Anti Termite Activity of Jatropha Curcas Linn. Biochemicals


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Anti Termite Activity of Jatropha Curcas Linn. Biochemicals

  1. 1. JASEM ISSN 1119-8362 Full-text Available Online at J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. September, 2008 All rights reserved Vol. 12(3) 67 - 69 Anti termite activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. biochemicals 1 NEELU SINGH* AND 2SUSHILKUMAR1 Tropical Forest Research Institute,Mandla Road , Jabalpur (India). 2National Research Centre For Weed Science (ICAR), Jabalpur(India) ABSTRACT: Jatropha curcas oil and its toxic fraction were evaluated at different dilutions i.e., 1%,5%,10%,20% against Microcerotermes beesoni, the test termite. The maximum wood protection against termites of both the treatments were obtained at their highest concentration i.e. 20%. The weight loss ranged from 18.77% to 48.80% at concentrations of 20% to 1% of Jatropha curcas oil formulation. The protection afforded by toxic fraction was enhanced, with the % weight loss ranging from 10.48 to 35.19. However, all the treatments proved to be effective over the control (50.84%). @ JASEMTermites are known to cause tremendous losses to against Microcerotermes beesoni, a test termitefinished and unfinished wooden structures in commonly used for laboratory testing. Thebuildings, besides loss in agriculture and forestry experiment was carried out to observe the feeding ofcrops (Sen-Sarma et al. (1975). For controlling termites on the treated wood pieces of perishabletermites, synthetic termiticides have been used for a wood of mango (Mangifera indica). Test blocks oflong time. At the advent of termite control, mango wood measuring 2 cm3 were prepared, ovenpersistency of the chemical was regarded to be a dried at 800C for 48 hours and weighed. Jatrophaboon, as it provided protection for longer periods. curcas oil and its toxic fraction of oil, in combinationBut soon it was realised that, chlorinated, persistent with additives and emulsifier, were evaluated againsttype of insecticides posed a great hazard to Microcerotermes beesoni, the test termite. Soil wasenvironment, due to their residual effects. Therefore, collected from the mound of Odontotermes obesus.some of the termiticides like DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, It was ground, moistened and sterilised in anheptachlor and BHC were banned and a search for autoclave. 500 g of sterilised soil was filled in glassother less persistent insecticides was started. Now a jars of 1 litre capacity. The test species were dippeddays chloropyriphos has been successfully employed overnight in different concentrations of curcas seedas soil treatments against subterranean termite. fractions, dried at room temperature and placed overContinuous use of synthetic termiticides for soil as the soil in the glass jars. A feeding strip of 1x2x20well as crop treatment , has been allowed for the mm of soft wood i.e semul (Bombax ceiba ) was alsopresent time because of the lack of any effective placed into the jar together with a small piece of thesubstitute. World over, research is going on for an nest of Microcerotermes beesoni. The temperature ofeffective formulation, which can reduce the damage the laboratory was maintained at 270C +20C andby termites, at the same time being environmentally relative humidity 85% + 5 %. Preparation of cagesacceptable. In the present investigation, the properties and testing was done following the methods evolvedof Jatropha oil and its components against the by Sen-Sarma and Chatterjee (1970) and Sen-Sarmatermites using different additives, have been et al, (1975). After 60 days of exposure, the testevaluated against the test termite, Microcerotermes pieces were removed from the cages, cleaned andbeesoni. oven dried at 800C for 48 hours and weighed. There were four treatments and 4 replications. The weightMATERIAL AND METHODS loss (% weight loss) in different treatments andSeeds of J. curcas were obtained from Nivas , replications was calculated and subjected to statisticalJabalpur. Dried seeds were decorticated and analysis.powdered. Powdered seeds were extracted in a largeSoxhlet apparatus, in petroleum ether (40-60 °C), for RESULTS AND DISCUSSION20 hours, The solvent was removed from the extract The oil and its toxic fraction have shown encouragingunder reduced pressure at 400C. The oil obtained results against the test termite, Microcerotermeswas further subjected to fractionation with O’Keeffe beesoni (Table-1). The maximum efficacy i.esolvent system containing petroleum ether: methanol: minimum weight loss due to termites of both thewater in the ratio 10:9:1 to separate toxic fraction. treatments were obtained at their highestBoth polar and non-polar fractions were separated concentration i.e. 20%. The weight loss ranged fromwith the help of separating funnel. The process was 18.77% to 48.80% at concentrations of 20% to 1% ofrepeated three times and collected aqueous methanol JA (Jatropha oil formulation). The protectionfractions were combined. Preliminary trials were afforded by JM (Jatropha oil toxic fractionmade in the laboratory to test the efficacy of J. curcas formulation), with the % weight loss ranging from* Corresponding author: 1Neelu Singh
  2. 2. Anti termite activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. biochemicals 6810.48 to 35.19. However, all the treatments proved to control, while maximum weight loss in blocks wasmore effective over the control (50.84%). The recorded in treatment T4 (48.80%) which was at pardifference in the weight of the wood pieces before with control (T9). The mean weight loss was 4.48g intreatment was non significant. The weight of the test control, which indicates that control wooden blockspieces, after the various treatments (T1-T9), as well were more damaged by termites as compare to 1.79,as their weight loss, was highly significant at P<0.01. 2.69, 3.37, 4.32, 0.86, 1.55, 2.45 and 3.0 g postMinimum loss was observed in T5 (10.48%), which treatment weight of T1 to T8, respectively.was highly significant (P=0.01) in comparison toTable-1 Efficacy of Jatropha curcas seed components against test termite Microcerotermes beesoniTreatment Treatment Pretreatment Post treatment Weight loss in test Weight concentration weight of test weight of test pieces after loss pieces pieces exposure (%) (g) (g) (g) (%)T1 20 9.53 7.75a 1.79e 18.77 (25.66) dT2 10 9.39 6.69bc 2.69cd 29.45 (32.86) cT3 5 8.67 5.29de 3.37b 38.54 (38.37) bT4 1 8.82 4.56ef 4.32a 48.80 (44.31) aT5 20 8.32 7.45ab 0.86f 10.48 (18.85) eT6 10 8.88 7.33ab 1.55e 17.34 (24.60) dT7 5 8.57 6.11cd 2.45d 28.70 (32.39) cT8 1 8.52 5.52d 3.00bc 35.19 (36.37) bT9 8.81 4.34f 4.48a 50.84Control (45.48)aC.D. NS 0.852** 0.4648** 2.197Values are mean of 4 replications.NS- Non-significantValues in parenthesis are arc sine transformed values.Values followed by the same alphabet are not significantly different at P<0.01.The results revealed that oil and its fraction, seed ester extract against test termitesignificantly reduce the weight losses (18.77%, Microcerotermes beesoni on highly perishable timber10.48%) due to exposure of wood of mango of mango (Mangifera indica), at very low dilution i.e.(Mangifera indica ) to termite attack, in comparison 0.025% concentration. They reported four foldto control ( Fig.1) protection of wood. On the contrary, Verma et al.Reports of the efficacy of plant products against (1995) reported that neem cakes when mixed withtermite and furniture beetle are available in literature. soil did not protect eucalyptus seedling fromSharma et al. (1980) studied the role of neem subterranean termites attracting roots. Giridhar et. al.extractives in wood protection. They tested neem (1988) reported the termiticidal activities of* Corresponding author: 1Neelu Singh
  3. 3. Anti termite activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. biochemicals 69Calotropis latex. Impregnation of the wood with Acknowledgement: The authors are thankful to Dr.latex significantly reduced termite attack (10.6-11.9% S.C.Mishra for help to conduct this study at FRI,loss in weight), especially in susceptible wood Dehradun. Thanks are due to Director, Tropicalspecies like Cedrus deodara and Mangifera indica. Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur for their constant encouragement and providing facilities.Figure-1 REFERENCES %weight loss of Wood Hecker, E. and Schmidth, R. H. (1974) Phorbol esters: the irritant and co-carcinogens of Croton 60 tigliumL.: In: Progress in Chemistry of Organic 50 Products. 31: 377-415 40 %weight Sen-Sarma P.K., Thakur, M.L. Mishra, S.C. and 30 T1 loss Gupta, B.K. (1975) Wood destroying termites in 20 T2 India. Forest Research Institute, 10 control Dehradun.187pp. 0 T20 T10 T5 T1 Sen-Sarma P.K. and Chatterjee, P.N. (1970) Recent Concentration% trends in laboratory evaluation of termite’s resistance of wood and wood products. Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science, 1(2): 119- 120The results of our findings against termite has further Sharma P., Ayyar K.S., Bhandari, R.S., Rana, S.S.been strengthened that formulations containing crude and Joshi, M.C. (1980) Efficacy of neem seedoil of J. curcas and its toxic fraction were found to extracts in protection of Mangifera indica woodbe significantly effective even after 60 days of against Microceroterms beesoni Synderexposure to termites. The persistency of the (Isoptera: termitidae) in laboratory. Annals offormulation was reflected by the fact that treated Forestry 6(1): 89-94wooden blocks were subjected to termite exposureafter 3 months of its treatments with the formulation. Giridhar , G. Santosh, G. and Vasudevan, P.(1988)After treatment, the wooden blocks were kept at Anti termite efficacy of Elemi (Canarium spp.)room temperature. oil against wood destroying organism. FPRDI Journal, 22:2, 49-53* Corresponding author: 1Neelu Singh