Non-native Common Reed

985 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Non-native Common Reed

  1. 1. Non-native Common ReedJ RandallNature Conservancy
  2. 2. Literature Cited:A Guide to the Control and Management. INVASIVE PHRAGMITES,http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/deq-ogl-ais-guide-PhragBook-Email_212418_7.pdfPhragmites: Common Reed, Morphological Differences (this text is at least partially authoredby Dr. Bernd Blossey, Cornell University)http://www.invasiveplants.net/phragmites/phrag/morph.htmScience Daily 2007. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071012084128.htmCommon Reed, Missouri Department of Conservation, Invasive Species Coordinator, P.O. Box180, Jefferson City, MO 65102-0180Swearingen, J. and K. Saltonstall. 2010. Phragmites Field Guide: Distinguishing Native andExotic Forms of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in the United States. Plant ConservationAlliance, Weeds Gone Wild. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/pubs/index.htmWisconsin Wetlands Association http://wisconsinwetlands.org/phragmites.htm#invasion
  3. 3. J. MillerUS Forest Service
  4. 4. Native Lineage: Phragmites australissubsp.americanusSaltonstall et al. 2004. SIDA 21(2): 683-692
  5. 5. Gulf Coast Lineage: Phragmites australis subsp.berlandieriSaltonstall et al. 2004. SIDA 21(2): 683-692
  6. 6. Introduced Lineage: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex SteudSaltonstall et al. 2004. SIDA 21(2): 683-692
  7. 7. Non-nativePhragmites
  8. 8. Upland Site
  9. 9. J. RandallNature Conservancy
  10. 10. Leslie J Mehrhoff StolonU Conn, Bugwood.org
  11. 11. Rhizome
  12. 12. Roots Ohio State Weed Lab
  13. 13. Allelopathy – production of biochemicalsubstances that influence other organisms• Common reed releases gallic acid• Dissolves roots of nearby competitor plants• Non-native form contains elevated levels compared to native form of Phragmites• Competitive advantage
  14. 14. Mono-cultures reduce diversity • Degrade wildlife habitat • Alter local hydrology • Obstruct vistas/reduce recreational value • Increase fire danger ttLeslie J. MehrhoffUniversity of ConnecticutBugwood.org
  15. 15. Economic costs of non-native species introductions in the U.S.• Damages and control of all species combined may be up to $219 billion/year (Pimentel 2011)
  16. 16. Plant Conservation AllianceAlien Plant Working GroupFact Sheet
  17. 17. Plant Conservation AllianceAlien Plant Working GroupFact Sheet
  18. 18. Seedhead in winter
  19. 19. Non-native NativeR.E. Meadows
  20. 20. Native Non-NativeR.E. Meadows
  21. 21. Native Non-native R. E. Meadows
  22. 22. Sludge Disposal Beds
  23. 23. Vegetation ControlMethods to avoid • Disking – can spread plant fragments • Mowing – should not be used by itself, but may facilitate follow-up treatments after herbicides have killed the original stand. Use care so as not to spread seed or live stolon/rhizome fragments • Flooding – use only as a follow-up to herbicides • Traditional drawdowns (moist soil mgt.)– may increase non-native Phragmites • Spring fire – encourages non-native Phragmites
  24. 24. Vegetation ControlMethods to use • Herbicides – always follow the label and current laws regarding use. • Imazapyr - can be absorbed by tree roots if applied to overlying soil. Foliar app. mid-June-early October.
  25. 25. Vegetation Control• Glyphosate – Glyphosate- mid-August through early October. Application rates are 4-6 pints (64-96 oz.) per acre or use at 1.5% solution. A methylated seed oil or non-ionic surfactant should be added at 1% v/v as a surfactant.• Imazapyr at 1.25% + glyphosate at 1.2% with 0.25-0.5% NIS v/v. Late June-October
  26. 26. Vegetation Control• Imazamox at 1% v/v + glyphosate at 1% v/v + 1% MSO (info@cwc-chemical.com) Foliar apply August through early October. This would be a safer method to use where valuable landscape trees are present. However, this mix is still non- selective.
  27. 27. Vegetation Control• For combinations of herbicide and fire see:A Guide to the Control and Management.INVASIVE PHRAGMITESA common method is to use fire during July-August one year after herbicidetreatment, followed up by additionalherbicide efforts as needed.
  28. 28. Before Herbicide Untreated2 Weeks Post Rx3 Years After Herbicide
  29. 29. Follow-up by Monitoring
  30. 30. Questions???

×