Area, Production and Productivity
• India ranks first in area and production in the world.
Area : 0.29 Mha
Production : 0.18 Mt
Productivity : 0.632 t/ha
• In India Maharashtra ranks first in area(0.19 Mha) and
• Karnataka ranks first in productivity(0.735 Mt).
• Andhra Pradesh contains: Area (0.04 Mha), Production (0.06 Mt) and
Productivity (0.571 t/ha)
Importance of Safflower
• More or less Day neutral crop but thermo-sensitive so grown as a rabi
• Tolerant to salinity but sensitive to water logging conditions.
• Self pollinated crop with out crossing of 5% to 40% due to the action
of honey bees.
• 100 seed weight varies from 2.5 to 8 g.
• Both oil and protein content decreases with increased altitude.
• A pest deterring crop.
• A drought tolerant crop.
• A tool for managing problem weeds.
Economic uses of safflower
Crop can be grown as guard crop because of spiny nature.
Suitably dried flowers used to treat circulatory, inflammation and
Dye extracted from petal is used for dyeing purposes.
It is a drying oil.
It contain 24-35 % oil.
It is rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids as linoleic acid (78 %) which
reducing cholesterol content and also good for heart patients.
It is used in manufacturing of soaps and varnishes.
The oil is used for preparation of Roghan.
Safflower oil is the healthiest oil of all vegetable oil.
Safflower was recognized as it remedies Rheumatism.
Safflower seed contain 50 % hull and its pale yellow in colour.
Fatty acid composition :
Linoleic acid = 70-80 %
Oleic acid = 6-8 %
Stearic acid = 2-3 %
Palmitic acid = 5-8 %
Soil and Climate
• It is day neutral plant.
• It is mainly rabi crop.
• Temperature requirement.
For seed germination = 15-16 ⁰C
For flowering = 24-32 ⁰C
• Rainfall requirement : 500-600 mm.
• Safflower required fertile, fairly deep and well drained soil for
• Spacing : 45x20 cm
• Safflower crop removes 60-65 kg N, 30 kg P2O5 and 20-30 K2O.
• One tonn of seed removes about 45 kg N.
• FYM @ 5-10 t/ha.
• P2O5 half as basal application and response is 7-8 kg seed per kg P2O5
• K2O as basal recommended in K deficient soil.
• In rainfed condition entire fertilizer is applied by drilling at sowing.
• In irrigated condition half N and whole P & k are applied at sowing
and another half N is top dressed 5 WAS.
• The is generally grown as rainfed in residual soil moisture.
• The have crops have the ability to extract moisture from deeper layer
of the soil.
• Water deficit during rosette stage, elongation and branching,
flowering and seed filling results in poor yield.
• Rosette stage is the most critical stage of safflower.
• Total water requirement varies from 600-1200 mm.
• High water use occurs at flowering stage.
• WUE varies between 5-6 Kg/ha/mm.
• Safflower can not compete with weeds up to 60 DAS.
• The critical period of crop growth competition is Rosette stage to Flowering
• Two harrowing at 25-30 and 45-50 DAS depending on the length of rosette
period and manual weeding in between can effectively check the weed
• Uses of Herbicides like,
• PPI :
• PRE-Em Herbicide :
• AP : Chick pea + safflower (3:1 or 2:1)
Coriander + safflower (3:1 or 2:1)
• KN : Chick pea + safflower (3:1)
Coriander + safflower (3:1)
• MH : Wheat + safflower (3:1 or 2:1)
• MP : Chick pea + safflower (6:2 or 4:2)
• Eastern UP : Chick pea + safflower (3:1)
Barley + safflower (3:1)
Sequence Cropping :
• It is profitable in Andhra Pradesh where rainfall is 700-800 mm.
• Northern Telangana zone :
Maize – safflower
Sorghum – safflower
Sesame – safflower
Green gram– safflower
• Scarce Rainfall zone :
Green gram – safflower
Sesame – safflower
Soybean – safflower
• Hybrids : NARI-NH-1, NARI-H-15, MRSH-521, DSH129, MKH1
• Varieties : Parbhani kusum, Phule kusum, TSF1, PBNS40, NARI 6,
NARI 38, SSF 658, Manjeera, Bhima, Sagar muthyalu.
• The crop mature within 110-120 days.
• The leaves and most of the bracteoles except a few of last formed
become brown and seeds are dried and easily separated from the
• The yield varies from 18-20 qt/ha.