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Kathyrn notes

  1. 1. Geography notes<br />5 themes, Location and Region <br />
  2. 2. 5 Themes of Geography<br />M-M17<br />
  3. 3. 5 Themes of Geography <br />Location<br />Where is it?<br />Regions<br />Areas that share at least 1 common feature<br />Place <br />Natural and human features that make it different<br />Movement<br />How do people, goods, and ideas move from place to place<br />Interaction<br />Human-environment interaction, each change and affect each other<br />
  4. 4. 5 Themes of Geography Questions<br />
  5. 5. Location<br />Earth, globes, maps etc.<br />
  6. 6. Location<br />Absolute location<br />Street Address<br />Longitude and latitude in degrees<br />Relative location<br />Referring to a location based on knowledge of its position in comparison to another location<br />
  7. 7. Location<br />Hemispheres<br />Northern and Southern<br />Western and Eastern<br />
  8. 8. Location<br />0° E-180° E<br />0° W-180° W<br />0° N-90° N<br />0° S-90° S<br />
  9. 9. Location<br />Special latitude lines<br />Arctic Circle<br />Tropic of Cancer<br />0° Equator <br />Tropic of Capricorn<br />Antarctic Circle<br />Special longitude lines<br />0° Prime meridian <br />
  10. 10. Location<br />How to use a map<br />Back bulletin board<br />M8-9<br />
  11. 11. Regions<br />Common climate, physical features, culture, government (politics), or history <br />The same area can be in more than 1 region <br />
  12. 12. Regions<br />Political regions: countries, states, providences, counties, cities<br />
  13. 13. Regions<br />Physical feature maps:<br />
  14. 14. C1<br />
  15. 15. Unit 1: Toward Civilization<br />Prehistory-500 BC<br />Chapters 1-2<br />
  16. 16. Beginnings of Human Society<br />Chapter 1 <br />
  17. 17. Geography and History C1S1<br />I. Intro – Iceman<br />Alps mountain pass, Italian-Austrian border <br />1991<br />Scientists studied skeleton and possessions to learn about how he lived<br />Dated the Iceman to about 3,000 BC<br />Copper axe was the key to dating, <br />Europeans first used it in 4,000 BC<br />Iceman must be from after that time<br />
  18. 18. Geography and History cont.<br />II. Understanding History: Humans are curious about our origins<br />Before and After Writing<br />5,000 years ago history started in Southwest Asia and Africa<br />History is the written and other recorded events of people <br />Prehistory is the time before history<br />Prehistory: Digging Up the Past<br />Archeologists must dig up the past to learn about past peoples<br />Sift through dirt in prehistoric camps to find tools and other objects<br />Objects help them learn about the people who lived there<br />
  19. 19. Geography and History cont.<br />II. Understanding History cont.<br />History: A Record in Writing<br />With the aid of archaeologists, historians examine written records from humans of that society <br />They also consult records from other societies that refer to them<br />A Record of the Spoken <br />Oral traditions are stories passed down in families and societies by word of mouth<br />Not all are historically accurate, but many are based on facts<br />Tend to change with each retelling <br />Describe how a society lived and what was important to them<br />
  20. 20. Geography and History cont.<br />III. Linking Geography and History<br />Knowing when something happened is important<br />Geography is the study of the Earth’s surface and the processes that shape it<br />It also refers to the features of a place<br />Climate/weather<br />Landscape <br />Location etc<br />Egypt for example<br />Last paragraph p.9<br />
  21. 21. PrehistoryC1S2<br />I. Intro<br /> A. Discusses a volcanic eruption <br /> B. Humans walked on the thick ash mud, leaving their footprints<br /> C. In 1972 scientists found the footprints<br />Millions of years ago?<br />
  22. 22. PrehistoryC1S2 cont.<br />II. Stone Age Hunting and Gathering<br /> A. Earliest Human Culture<br /> 1. During the Stone Age humans made lasting tools and weapons from stone, wood, and animal bones<br /> 2. The Stone Age continued until humans began using metal for tools<br /> 3. Stone Age divides into 3 periods<br /> a. Old (hunter gatherers rather than farmers)<br /> b. Middle <br /> c. New<br />
  23. 23. PrehistoryC1S2 cont.<br />II. Stone Age Hunting and Gathering cont.<br /> B. Fire!<br /> 1. No one knows how humans began using fire<br /> 2. We do know that they were terrified by it until they could control it<br /> 3. This was an important step because people could move to colder climates<br /> C. Settling New Areas<br /> 1. With the development of tools, humans moved from Africa, spreading over the whole Earth <br /> 2. These wanderers were called nomads, people with no settled home<br />
  24. 24. Prehistory C1S2 cont.<br />Nomads were hunter –gatherers<br />P. 18-19<br />III. The Beginning of Farming<br /> A. Early Farmers<br /> 1.Those who began farming entered the New Stone Age (Old Stone Age continued in some places until the 1900s)<br /> 2. They realized they could not only gather food, but also replant the seeds <br /> a. Women gardened<br /> b. Men hunted<br /> 3. This allowed them to stay in one place<br /> 4. Pastoral nomads remained nomads, but raised livestock to eat <br />
  25. 25. Prehistory C1S2 cont.<br />III. The Beginning of Farming cont.<br /> B. Farming Around the World<br /> 1. Some places in the world are more fertile, rich in substances that plants need to grow, than others<br /> a. warmth, light, rain, growing seasons<br /> 2. Plants grow best in certain places<br /> a. Rice in China<br /> b. Corn, beans, and squash in Central America<br />
  26. 26. PrehistoryC1S2 cont.<br />III. The Beginning of Farming cont.<br /> C. Plant Selection<br /> 1.Plants were domesticated, wild plants that have been adapted for human use<br /> 2. they looked for the biggest, best tasting plants and used their seeds<br /> D. Raising Animals <br /> 1. Animals were domesticated, taming wild animals for human use<br /> a. dogs, sheep, goats, pigs<br /> b. hunting, wool, meat, milk, skins (hides)<br /> E. The Challenge of Domestication<br /> 1. Sometimes animals that have been domesticated do not breed well in captivity<br /> a. Elephants for battle use<br /> b. Cheetahs for hunting<br />
  27. 27. The Beginnings of Civilization C1S3 <br />I. Intro<br /> A. Early communities built irrigation systems, supplying water from another place using canals<br /> B. This allowed them to dam up the spring flood waters, release the gates to irrigate crops during the dry season<br />
  28. 28. The Beginnings of Civilization C1S3 cont. <br />II. Advantages of Settled Life<br /> A. The Population Grows<br /> 1. Surplus is having more than what is needed<br /> 2. Important for population growth<br /> a. hunter-gatherers had only a few children<br /> b. farming families could have more<br /> 3. Population exploded!!<br /> B. Early Villages and Towns<br /> 1. As the food surpluses continued, towns grew<br /> 2. People could do other jobs<br /> a. artisan: skilled worker who made items by hand<br /> b. artisans made baskets, leather goods, tools, pottery, or cloth <br />
  29. 29. The Beginnings of Civilization C1S3 cont.<br />III. The Growth of Cities<br /> A. Earliest Cities<br /> 1. Surplus food + dependable water source + building materials = good location for a city<br /> 2. Many began next to large rivers: Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Huang, and Indus<br /> 3. Cities have public buildings for worship, storage, or sales<br /> 4. People contributed in many ways instead of just farming<br /> B. Government Forms<br /> 1. As population grew, governments formed to keep order in society and provide services<br /> 2. Governments also settled disputes and managed public building projects<br />
  30. 30. The Beginnings of Civilization C1S3 cont. <br />IV. The First Civilizations: a society that has cities, central governments, workers who specialize, and have forms of writing, art, and architecture<br /> A. The Bronze Age<br /> 1. In 3000 BC, artisans figured out how to strengthen copper by adding tin to make bronze<br /> 2. This allowed them to make more durable tools, weapons, helmets, and shields <br />
  31. 31. The Beginnings of Civilization C1S3 cont. <br />IV. The First Civilizations cont.<br /> B. Trade and the Spread of Ideas<br /> 1. With the surplus of food, artisans were able to sell their goods <br /> 2. This allowed trade between cities to develop<br /> a. people were able to get items not grown or created in their cities<br /> 3. Around 3500BC the wheel and axle were invented<br /> 4. People also began trading goods over water<br /> 5. This trade also allowed ideas to travel as well<br />
  32. 32. C. Social Classes Develop 1. A social class is a group of people having similar backgrounds, incomes, and ways of living<br />
  33. 33. C2<br />
  34. 34. The Fertile Crescent <br />C2<br />
  35. 35. Land Between Two Rivers<br />C2S1<br />
  36. 36. Geography of Mesopotamia <br />Mesopotamia means “land between two rivers”<br />Tigris & Euphrates <br />Rivers were their life source<br />Rivers were also terribly destructive <br />Part of the Fertile Crescent:<br />region in SE Asia <br />site of the world’s 1st civilizations<br />Major seas in the area:<br />Mediterranean Sea & Persian Gulf<br />1st civilization: Sumer<br />
  37. 37. Schools and Writing<br />1st school: 4,oo0 years ago in Sumer <br />Boys (and a few girls) were taught to write<br />Scribes: professional writers/recorders <br />10 years to graduate<br />Worked for kings and priests<br />
  38. 38. Sumerian Civilization<br />Cities shared a common language and culture, but not a common ruler<br />City-state: city that is a separate, independent state<br />Each city had its own god/goddess, government, and leader (king)<br />Tour of Sumer<br />Public squares filled with activity<br />Musicians, acrobats, beggars, scribes<br />Market places filled with merchants and their wares to sell<br />Houses faced inner courtyards where they would eat, play, gather, and sleep on hot nights<br />
  39. 39. Sumerian Religion <br />Polytheism: belief in many gods/goddesses <br />A temple was called a ziggurat <br />The giant brick building in the middle of the city<br />Ramps and stairs for the gods to descend to earth<br />All religious, social, and economic activities met here<br />Myths: stories about gods that explain their beliefs<br />Gods were honored with ceremonies with meals as offerings <br />music and incense filled the air<br />
  40. 40. Fall of Sumer<br />Wealth<br />City-states fought over land and water<br />Conquered by Akkadia and King Sargon<br />but only united for 100 more years<br />In the 1700s BC, Babylonia took control<br />
  41. 41. Babylonia and Assyria<br />C2S2<br />
  42. 42. Mesopotamia <br />Filled with stories of conquest<br />“You go and carry off the enemy’s land; the enemy comes and carries off your land” <br />Those in control of the area gained great wealth from trade and agriculture<br />2 major civilizations fought over the area<br />The Empires of Babylonia and Assyria <br />An empire is an area of many territories and peoples controlled by the same government <br />
  43. 43. The Two Empires of Mesopotamia<br />
  44. 44. Babylon Rises Again<br />Under Chaldeans the empire was reborn<br />King Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the destroyed city of Babylon and made it even greater<br />The Hanging Gardens <br />Astronomers charted star paths to discover the length of the year<br />Raised honey bees<br />Was later destroyed by the Persian Empire<br />
  45. 45. The Legacy of Mesopotamia <br />C2S3<br />
  46. 46. Hammurabi’s Code<br />Hammurabi: ruled Babylonia from 1792-1750<br />Created Hammurabi’s code<br />Code: organized list of laws and punishments <br />Not the first attempt at laws<br />First organized, recorded set archeologists have found<br />
  47. 47. Art of Writing<br />Traced back to Sumer<br />Record in clay<br />Wet clay was shaped into smooth, flat tablets<br />Letters were carved with sharp tools<br />When the clay dried, the record was permanent <br />Larger tablets were reference materials<br />Smaller tablets were personal messages<br />Script formed from symbols to depict objects<br />Later ideas were expressed<br />
  48. 48. Cuneiform<br />Groups of wedges and lines used by scribes<br />Used to express different languages<br />Sumerians did not borrow writing ideas from others<br />Symbols set in rows<br />Rows read left to right<br />Page read top to bottom<br />
  49. 49. Mediterranean Civilizations<br />C2S4<br />
  50. 50. Phoenicia <br />Coastal region<br />Grew rich by gathering snails<br />Tyre<br />Produced a purple dye<br />Highly valued by the rich <br />Also had dense cedar forests<br />Controlled trade in the Mediterranean Sea (1100-800BC)<br />Even sailed into the Atlantic Ocean<br />But told stories of sea monsters to keep others from attempting to compete for Atlantic trade routes<br />Tyre and Sidon had massive bazaars filled with expensive and exotic wares from Africa and Europe<br />
  51. 51. Phoenician Alphabet <br />Relied on writing in trade<br />Created an alphabet (symbols that represent the sounds of a language) system with 22 symbols<br />Basis for alphabets in many languages including English<br />Each symbol stood for one consonant sound<br />Much easier to learn than cuneiform<br />Trade allowed the language to spread<br />
  52. 52. Israelites/Hebrews<br />Never built a large empire, but greatly influenced civilization<br />History is told in the Torah, Hebrew Bible<br />Also supported with archeological evidence and other records<br />Monotheistic: belief in one god<br />Famine: time with so little food that many people starve<br />Exile: force people to live in another place or country<br />
  53. 53. Rise of the Israelites <br />
  54. 54. Judaism<br />C2S5<br />
  55. 55. Beliefs<br />History and religion are connected, shows God’s plan<br />God is present everywhere<br />God knows everything<br />God has complete power<br />Covenant: promise made by God<br />Abraham and later Moses<br />
  56. 56. Beliefs<br />10 Commandments<br />Duties toward God<br />Rules for correct behavior<br />The Torah had other laws too<br />Everyday matters like food preparation, crimes, etc.<br />Justice with mercy<br />Some laws protected women, but women were their husband or father’s property<br />Prophets: religious teachers who spoke for God<br />Expressed how God wanted them to live<br />Warned the people to not disobey, bringing on disaster <br />All people were equal in God’s sight no matter what they did for a job<br />
  57. 57. Effects<br />Diaspora: the scattering of a group of people<br />The Assyrians and Babylonians (Chaldeans) began this process, it continued with the Romans<br />Where ever the Jews settled, they took their faith and culture with them<br />Even today they celebrate the Passover which began when they were slaves in Egypt<br />Both Christianity and Islam are affected by the Jewish faith because their roots are Jewish<br />Monotheistic <br />Honor Abraham, Moses, and the prophets<br />Same moral point of view<br />