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2015 apa referencing


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This presentation was prepared for students at Massey University New Zealand. It covers some basic principles of APA referencing.

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2015 apa referencing

  2. 2. • When is it right to copy something directly word for word and include it in your essay? • How would you write an in-text citation for ideas from a book written this year by John Key, David Cunliffe and Winston Peters? • In your reference list, when do you need to include the country a book was published in? •Which part of the reference for a journal article is in italics? •How do you cite a website that has no author or date? •What is the name of Massey’s APA referencing tool? DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
  3. 3. 1. IN-TEXT REFERENCING / CITATIONS Strategic planning is “the process of establishing an organisational mission and formulating goals, corporate strategy, marketing objectives, marketing strategy and a marketing plan” (Pride et al., 2006, p. 31). Strategic planning is a comprehensive approach to marketing, which aims to align overall corporate strategy with the more specific goals of strategic business units and the marketing plans which are intended to realise these goals (Pride et al., 2006). Summary in your own words Quotation
  4. 4. QUOTATIONS ARE RARE IN GOOD ESSAYS Definitions of key concepts Stuttering has been defined as “a disruption in the fluency of verbal expression characterized by involuntary, audible or silent, repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables” (Büchel & Sommer, 2004, p. 159). • Especially memorable phrases from experts This is another illustration of the truth of the saying, “Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it” (Santayana, 1905, p. 284). Altogether , a 1500 word essay would typically include 2 - 4 short quotes Presentation: Handouts:
  5. 5. THE QUOTATION SANDWICH Efficient management of human resources, likewise, requires knowledge and ability to implement macroeconomic principles. For instance, according to the Principle of Comparative Advantage, “everyone does best when each concentrates on the activity for which he or she is relatively most productive” (Frank & Bernanke, 2001, p. 23). This suggests that the underlying purpose of human resources ought to be to ensure that employees are trained, motivated and managed so that they can spend most of their time contributing to the company’s mission at the highest skill level they are capable of. In other words, human resources management needs to be proactive, rather than reactive. Your point Supporting quote Your Comment
  6. 6. THEORY – PRACTICE PING-PONG According to the model presented by Quester, Macguiggan, Perrault and McCarthy (2004, p. 108), brand preference is a dynamic process consisting of five different stages. This model provides a highly useful basis for evaluation of marketing strategy. For instance, Benneton, in the 1990’s, embarked on a highly controversial global campaign, which certainly raised their level of brand recognition. Their failure to translate this recognition into matching sales (Hamilton, 1997), may be because the whole campaign was narrowly targeted at one single stage of brand preference. real-world example – journalistic source theory – academic source
  7. 7. CITATIONS (IN-TEXT REFERENCES) – Surname of author(s) + year of publication – Direct quotations need quotation marks and page number(s) Observational learning can be defined as “the phenomenon whereby people develop patterns of behavior by observing the actions of others” (Mowen & Minor, 1998, p. 147). Surnames of authors Year of publication Page book journal article website newspaper article etc The same basic principle for ALL sources
  8. 8. CITATIONS (more than one author) For two authors, always include both: Blah, blah, blah, blah (Chang & Liu, 2009). For three to five authors– include all surnames first time Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard, Thomas, & Varnham, 2001). And then use et al. if you refer to the same source again Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard et al., 2001). For six or more authors, use et al. all the time Blah, blah, blah, blah (Singh et al., 2011).
  9. 9. CITATIONS (SECONDARY SOURCES) In a recently discovered private diary, Jane Austen describes the character as “her greatest challenge and most uncertain achievement” (as cited in Smith, 2012, p. 231). But try to avoid secondary references if possible. Instead, give the original source for your information or quotations. This period during which a learner can complete a task with the support of tools and / or mentors is known as the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978). In this case, it doesn’t really matter that I haven’t read Vygotsky’s book myself – I read about this theory in a recent book, but I’m including a reference to the original book in which Vygotsky explained this theory.
  10. 10. CITATIONS (three ways) According to Dunbar and Holmes (2003), cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred ….. Dunbar and Holmes (2003) claim / argue / suggest / state / provide evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred ….. Cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred to more traditional medical interventions in such cases (Dunbar & Holmes, 2003). Most of the time, you’ll put the reference in brackets, just after you’ve finished with the information. But sometimes you can include the author(s) in your sentence and then just put the year in brackets.
  11. 11. 2. END OF TEXT REFERENCES References Finkelstein, S., Whitehead, J., & Campbell, A. (2009). Think again: Why good leaders make bad decisions and how to stop it happening to you. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Kahnemann, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioural economics. The American Economic Review 93(5), 1449-1475. Kahnemann, D., Fredrickson, B. I., Schreiber, C.A., & Redelmeier, D.A. (1993). When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science 4(6), 401-405. Krause, T. R. (2008). The role of cognitive bias in safety decisions. Occupational Hazards 70(6), 28. Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioural model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics 69(1), 99-118. White, E. (2009, February 14). Why good leaders make bad decisions. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from: Use a YouTube video to help you with formatting – e.g.
  12. 12. BOOK Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. surname, initial (year) title city publisher For more than one author, include all names with initials (followed by . and ,) Hubbard, J., Thomas, C., & Varnham, S. (2001). Principles of law for New Zealand business students (2nd ed.). Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education.
  13. 13. CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK Biggins, G. (2009). Why I became a social worker. In P. Te Ara & T. Rogers (Eds.), Social work and social workers in New Zealand/Aotearoa (pp.102-120). Auckland, New Zealand: Insight Press. Title of chapter – not in italics Editors’ names – initial goes before and (Eds.), goes after! Title of book – in italics Page numbers of chapter – in brackets with pp. before Author of chapter and year of publication City & Publisher
  14. 14. CITY OF PUBLICATION UK, NZ etc city, country Harmondsworth, England: Penguin. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press. USA city, state initials Upper Saddle River, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Check title of book in library catalogue and/or Google if city of publication is not clear from the book itself Australia Either state OR country Milton, Qld: McGraw-Hill. Milton, Australia: McGraw-Hill.
  15. 15. JOURNAL REFERENCE Silverblatt, A. (2004). Media as a social institution. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 35-42. author’s name year Title (no italics) journal name (italics) volume & issue number page numbers doi:10.1080/09585190802707433 doi number (if the article has one)
  16. 16. WEB PAGE REFERENCE Statistics New Zealand. (2009). Mapping trends in the Auckland region. Retrieved from s/PopulationStatistics/mapping- trends-in-the-auckland-region.aspx. author’s name (or organisation that owns the web site) Year (if it’s missing put (n.d.) Retrieved from followed by full internet address Title of page (in italics)
  17. 17. REFERENCING SOFTWARE Endnote ($36 from library – and make sure you go to a tutorial) Free Programmes to download (but you’ll need to learn how to use them, through online tutorials etc) Use the references tab in the toolbar Microsoft Word Click ‘insert citation’ + add new source Take care with names (Hamel, Gary) and type of source Use a YouTube video like:
  18. 18. When is it right to copy something directly word for word and include it in your essay? DISCUSSION QUESTIONS • How would you write an in-text citation for ideas from a book written this year by John Key, David Cunliffe and Winston Peters? • definitions and memorable phrases • first time (Key, Cunliffe, & Peters, 2015) • after that (Key, et al., 2015)
  19. 19. In your reference list, when do you need to include the country a book was published in? DISCUSSION QUESTIONS • When the city is in a country like England or New Zealand that doesn’t have states. Which part of the reference for a journal article is in italics • The title of the journal
  20. 20. How do you cite a website that has no author or date? DISCUSSION QUESTIONS • Use the organisation that published it as the author and put n.d. as the date What is the name of Massey’s APA referencing tool? • APA interactive (on OWLL)
  21. 21. References Frank, R., & Bernanke, B. (2001). Principles of macroeconomics. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Hubbard J., Thomas, C. & Varnham, S. (2001). Principles of law for New Zealand business students. Auckland, New Zealand: Prentice Hall. Parry J., Black, C., & Bennett, A. (2000). Fundamentals of finance. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education. Quester, P., McGuiggan, R., Perreault, W. , & McCarthy, J. (2004). Marketing: Creating and delivering value. Sydney, NSW: McGraw-Hill Australia. This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying handouts are copyrighted by the Centre for Teaching and Learning, Massey University and may not be used, except for personal study, without written permission from the copyright owner. Please note that references and arguments are provided for illustration of writing principles only – not for their content! © 2015 Presentation: Handouts: