equator.
• 7. Change. How has the way we buy music changed from your parents to your
generation?
• 8. Region. Describe one feature of the Fiordland region.
• 9. Interaction. Describe one way that humans have interacted positively with the
environment in Wellington.
• 10. Systems. How is a city a system?
• 11. Process. Describe one process that leads to changes in the shape of the land.
World Facts
Did you know . . ?
• The most populous country in the world?
China… 1, 295, 401, 418
as of 5:00 p.m., May 27, 2004.
• The largest continent?
– Asia with its 17,212,000 square miles.
• The largest island?
– Greenland with its 839,999 square miles.
• The largest ocean?
– Pacific Ocean …60, 060, 700 square miles.
• The largest sea? The Mediterranean Sea
which is 1, 144, 800 square miles.
• The largest lake? The Caspian Sea at
152, 239 square miles.
• The longest river in the world? The Nile in
Africa, measuring 4,180 miles in length.
• The longest mountain range? The Andes
of South America measuring 5,000 miles
in length.
• The lowest spot on earth? The Dead Sea
is 1,290 feet below sea level.
• The largest waterfall? Angel Falls in Venezuela. It
rises 3, 212 feet in height.
• The highest mountain? Mount Everest in the
Himalayan Mountains, Nepal-Tibet. It rises 29,035
feet above sea level.
• The highest underwater peak? Mount Pico of the
Azores Islands. It is 7,613 feet above sea surface,
20,000 feet below sea surface to sea floor.
• The deepest underwater trench? Mariana Trench
which lies 200 miles southwest of Guam in the
Pacific Ocean. It is 36,198 feet below the ocean
surface.
• The deepest ocean? The Pacific with an average
depth 13, 215 feet.
• The most destructive known earthquake?
Occurred in Shansi China on January 23, 1556,
killing 830,000 people.
• The lowest recorded temperature? -129
degrees F. Occurred in Antarctica in 1989.
• The highest recorded temperature? 136.4
degrees F. Occurred in Libya in 1922.
• The country that produces the most wheat?
China
• The country that produces the most crude oil?
Saudi Arabia

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Introduction to Geography's most important concepts

  • 1.
  • 2. Geography is the science of place and space. Geographers ask where things are located on the surface of the earth, why they are located where they are, how places differ from one another, and how people interact with the environment.
  • 3. Aims • To identify the Important Geographical Ideas (IGIs or Concepts). • To define and give examples of the important concepts covered in Geography.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 7. WHAT ARE THE? = Important Geographic Ideas (Concepts) As we go through this presentation you need to write down a definition for each IGI, as they will be used throughout the year in Geography I.G.I’s are the concepts that you need to understand when learning about Geography. They help you make sense of all the content you will be covering. Do you remember the IGI’s?
  • 9. All of the pictures on your sheet represent one of the important concepts in geography. In your pairs write each concept (listed below) next to the picture which you think best represents it. Pattern, change, perception, interaction, systems, culture, region, accessibility, process, distance, location.
  • 10. THE ASIAN TSUNAMI: Examples of the IGI’s To understand why these concepts are important and show how they relate to people, we are going to look at the major catastrophic event that occurred on Boxing Day 2004: The Asian Earthquake and Tsunami. This photo was taken in China, 2002 The word “Tsunami” comes from Japan and literally means “Harbour Wave”. It is not a tidal wave, as a Tsunami has nothing to do with tides. WHAT IS A TSUNAMI?
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  • 13. LOCATION and DISTANCE • Where something is found • How far away something is
  • 14. LOCATION AND DISTANCE • Where was the Tsunami located? • What distance did the Tsunami travel?
  • 15. PATTERN • The arrangement of features in space.
  • 16. PATTERNS • The Tsunami was caused by an earthquake near Indonesia. The Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate collided. The up-lift of the plate caused a displacement of water which triggered the tsunami.
  • 17. Earthquakes around the world (represented by black dots) Study this map very carefully before moving onto the next slide
  • 18. What pattern is produced from Earthquakes? (note that this map is not centered on the Pacific Ocean, like the previous map)
  • 19. REGION • An area with at least one common feature
  • 20. REGION - What did the region look like before? Coral Reefs around tropical Indian Ocean waters. Beautiful white sandy beaches. Areas of cultivation – such as rice fields Lush, tropical vegetation.
  • 21. What did the REGION look like after the Tsunami…
  • 22. Much of the environment has been washed away.
  • 23. CULTURE • A common way of life shared by a group of people
  • 24. CULTURE • Who are the people that live in this region? - What cultures are found here? • Culture refers to the way of life of people… Market in Sri LankaYoung girls dancing in a Thai school concert Transport in Indonesia
  • 25. • How have peoples culture changed? What happened to people during this event? People after the event Women in Sri Lanka overcome with grief. Lives were lost - bodies need to be recovered quickly. Mass graves needed to be dug.
  • 26. Many tourists stay on and either help in the clean-up or continue their holidays. Influence on tourist culture? People are evacuated from small low- lying areas. Their home, cultural lands are gone. Extended families have been severely affected – break-down of traditional family structure.
  • 27. What other cultural activities have been influenced by the Tsunami? Cultures have been bought together are influencing each other….
  • 28. CHANGE • Occurs in different places at different times and rates. Change makes something different.
  • 29. CHANGE • How has the natural and cultural landscape changed by the Tsunami? Patong main street, Phuket, Thailand. Before After
  • 30. BEFORE Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 23rd of June 2004
  • 31. AFTER Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 28th of December 2004
  • 32. BEFORE Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 23rd of June 2004
  • 33. AFTER Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 28th of December 2004
  • 34. PERCEPTION • People’s values and culture influence the way in which they perceive and use their environment.
  • 35. How has this event changed people’s perceptions ? PERCEPTION This image was seen by millions of Muslims around the world. Many viewed it as proof that Allah had intervened and saved the mosques.
  • 36. What perceptions do tourists have? Have their perceptions changed? Tourists and locals are getting tattoos to symbolise the Tsunami. Photo on the right shows this Swedish tourist with a Tattoo reading: Phuket, Tsunami 2004 tattooed on his chest.
  • 37. ACCESSIBILITY • How easy it is to get to a place
  • 38. ACCESSIBILITY How Accessible are resources that they people need? How do people get around? How do they get clean water and food? How will building materials get to isolated areas?
  • 39. Access to basic necessities such as… WATER
  • 41. • How have people’s livelihoods been affected? Fishing industries have been destroyed – the fish are still there, but the boats are ‘stuck’ miles inland!
  • 42. Market places near the coast are destroyed. Where will people buy food? How will they earn an income? A market place in Aceh has been destroyed.
  • 43. The Tourism Industry supports many families – will tourists return? How will this impact on peoples livelihoods? Beaches are covered in debris and water is polluted. Emotional reunions as tourists reunite with their families.
  • 44. The damage of this region has made some areas inaccessible for equipment such as bull-dozers to clean up. To make the areas more accessible, elephants have been used.
  • 45. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are so isolated that it took many days for relief teams reach them. Aid took even longer.
  • 46. INTERACTION • A two-way action that takes place in the natural and cultural environment
  • 47. INTERACTION People interacting with each other – influencing each other and effecting each other… What is the interaction you can see here?
  • 48. Interaction of victims and health care workers from around the world… trying to make it accessible for everyone in the affected region.
  • 49. SYSTEM • A set of features linked together to form a whole
  • 50. SYSTEMS • Aid can be seen as a system… Inputs Money Food Aid Workers Processes Transportation Communication Outputs Clean water Healthy children Feedback Child grows up and becomes an aid worker or donates money.
  • 51. Food and Water is delivered as quickly as possible – inputs and processes in action! Aid arrives at a isolated Sri Lankan village A young boy ‘helps’ distribute food in Sumatra, Indonesia.
  • 52. PROCESS • A sequence of related actions
  • 53. PROCESS The process of body identification and burial… What are the sequence of related events happening here? 1 – find the bodies 2 – identify the bodies 3 – burial of bodies
  • 54. THE PROCESS OF AID: The children of the Tsunami show amazing resilience as they live with the after affects of this disaster. Who will ensure they are cared for? How will aid and support for children be organised.
  • 55. Worldwide Aid The cricket games have raised millions! $50,000 for every ‘6’ and $1,000 for every run! Globalisation is highlighted as countries come together to help those in need.
  • 56. Women in Indonesia collect donations in umbrellas Governments such as NZ send members of the Defence Force to help. Concerts are held all over the world – like Sydney Opera House where Scribe featured Tsunami Aid concert in the US featured a huge range of stars.
  • 57. Geographic Concepts Quiz • 1. Location. Describe the location of Mt Ruapehu in New Zealand. • 2. Distance. Describe the distance in travel time by car between Wellington and Taupo. • 3. Accessibility. Which is more accessible to Wellington by bicycle, Levin or Masterton? • 4. Culture. Name one distinct cultural feature of Porirua. • 5. Perception. Describe the difference in perception of music between yourself and your parents. • 6. Pattern. How does the climate and land change as you move from the North Pole towards the equator. • 7. Change. How has the way we buy music changed from your parents to your generation? • 8. Region. Describe one feature of the Fiordland region. • 9. Interaction. Describe one way that humans have interacted positively with the environment in Wellington. • 10. Systems. How is a city a system? • 11. Process. Describe one process that leads to changes in the shape of the land.
  • 58. World Facts Did you know . . ? • The most populous country in the world? China… 1, 295, 401, 418 as of 5:00 p.m., May 27, 2004. • The largest continent? – Asia with its 17,212,000 square miles. • The largest island? – Greenland with its 839,999 square miles. • The largest ocean? – Pacific Ocean …60, 060, 700 square miles.
  • 59. • The largest sea? The Mediterranean Sea which is 1, 144, 800 square miles. • The largest lake? The Caspian Sea at 152, 239 square miles. • The longest river in the world? The Nile in Africa, measuring 4,180 miles in length. • The longest mountain range? The Andes of South America measuring 5,000 miles in length. • The lowest spot on earth? The Dead Sea is 1,290 feet below sea level.
  • 60. • The largest waterfall? Angel Falls in Venezuela. It rises 3, 212 feet in height. • The highest mountain? Mount Everest in the Himalayan Mountains, Nepal-Tibet. It rises 29,035 feet above sea level. • The highest underwater peak? Mount Pico of the Azores Islands. It is 7,613 feet above sea surface, 20,000 feet below sea surface to sea floor. • The deepest underwater trench? Mariana Trench which lies 200 miles southwest of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. It is 36,198 feet below the ocean surface. • The deepest ocean? The Pacific with an average depth 13, 215 feet.
  • 61. • The most destructive known earthquake? Occurred in Shansi China on January 23, 1556, killing 830,000 people. • The lowest recorded temperature? -129 degrees F. Occurred in Antarctica in 1989. • The highest recorded temperature? 136.4 degrees F. Occurred in Libya in 1922. • The country that produces the most wheat? China • The country that produces the most crude oil? Saudi Arabia