Chapter 5Direct Instructional Strategies Presented by Michelle Rose
• This chapter examines a variety of direct instructional approaches, many of them lend themselves to deductive strategies. We will differentiate between inductive and deductive strategies. We will discuss direct instructional approaches that are teacher directed in a whole class format. We will look at deductive strategies and how they can be used effectively to promote student learning.
ObjectivesBy the end of this presentation you will be able to:• Differentiate between deductive and inductive teaching strategies and give an example• Describe features of direct instruction• Identify guidelines for the effective use of presentations, demonstrations, questions and recitations• Describe effective techniques when using practice, drills, reviews, guided practice and homework
Instructional Approaches• Inductive strategies are instructional approaches that start with an unknown principle and then attention moves to a known – Intended to tap into the interests and thinking abilities of the students
Instructional Approaches cont’d• Deductive strategies are instructional approaches that start with a known principle and then the attention moves to the unknown. – More direct and straightforward – Lend themselves to direct instructional approaches
U nknown P rincip le sInductive Strategies/Approach Known P rincip le s Deductive Strategies/Approach
For example:• Using deductive strategy/approach: teacher presents the definition of a topic sentence and tells students the use and gives examples of topic sentences then finishes the lesson by asking students to write their own topic sentences. Teacher reviews and gives students feedback on their performance.
What are the strengths of thedeductive strategy/approach?•Directness of theteaching strategy•Specific focus of theteaching strategy•Tight linkagebetween teacher’sexamples and the taskrequired of students
Example of the inductive strategy/approach– Give students sample paragraphs with topic sentences underlined.– Teacher would not tell the students at the start what they are studying or give definitions. Students would study paragraphs and answer questions posed by teacher.– Teacher focuses students’ comments towards concept of topic sentences– Use of examples and questions that helps students to recognize the fundamental principle of topic sentences
Strengths of the inductive strategy/approach• More indirect• Can be very effective because students interact with the content to make meaning.
So….tell me what we have learnt so far…..• Two instructional approaches to teaching – deductive strategy & inductive strategy – Directness & specific focus of teaching strategy and tight linkage between instruction and student tasks – Indirect, students interact with content and may lead to better understanding, teacher uses questioning and examples.
Direct instruction• Direct teaching strategies are instructional approaches in which the teacher structures lessons in a straightforward, sequential manner. The teacher is clearly in control of the content or skill to be learned and the pace and rhythm of the lesson.
Features of Direct Instruction• Clear determination and articulation of goals• Teacher directed goals• Careful monitoring of students’ outcomes• Consistent use of effective classroom organization and management methods
Benefits of Direct instruction• Allows teacher to introduce concept, skills in a relatively short time.• Academically focused with the teacher clearly stating the goals for the lesson to the students• Teacher closely monitors students’ understanding• Teacher provides feedback to students on their performance
Two types of Direct Instruction1. Explicit Teaching – its objective is to teach skills and help students master a body of knowledge.• Teacher gains students attention,• Reinforce concepts,• Provide feedback on progress and• Increase of academic time
Direct Instruction # 2The Hunter Model - This is based on a method of planning and implementing instruction called ITIP- Instructional Theory into PracticeITIP is a lesson design process that considers relevant factors in making instructional decisions. It is a teacher- directed approach to instruction.
Ten Guidelines for Explicit teaching• Begin with a short statement of goals• Short review of previous prerequisite learning• Present new material in small steps, with student practice after each step• Give clear instructions and explanations• Provide a high level of active practice for all students
Guidelines cont’d• Ask many questions, check for students understanding and obtain responses from all students.• Guide students during initial practice.• Provide systematic feedback and corrections.• Provide explicit instruction & practice for seatwork exercises & when necessary, monitor students during seatwork.• Continue practice until students are independent and confident.
In Summary, Direct Instruction should include:• Daily reviews• Presenting of new materials• guided practice• corrective feedback• independent practice• Weekly and monthly review
Elements of Hunter’s Lesson Design• Anticipatory set• Objective and its purpose• Instructional output• Modeling• Monitoring to check for understanding• Guided practice• Independent practice
Direct Teacher-Centred Instructional Strategies• Presentations• Questions• Demonstrations – Similar to a lecture in its direct communication of information from teacher to students involves visual presentation to examine processes, information and ideas.• Recitations – A series of short answer questions to check understanding or recall of previously covered content.
Effective Practice Techniques• Practice • involves going over material just learned. It is intended to consolidate, clarify, and emphasize what students have just learned.• Drills • Drilling involves repeating information on a particular topic until it is firmly established in the students’ minds. E.g. multiplication tables• Reviews • An opportunity for students to look at a topic another time. It does not require drilling techniques.
• Guided practice • Seatwork, teacher-led practice, involves students working on in-class assignments, often independently• Homework • Study that students do when they are not under the direct supervision of teachers, such as at home, the library or in a study hall.
Presentations• Presentation –an informative talk that a more knowledgeable person makes to less knowledgeable persons. There may be little or no student participation by questioning or discussion. Uses of presentations: – To disseminate information in a short time – To stimulate student’s desire to learn – To present information in a certain way – To adapt it to a particular group – To introduce or explain learning tasks.
Don’t use presentations when:• Objectives other than knowledge acquisitions are sought• The information is complex, abstract, or detailed• The learner involvement is important• Higher cognitive skill is sought• Students are below average ability
Teachers Keep in mind• Know your content like an expert• Limit the length of presentation to the tolerance level of the particular group.• Present in such a way that it is interesting to students.• Provide appropriate levels of structure and sequence.• Maintain flexibility.• Provide organizers• Use the presentation in combination with other methods• Use instructional media and materials, summarize the content• Provide follow up activities.
Guidelines for presentations• Present lesson objective to students• Present information in an organized, sequential manner• Expect student interaction [questions and comments]• Move from general to specific ideas and information• Use graphic organizer or aids to promote learning.• Use good examples and explanations• Encourage students to reflect on and apply what they have learned.• Check for students’ understanding.
Types of questions for different purposes• Focusing questions -focuses students attention on material being discussed• Prompting questions -includes hints and clues to aid students in answering questions• Probing questions- used to seek clarification and provide guidance to more complete answers
Questioning Strategy• Very critical instructional tool• There are two categories:• 1. Questions for the learning domains.• 2. Convergent questions- [having one correct or best answer] and Divergent questions [open ended having many appropriate answers]
Questioning Techniques• Use random selection when calling on students• Use variety and unpredictability in asking questions• Ask the questions before calling on a particular student• Wait at least 5 seconds before calling on a student.• Have students respond to classmates’ answers
• Do not consistently repeat students’ answers.• Ask questions that relate to students’ own lives or similar situations.• Vary types of questions being asked.• Ask questions logically and sequentially.• Ask questions at a variety of levels.• Follow up students’ responses.• Give students time to think when responding• Ask questions that invite wide student participation• Encourage student questions.• Plan key questions to provide lesson structure and direction.• Adapt questions to student ability level.
Now its… Your Turn TeachersForm groups of two. Youhave 5 minutes to write someguidelines you used toeffectively carry out apresentation, demonstration,recitation or practice duringyour teaching practice. Cindyplease join a group. You mayuse your text for reference.Go…..!!!!
Thank you for your attention.All the best in answering your questions.