Toward 
Civilization 
Chapter 1
EQ’s - Section 1: Understanding 
Our Past 
 How are geography and history linked? 
 How do anthropologists and 
archaeol...
Geography and History 
 Geography is the study of people, their 
environments, and the resources available to 
them. 
 H...
The 5 Themes of Geography 
 Movement – of people, goods, ideas 
 Location – tells where a place is on the 
surface of th...
The 5 Themes of Geography 
 Human Environment Interaction – people 
interact with their environment; they have shaped 
an...
Anthropologist and 
Archaeologists 
 Anthropology is the study of the origins and 
development of people and their societ...
How do Historians reconstruct 
the past? 
 Historians rely primarily on written evidence to 
determine how people lived i...
EQ’s – Section 2: Dawn of 
History 
 What advances did people make 
during the Old Stone Age? 
 How can we learn about t...
Dawn of History 
 During the Old Stone Age, people lived as 
nomads, in small hunting and food gathering 
groups. These p...
Dawn of History 
 Early people left evidence of their belief in a 
spiritual world. 
 Stone statues are believed to have...
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution 
 Before… 
 Relied on hunting and gathering. 
 Nomads lived in small hunting and food...
EQ’s – Section 3: Beginnings of 
Civilization 
 How did the first cities emerge? 
 What are the basic features of 
civil...
What are the basic features of 
“civilization”? 
 Farmers began cultivating lands along 
river valleys and producing surp...
River Valley Civilizations 
 Cities rose independently in the valleys of: 
 Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Middle Ea...
What are the basic features of 
“civilization”? 
 A civilization is a complex, highly organized 
social order. 
 Histori...
Civilizations Spread and Change 
 Civilizations spread when ancient rulers 
gained more power and conquered territories 
...
Civilizations Spread and Change 
 Civilizations change when the physical 
environment changes because of climate or 
natu...
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Chapter 1 Toward Civilization

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Chapter 1 Toward Civilization

  1. 1. Toward Civilization Chapter 1
  2. 2. EQ’s - Section 1: Understanding Our Past  How are geography and history linked?  How do anthropologists and archaeologists find out about early peoples?  How do historians try to reconstruct the past?
  3. 3. Geography and History  Geography is the study of people, their environments, and the resources available to them.  History uses written evidence to tell us how people lived in the past.  By showing how people lived in different times and places, geographers have added to our knowledge of human history.
  4. 4. The 5 Themes of Geography  Movement – of people, goods, ideas  Location – tells where a place is on the surface of the Earth  Latitude: measures distance north or south of the Equator  Longitude: measures distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.  These numbers give us Exact Location  Relative Location: where one place is located in relation to anther.
  5. 5. The 5 Themes of Geography  Human Environment Interaction – people interact with their environment; they have shaped and been shaped by the places in which they lived.  Place – geographers describe places in terms of their physical features and human characteristics.  Physical features: landforms, bodies of water, climate, soil, resources, plant life, animal life  Human characteristics: economic activities, religious beliefs, languages  Region – areas of the world based on physical characteristics, and political, economic, or cultural characteristics.
  6. 6. Anthropologist and Archaeologists  Anthropology is the study of the origins and development of people and their societies. Some anthropologists study the origins of human life. Others focus on the variety of human cultures.  Archaeology is a specialized branch of anthropology.  Archaeologists study artifacts, objects made by human beings. By analyzing artifacts, archaeologists learn about the beliefs, values, and activities of early people.
  7. 7. How do Historians reconstruct the past?  Historians rely primarily on written evidence to determine how people lived in the past.  Recorded history began about 5,000 years ago, when people began to keep written records.  Today, historians study such evidence as photographs and film, as well as written documents such as letters and tax records.
  8. 8. EQ’s – Section 2: Dawn of History  What advances did people make during the Old Stone Age?  How can we learn about the religious beliefs of early people?  Why was the Neolithic agricultural revolution a turning point in history?
  9. 9. Dawn of History  During the Old Stone Age, people lived as nomads, in small hunting and food gathering groups. These people:  made simple tools and weapons out of stone, bone, or wood;  developed a spoken language;  invented clothing;  used caves and rocky overhangs for shelter;  learned to build fires for warmth and cooking.
  10. 10. Dawn of History  Early people left evidence of their belief in a spiritual world.  Stone statues are believed to have had religious meaning. Statues of pregnant women suggest that early people worshiped earth-mother goddesses.  Animism is the belief that the world is full of spirits and forces that might reside in animals, objects, or dreams.  Cave paintings may have been part of animist religious rituals.  Early people began burying their dead with care, suggesting a belief in life after death. They provided the dead with tools and weapons for the afterlife.
  11. 11. Neolithic Agricultural Revolution  Before…  Relied on hunting and gathering.  Nomads lived in small hunting and food-gathering groups.  Waited for migrating animals to return each year.  After…  Learned to farm and were able to produce their own food.  Settled into permanent villages.  Learned to domesticate, or tame, animals.
  12. 12. EQ’s – Section 3: Beginnings of Civilization  How did the first cities emerge?  What are the basic features of civilizations?  How do cultures spread and change?
  13. 13. What are the basic features of “civilization”?  Farmers began cultivating lands along river valleys and producing surplus, or extra, food.  Surpluses helped populations expand.  As populations grew, some villages swelled into cities.
  14. 14. River Valley Civilizations  Cities rose independently in the valleys of:  Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East  Nile River in Egypt  Indus and Ganges Rivers in India  Yellow River, or Huang He, in China  River valleys favored farming because of flood waters that deposited silt, renewing the soil and keeping it fertile every year.  Animals that flocked to the rivers to drink were another source of food.  Rivers provided a regular water supply.  Rivers also provided a means of transportation.
  15. 15. What are the basic features of “civilization”?  A civilization is a complex, highly organized social order.  Historians distinguish eight basic features found in most early civilizations:  1. Cities  2. Well-organized central governments  3. Complex religions  4. Job specialization  5. Social classes  6. Arts and architecture  7. Public works  8. Writing
  16. 16. Civilizations Spread and Change  Civilizations spread when ancient rulers gained more power and conquered territories beyond the boundaries of their cities.  Powerful rulers created city-states and empires.  A city-state included a city and its surrounding lands and villages.  An empire is a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler.
  17. 17. Civilizations Spread and Change  Civilizations change when the physical environment changes because of climate or natural disasters.  Interactions among people also cause cultures to change.  Cultural diffusion is the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. Cultural diffusion occurred through migration, trade, and warfare.

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