Non-native Common Reed


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Non-native Common Reed

  1. 1. Non-native Common ReedJ RandallNature Conservancy
  2. 2. Literature Cited:A Guide to the Control and Management. INVASIVE PHRAGMITES, Common Reed, Morphological Differences (this text is at least partially authoredby Dr. Bernd Blossey, Cornell University) Daily 2007. Reed, Missouri Department of Conservation, Invasive Species Coordinator, P.O. Box180, Jefferson City, MO 65102-0180Swearingen, J. and K. Saltonstall. 2010. Phragmites Field Guide: Distinguishing Native andExotic Forms of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in the United States. Plant ConservationAlliance, Weeds Gone Wild. Wetlands Association
  3. 3. J. MillerUS Forest Service
  4. 4. Native Lineage: Phragmites australissubsp.americanusSaltonstall et al. 2004. SIDA 21(2): 683-692
  5. 5. Gulf Coast Lineage: Phragmites australis subsp.berlandieriSaltonstall et al. 2004. SIDA 21(2): 683-692
  6. 6. Introduced Lineage: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex SteudSaltonstall et al. 2004. SIDA 21(2): 683-692
  7. 7. Non-nativePhragmites
  8. 8. Upland Site
  9. 9. J. RandallNature Conservancy
  10. 10. Leslie J Mehrhoff StolonU Conn,
  11. 11. Rhizome
  12. 12. Roots Ohio State Weed Lab
  13. 13. Allelopathy – production of biochemicalsubstances that influence other organisms• Common reed releases gallic acid• Dissolves roots of nearby competitor plants• Non-native form contains elevated levels compared to native form of Phragmites• Competitive advantage
  14. 14. Mono-cultures reduce diversity • Degrade wildlife habitat • Alter local hydrology • Obstruct vistas/reduce recreational value • Increase fire danger ttLeslie J. MehrhoffUniversity of
  15. 15. Economic costs of non-native species introductions in the U.S.• Damages and control of all species combined may be up to $219 billion/year (Pimentel 2011)
  16. 16. Plant Conservation AllianceAlien Plant Working GroupFact Sheet
  17. 17. Plant Conservation AllianceAlien Plant Working GroupFact Sheet
  18. 18. Seedhead in winter
  19. 19. Non-native NativeR.E. Meadows
  20. 20. Native Non-NativeR.E. Meadows
  21. 21. Native Non-native R. E. Meadows
  22. 22. Sludge Disposal Beds
  23. 23. Vegetation ControlMethods to avoid • Disking – can spread plant fragments • Mowing – should not be used by itself, but may facilitate follow-up treatments after herbicides have killed the original stand. Use care so as not to spread seed or live stolon/rhizome fragments • Flooding – use only as a follow-up to herbicides • Traditional drawdowns (moist soil mgt.)– may increase non-native Phragmites • Spring fire – encourages non-native Phragmites
  24. 24. Vegetation ControlMethods to use • Herbicides – always follow the label and current laws regarding use. • Imazapyr - can be absorbed by tree roots if applied to overlying soil. Foliar app. mid-June-early October.
  25. 25. Vegetation Control• Glyphosate – Glyphosate- mid-August through early October. Application rates are 4-6 pints (64-96 oz.) per acre or use at 1.5% solution. A methylated seed oil or non-ionic surfactant should be added at 1% v/v as a surfactant.• Imazapyr at 1.25% + glyphosate at 1.2% with 0.25-0.5% NIS v/v. Late June-October
  26. 26. Vegetation Control• Imazamox at 1% v/v + glyphosate at 1% v/v + 1% MSO ( Foliar apply August through early October. This would be a safer method to use where valuable landscape trees are present. However, this mix is still non- selective.
  27. 27. Vegetation Control• For combinations of herbicide and fire see:A Guide to the Control and Management.INVASIVE PHRAGMITESA common method is to use fire during July-August one year after herbicidetreatment, followed up by additionalherbicide efforts as needed.
  28. 28. Before Herbicide Untreated2 Weeks Post Rx3 Years After Herbicide
  29. 29. Follow-up by Monitoring
  30. 30. Questions???