Teasel: Why Is It Here andHow Do We Get Rid of It? Reid J. Smeda and Diego J. Bentivegna University of Missouri
Cut-leaf teasel(Dipsacus laciniatus L.)
• Exotic- Invasive weed                                  (USDA)• Declared Noxiousin Missouri, Iowa, Colorado andOregon • D...
A sheepish beginning
Origin Introduced as a “crop” to New England from France in  1780’s; “teaseling” wool Abandoned in 1800’s; mechanization...
Biology Biennial, with emergence in fall andspring  Leaves: large, opposite, and sessile with deep serrations  Prickly ...
Emergence of teasel in Missouri                                              (Data 2003-2004)                         200 ...
Seedling (2 months)              Pre-flowering (1 month)   Seed                                 RosetteDevelopment        ...
Total above ground Biomass
Plants capable of growth late into year
Taproot (DW)
Reproductive Phase (Stem – Seedheads)
Methodology Fifteen plants growing alone and in a group (2 plants within 60cm) were randomly selected in two locations an...
Total Seed Production per Individual Plant
Summary of seed production study Seed production is more than five times greater than wasregistered in other locations (W...
Seed persistence study 150 seeds were put in pots in 09/04 in New Franklinand Columbia (Bradford); 5 pots harvested eachs...
If we don’t want teasel, what do we do about it? Fire= insufficient fuel to burn through infested areas (Solecki 1993) B...
Mowing Determine the optimum timing to mow bolting plants: Mowing (15-30 July) Frequency (one time) Height (12 cm)     ...
10/04/04
12/18/04Plant mowed above 12 cm atthe beginning of JulyFlowering on 10/04/04
What about control practices?Determine the efficacy of herbicides on teaselrosettes as well as residual activity on neweme...
Herbicides treatmentsMode of action            Herbicide          Rate (kg ai ha-1)        Time       -                  U...
Environmental conditions                                                 Soil pH= 5.9-7.6                                ...
AA Biosynthesis       Growth regulatorsMembrane disrupters   Acetolactate synthase
Evaluation 2 Weeks after treatment    Treatments             Time     Highway     Fairground   Bradford Moberly           ...
Evaluation 8 Weeks after treatment    Treatments             Time     Highway     Fairground   Bradford Moberly           ...
Accumulated emergence after 210 days of herbicides treatments for year 2005.
Remote Sensing Remote sensing consists of the acquisition and recording ofinformation about an object or interest target ...
Data Collection and Pre- ProcessingBradford Research & Extension Center                 Highway I70 (Miles 89-93)         ...
Determine the best band for cut-leaved teasel                                       Normalized Difference : (G-T)/G       ...
6000                             Teasel   Bare Soil    Grass    Others                      5000Reflectance (x1000)       ...
2006                  2007                   2006        2007          ChangeTeasel             8.5%        13%           ...
Percentage of Cut-leaved Teasel Control and Grass Cover Visual in June 2007                                               ...
What do we know now? Plants emerge during 2 distinct periods in Missouri Teasel has two important peaks of above ground ...
Chester McWhorter (USDA weed scientist)“I have spent the last 16 years of my career   working on johnsongrass, and I can r...
Questions?Questions
Teasel: Why is it Here and How Do We Get Rid
Teasel: Why is it Here and How Do We Get Rid
Teasel: Why is it Here and How Do We Get Rid
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Teasel: Why is it Here and How Do We Get Rid

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Teasel: Why is it Here and How Do We Get Rid

  1. 1. Teasel: Why Is It Here andHow Do We Get Rid of It? Reid J. Smeda and Diego J. Bentivegna University of Missouri
  2. 2. Cut-leaf teasel(Dipsacus laciniatus L.)
  3. 3. • Exotic- Invasive weed (USDA)• Declared Noxiousin Missouri, Iowa, Colorado andOregon • Dipsacus is derived from the Greek word dipsakos, which means thirst
  4. 4. A sheepish beginning
  5. 5. Origin Introduced as a “crop” to New England from France in 1780’s; “teaseling” wool Abandoned in 1800’s; mechanization Movement follows interstate highway corridor Desirable as a dried flower Teasel in Argentina, 2009
  6. 6. Biology Biennial, with emergence in fall andspring  Leaves: large, opposite, and sessile with deep serrations  Prickly stem and spine in the mid-rib of the leaves  Deep taproot : Extracts nutrients and water from deficient soils
  7. 7. Emergence of teasel in Missouri (Data 2003-2004) 200 180 AEmergence (N° /meter2) 160 140 A 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Time
  8. 8. Seedling (2 months) Pre-flowering (1 month) Seed RosetteDevelopment (12 months) (3 months)
  9. 9. Total above ground Biomass
  10. 10. Plants capable of growth late into year
  11. 11. Taproot (DW)
  12. 12. Reproductive Phase (Stem – Seedheads)
  13. 13. Methodology Fifteen plants growing alone and in a group (2 plants within 60cm) were randomly selected in two locations and two years Primary Seedhead x x x x Alone Group  Number of seedheads, seed production of the primary seedhead, and total seed production per plant was evaluated  Regression used to estimate seed production
  14. 14. Total Seed Production per Individual Plant
  15. 15. Summary of seed production study Seed production is more than five times greater than wasregistered in other locations (Werner 1975, Glass 1991) Seed production was affected by location, year, andgrowth habit Principal seedheads produce more than 1000 seeds  Maximum seeds produced per plant was 33,000  First viable seed produced 12 days following first flowers on primary seedhead
  16. 16. Seed persistence study 150 seeds were put in pots in 09/04 in New Franklinand Columbia (Bradford); 5 pots harvested eachspring, summer and fall. Tetrazolium test was done to assess the viability.
  17. 17. If we don’t want teasel, what do we do about it? Fire= insufficient fuel to burn through infested areas (Solecki 1993) Biological= slow and doesn’t have natural enemies in USA (Rector 2006) Mechanical= - immature seeds complete maturation in stem - plants regrowth (Solecki 1993) 5 months Chemical= most cost effective (Missouri Vegetation ManagementManual 1997)
  18. 18. Mowing Determine the optimum timing to mow bolting plants: Mowing (15-30 July) Frequency (one time) Height (12 cm) 08/18/04
  19. 19. 10/04/04
  20. 20. 12/18/04Plant mowed above 12 cm atthe beginning of JulyFlowering on 10/04/04
  21. 21. What about control practices?Determine the efficacy of herbicides on teaselrosettes as well as residual activity on newemergence Herbicides
  22. 22. Herbicides treatmentsMode of action Herbicide Rate (kg ai ha-1) Time - Untreated -- --AA biosynthesis Glyphosate 2.52 Fall and Spring Dicamba + Diflufenzopyr 0.29 Fall and Spring 2,4-D 1.68 Fall and Spring Growth 2,4-D + Triclopyr 1.68 + 0.84 Spring regulator 2,4-D + Picloram 1.68 + 0.45 Spring 2,4-D + Clopyralid 1.68 + 0.32 Spring Acetolactate Metsulfuron Methyl 0.008 Spring Synthaseinhibitors (ALS) Imazapyr 0.84 Spring Sulfometuron methyl 0.11 Spring Sulfosulfuron 0.11 SpringCell Membrane Paraquat 0.94 Spring Disrupters
  23. 23. Environmental conditions  Soil pH= 5.9-7.6  Soil OM= 1.8 -2.9%  Wind speed: < 4 mph  Air temperature > 8.5C in Fall > 15C in Spring At 2, 4 and 8 weeks following applications, teasel plants werevisually evaluated for injury A scale of 0 to 100 was used: 0 = no effect and 100 = plant death Residual activity was evaluated in two 0.3 x 0.3 m areas in plots ofselected treatments by counting seedlings through the year
  24. 24. AA Biosynthesis Growth regulatorsMembrane disrupters Acetolactate synthase
  25. 25. Evaluation 2 Weeks after treatment Treatments Time Highway Fairground Bradford Moberly Fall 30 def 23 cd 28 b 28 b Glyphosate Spring 43 bcd 88 b 59 b 65 b Fall 34 cde 19 d 25 b 20 b Dicamba + Spring 43 bcd 53 b 49 b 56 b Diflufenzopyr Fall 24 efg 6d 13 c 15 c 2,4-D Spring 31 de 36 b 25 b 49 b 2,4-D+Triclopyr Spring 48 bc 50 b 38 b 50 b 2,4-D+Picloram Spring 53 b 49 b 51 b 55 b 2,4-D+Clopyralid Spring 39 bcd 39 b 35 b 42 bMetsulfuron-methyl Spring 15 fg 29 c 16 c 16 c Imazapyr Spring 16 fg 31 c 11 c 14 cSulfometuron-methyl Spring 13 gh 23 c 23 c 18 c Sulfosulfuron Spring 0h 6e 1c 5c Paraquat Spring 95 a 95 a 86 a 88 a
  26. 26. Evaluation 8 Weeks after treatment Treatments Time Highway Fairground Bradford Moberly Fall 95 a 90 a 96 ab 100 a Glyphosate Spring 85 abc 98 a 93 ab 100 a Fall 100 a 96 a 100 a 100 a Dicamba + Spring 95 a 100 a 100 a 100 a Diflufenzopyr Fall 89 ab 96 a 66 d 83 b 2,4-D Spring 95 a 100 a 76 cd 100 a 2,4-D+Triclopyr Spring 98 a 100 a 86 bc 100 a 2,4-D+Picloram Spring 100 a 100 a 100 a 100 a 2,4-D+Clopyralid Spring 100 a 100 a 100 a 100 aMetsulfuron-methyl Spring 100 a 100 a 100 a 100 a Imazapyr Spring 100 a 100 a 100 a 99 aSulfometuron-methyl Spring 64 c 81 b 78 cd 98 a Sulfosulfuron Spring 0d 9c 3e 33 c Paraquat Spring 70 bc 88 b 100 a 100 a
  27. 27. Accumulated emergence after 210 days of herbicides treatments for year 2005.
  28. 28. Remote Sensing Remote sensing consists of the acquisition and recording ofinformation about an object or interest target without touching it Growth regulator Advantages:  Non destructive measurement  Objective periodical data  Large spatial distribution Acetolactate Synthase
  29. 29. Data Collection and Pre- ProcessingBradford Research & Extension Center Highway I70 (Miles 89-93) Hyperspectral, 2006 (63 bands) Multispectral, 2007 (4 bands)
  30. 30. Determine the best band for cut-leaved teasel Normalized Difference : (G-T)/G 9000 8000 Teasel Grass Bare soil TreeRelectance (x1000) 7000 11 24 31 41 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 Blue Green Red Infrared Bands
  31. 31. 6000 Teasel Bare Soil Grass Others 5000Reflectance (x1000) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Blue Green Red Infrared Bands
  32. 32. 2006 2007 2006 2007 ChangeTeasel 8.5% 13% +4.5%Grass 78.4% 74.5% -3.9Bare Soil 11.8% 3.3%Grass death -8.5Others 1.3% 7.8 +6.5
  33. 33. Percentage of Cut-leaved Teasel Control and Grass Cover Visual in June 2007 Teasel Grass CoverTreat Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Tall Canada Rosette Seedlings Fescue Wildrye 1 Triclopyr Triclopyr 16.3 C 31.3A 66.3 A 67.5 A Metsulfuron- 2 Dicamba 73.8 B 66.3 A 80 A 84.8 A methyl 3 Dicamba Dicamba 98.8 A 58.8 A 70 A 78.8 A 4 Aminopyralid Aminopyralid 100 A 63.8 A` 82 A 79.5 A Metsulfuron- Metsulfuron- 5 92.5 B 40 A 67.5 A 65 A methyl methyl * Means within a column followed by the same letter are not statistical different. T test p>0.05
  34. 34. What do we know now? Plants emerge during 2 distinct periods in Missouri Teasel has two important peaks of above ground growth Teasel stores resources in the taproot to catapault plants intoreproduction Seed production is greatest when plants invade new areas;seeds reach viability quickly following initial flowering Mowing below 12 cm precludes plant flowering; plants remainalive and flower the following year Herbicides can reduce the number of existing plantsand imazapyr reduces the emergence Remote sensing can identify teasel; combination of herbicidesand seeding desirable grasses is most effective strategy
  35. 35. Chester McWhorter (USDA weed scientist)“I have spent the last 16 years of my career working on johnsongrass, and I can report that johnsongrass is a bigger problem today than when I began.” -1991 I have worked on teasel for about 8 years and cannot say populations are in decline!
  36. 36. Questions?Questions

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