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Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity – biogeographical classification of India – value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global, national and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – hot-spots of biodiversity – threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts – endangered and endemic species of India – conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity

Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity – biogeographical classification of India – value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global, national and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – hot-spots of biodiversity – threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts – endangered and endemic species of India – conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity

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Biodiversity

  1. 1. Biodiversity By V. S. Saravana Mani Head & Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry Annapoorana Engineering College, Salem
  2. 2. Biodiversity Bio = Diversity = Variety
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The term Bio-Diversity was first coined by Walter G. Rosen in 1986. Biodiversity, refers to the variety of life on Earth. It includes diversity of ecosystems, species and genes, and the ecological processes that support them. Basically BIO means “Life” and Diversity means “Variety” . It represents the sum total of various life forms such as unicellular fungi, protozoa, bacteria and multi cellular organisms such as plants, fishes and animals at various levels.
  4. 4. Why is biodiversity important? Everything that lives in an ecosystem is part of the web of life, including humans. Each species of vegetation and each creature has a place on the earth and plays a vital role in the circle of life. Plant, animal, and insect species interact and depend upon one another for what each offers, such as food, shelter, oxygen, and soil enrichment. Maintaining a wide diversity of species in each ecosystem is necessary to preserve the web of life that sustains all living things. In his 1992 best- seller, "The Diversity of Life," famed Harvard University biologist Edward O. Wilson -- known as the "father of biodiversity," -- said, "It is reckless to suppose that biodiversity can be diminished indefinitely without threatening humanity itself."
  5. 5. Species diversity is the effective number of different species that are represented in a collection of individuals Genetic diversity, the level of biodiversity refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. Ecosystem diversity refers to the diversity of a place at the level of ecosystems. The term differs from biodiversity, which refers to variation in species rather than ecosystems.
  6. 6. Includes diversity above the species level. Biologists have viewed diversity above the species level in various ways. Some alternative ways to categorize it include: • Community diversity • Habitat diversity • Landscape diversity Ecosystem diversity
  7. 7. Species diversity • Species = a particular type of organism; a population or group of populations whose members share certain characteristics and can freely breed with one another and produce fertile offspring › Species diversity = the number or variety of species in a particular region › Species richness = number of species › Evenness, or relative abundance = extent to which numbers of different species are equal or skewed
  8. 8. Genetic diversity • Includes the differences in DNA composition among individuals within a given species. • Adaptation to particular environmental conditions may weed out genetic variants that are not successful. • But populations benefit from some genetic diversity, so as to avoid inbreeding or disease epidemics.
  9. 9. Biogeographical Classification of India
  10. 10. India, being a vast country, shows a great diversity in climate, topography and geology and hence the country is very rich in terms of biological diversity. India's biological diversity is one of the most significant in the world, since India has only 2% of the total landmass of the world containing about 6% of the world's known wildlife.
  11. 11. ECOZONE OF INDIA
  12. 12. GEOGRAPHY AND MAJOR BIOMES OF INDIA India is the seventh largest country in the world and Asia's second largest nation with an area of 3,287,263 sq.km. encompassing a varied landscape rich in natural resources. India is shielded by the world's highest mountains, the Himalayas, in the north. The southern part of India takes the shape of a peninsula and divides the Indian Ocean into the Bay of Bengal to the southeast and the Arabian Sea to the southwest. The southern tip of Kanyakumari is washed by the Indian Ocean. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep group of islands in the Arabian sea are also a part of India.
  13. 13. India has a great diversity of natural ecosystems from the cold and high Himalayan ranges to the sea coasts, from the wet northeastern green forests to the dry northwestern arid deserts, different types of forests,  wetlands, islands and the oceans. India consists of fertile river plains and high plateaus and several major rivers, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus. The climate of India is determined by the southwest monsoon between June and October, the northeast monsoon between October and November and dry winds from the north between December and February.  From March to May the climate is dry and hot.
  14. 14. PLANTS IN INDIA Total number of plant species recorded in the world 2,50,000 species In India 45,000 species 33% of the above are native. There are 15,000 flowering plant species which is 6% of the world’s total. Areas rich in endemism are the Northeast, the Western Ghats and the Northwestern and Eastern Himalayas. Andaman & Nicobar Islands contribute at least 200 endemic species to the endemic flora.
  15. 15. Classification No. of species Angiosperms 15,000 Gymnosperms 64 Pteridophytes 1,022 Bryophytes 2,584 Algae 2,500 Fungi 23,000 Bacteria 850 Lichens 1,600 Source: Rao, 1994: BSI, 1992
  16. 16. LARGER ANIMALS NO. OF SPECIES Mammals 390 Birds 1,232 Reptiles 456 Amphibians 209 Fishes 2,546 Source: Faunal diversity in India, ENVIS Centre, Zoological Survey of India, 1998
  17. 17. ANIMALS IN INDIA Total animal species recorded In the world 11,96,903 In India 86,874 India possesses little more than 7% of the total animal species of the world. This percentage is higher than that of the plant species. Out of a total of 86,874 animal species, insects alone comprise 68.52% and chordates 5.70% Among the large animals, 173 species of mammals, 101 of birds, 15 of reptiles, 3 of amphibians and 2 of fishes are considered endangered. Gharial - present only in the Ganges river
  18. 18. S.No. Biogeographic zones Biotic provinces 1. Trans-Himalaya Ladakh mountains, Tibetan plateau 2. Himalaya Northwest, West, Central and East Himalayas 3. Desert Thar, Kutch 4. Semi-arid Punjab plains, Gujarat Rajputana 5. Western Ghats Malabar plains, Western Ghats 6. Deccan Peninsula Central highlands, Chotta-Nagpur, Eastern highlands, Central Plateau, Deccan South 7. Gangetic plains Upper and Lower Gangetic plains 8. Coast West and East coast, Lakshadweep 9. North-East Brahmaputra valley, Northeast hills 10. Islands Andaman and Nicobar Source: Wildlife Protected Area Network in India: A Review, Wildlife Institute of India, 2000. The country has 10 different biogeographic zones and 26 biotic provinces.
  19. 19. 1. THE TRANS-HIMALAYAN REGION This area is very cold and arid (4,500 Œ 6,000 mts. above msl). The only vegetation is a sparse alpine steppe. Extensive areas consist of bare rock and glaciers. The faunal groups best represented here are wild sheep and goats (chief ancestral stock), ibex, snow leopard, marbled cat, marmots and black-necked crane. Marco polo sheep - ratio of horn length to body weight exceeds that of any animal in the world.
  20. 20. 2. THE HIMALAYAN REGION The fantastic altitude gradient results in the tremendous biodiversity of the Himalayan region. Flora and fauna vary according to both altitude and climatic conditions: tropical rainforests in the Eastern Himalayas and dense subtropical and alpine forests in the Central and Western Himalayas. The lower levels of the mountain range support many types of orchids. On the eastern slopes, rhododendrons grow to tree height.
  21. 21. Monal - bird of nine colours Animals of Himalayas show several behavioural and physiological adaptations.  Sambar and muntjac are found in the subtropical foothills; serow, goral and the Himalayan thar are found in the temperate and subalpine regions; snow leopard and brown bear inhabit the alpine region.  Carnivores are the most elusive of all mammals in the Himalayas. There are a variety of carnivores in the higher mountains, some of which are rare and threatened with extinction.
  22. 22. Last surving Wild Ass 3. THE INDIAN DESERT The natural vegetation consists of tropical thorn forests and tropical dry deciduous forests, sandy deserts with seasonal salt marshes and mangroves are found in the main estuaries. Typical shrubs are phog growing on sand dunes. Sewan grass covers extensive areas called pali.
  23. 23. Thar desert possesses most of the major insect species.  43 reptile species and moderate bird endemism are found here.  No niche of the Thar is devoid of birds. The black buck was once the dominant mammal of the desert region, now confined only to certain pockets. The gazelle is the only species of the Indian antelope of which the females have horns. Nilgai the largest antelope of India and the wild ass, a distinct subspecies, is now confined to the Rann of Kutch which is also the only breeding site in the Indian subcontinent for the flamingoes.  Other species like desert fox, great Indian bustard, chinkara and desert cat are also found.
  24. 24. 4. THE SEMI-ARID REGION The semi-arid region in the west of India includes the arid desert areas of Thar and Rajasthan extending to the Gulf of Kutch and Cambay and the whole Kathiawar peninsula. Last surving Asiatic lion. The natural vegetation consists of tropical thorn forests and tropical dry deciduous forests, moisture forests (extreme north) and mangroves. The sandy plains have a few scattered trees of Acacia and Prosopis. The gravelly plains have Calotropis, Gymnosporia, etc. The rocky habitats are covered by bushes of Euphorbia while species of Salvadora and Tamarix occur mainly near saline depressions. The lion of Gir is the endemic species in this zone.
  25. 25. 5. THE WESTERN GHATS They cover only 5% of India's land surface but are home to more than about 4,000 of the country's plant species of which 1800 are endemic. The monsoon forests occur both on the western margins of the Ghats and on the eastern side where there is less rainfall. This zone displays diversity of forests from evergreen to dry deciduous. The Nilgiri langur, lion tailed macaque, Nilgiri tahr, Malabar grey hornbill and Most amphibian species are endemic to the Western Ghats. Tiger - national animal
  26. 26. 6. THE DECCAN PENINSULA The Deccan Peninsula is a large area of raised land covering about 43% of India's total land surface. It is bound by the Sathpura range on the north, Western Ghats on the west and Eastern Ghats on the east.  The elevation of the plateau varies from 900 mts. in the west to 300 mts. in the east. There are four major rivers that support the wetlands of this region which have fertile black and red soil. Asiatic wild buffalo - the most impressive and magnificent animal in the world today
  27. 27. Fauna like tiger, sloth bear, wild boar, gaur, sambar and chital are found throughout the zone along with small relict populations of wild buffaloes, elephants and barasingha. Large parts are covered by tropical forests. Tropical dry deciduous forests occur in the northern, central and southern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plateau in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa has moist deciduous forests.
  28. 28. 7. THE GANGETIC PLAIN The Gangetic plain is one of India's most fertile regions. The soil of this region is formed by the alluvial deposits of the Ganges and its tributaries.  The four important surface differences recognized in the geomorphology of the plains are 1. Bhabar - pebble studded zone with porous beds 2. Terai - marshy tract 3. Bhangar - older alluvium of the flood plain 4. Khadar -newer alluvium
  29. 29. The Gangetic plains stretching from eastern Rajasthan through Uttar Pradesh to Bihar and West Bengal are mostly under agriculture. The large forest area is under tropical dry deciduous forest and the southeastern end of the Gangetic plain merges with the littoral and mangroves regions of the Sunderbans. The fauna includes elephants, black buck, gazelle, rhinoceros, Bengal florican, crocodile, freshwater turtle and a dense waterfowl community.
  30. 30. 8. THE COASTAL REGION The natural vegetation consists of mangroves. Animal species include dugong, dolphins, crocodiles and avifauna. There are 26 species of fresh water turtles and tortoises in India and 5 species of marine turtles, which inhabit and feed in coastal waters and lay their eggs on suitable beaches. Tortoise live and breed mainly on the land. Mangroves
  31. 31. •Over 200,000 Olive Ridley turtles come to Orissa to nest in the space of three or four nights. • The highest tiger population is found in the Sunderbans along the east coast adjoining the Bay of Bengal. •Lakshadweep consists of 36 major islands - 12 atolls, 3 reefs and 5 submerged coral banks - make up this group of islands more than three hundred kilometers to the west of the Kerala coast. •The geographical area is 32 sq. km. and the usable land area is 26.32 sq. km. •The fauna consists mainly of four species of turtles, 36 species of crabs, 12 bivalves, 41 species of sponges including typical coral, ornamental fishes and dugongs. A total of 104 scleractinian corals belonging to 37 genera are reported.
  32. 32. 9. THE NORTH-EAST •Biological resources are rich in this zone. •The tropical vegetation of northeast India is rich in evergreen and semievergreen rain forests, moist deciduous monsoon forests, swamps and grasslands. Mammalian fauna includes 390 species of which 63% are found in Assam. The area is rich in smaller carnivores. The country's highest population of elephants are found here Great Indian one-horned rhinoceros – largest of all existing rhinoceros Hoolock gibbon - the only ape found in India
  33. 33. 10. THE INDIAN ISLANDS It is a group of 325 islands: Andaman to the north and Nicobar to the south. The two are separated by about 160 kms. by the Ten Degree Channel of the sea. The rainfall is heavy, with both Northeast and Southwest monsoons. At present, 21 of the 325 islands in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands are inhabited. Many unique plants and animals are found here. About 2,200 species of higher plants are found here of which 200 are endemic. The Andaman & Nicobar Islands have tropical evergreen forests and tropical semievergreen forests as well as moist deciduous forests, littoral and mangrove forests.
  34. 34. 112 endemic species of avifauna, the Andaman water monitor, giant robber crab, 4 species of turtles, wild boar, Andaman day gecko and the harmless Andaman water snake are found only in these islands. The Narcondam hornbill found only in Narcondam is a large forest bird with a big beak. Coral reefs are stretched over an area of 11,000 sq.km. in the Andamans and 2,700 sq.km. in Nicobar. Living corals
  35. 35. India is known for its rich heritage of biodiversity. India is a Mega-diversity Nation • India is one of the 17 mega-diverse countries in the world. • With only 2.4 % of the world’s area, India accounts for 7–8 % of the world’s recorded plant and animal species. • India’s ten bio-geographic zones possess an exemplary diversity of ecological habitats like alpine forests, grasslands, wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems, and desert ecosystems.
  36. 36. •Amongst the existing biota, 91,307 species of animals of which 2,557 Protista, 12,470 general invertebrates, 69,903 arthropods, 4,994 vertebrates, and 45,500 species of plants as well as 5,650 microbial species have been documented in its 10 bio- geographic regions. • India has four out of thirty-four global biodiversity hotspots, which is an indicator of high degree of endemism (of species) in India. • About 5,150 plant species and 1,837 animal species are endemic to India. •India’s biodiversity includes wild relatives of agricultural crops and domesticated animals.
  37. 37.  India has 16 major types and 251 subtypes of forests. Indigenous medicine systems utilize nearly 6,500 native plants for both human and animal healthcare. India’s diverse preponderance of native tribal and ethnic groups has contributed significantly in the conservation and diversification of biodiversity. Its cultural and ethnic diversity includes over 550 tribal communities of 227 ethnic groups spread over 5,000 forested villages. India proudly upholds the tradition of nature conservation.
  38. 38. In 252 B.C., the Emperor Asoka established protected areas (PAs) for mammals, birds, fish and forests through a proclamation. Jim Corbett National Park covering an area of 325 sq km came into being as the India’s first and world’s third National Park in 1936. India has currently 4.79 % of total geographic area under an elaborate network of PAs, which includes 99 National Parks, 513 wildlife sanctuaries, 43 conservation reserves, 4 community reserves and 3 biodiversity heritage sites. India has a National Wildlife Action Plan, which envisages 10 % of the geographical area of the country under PA coverage.
  39. 39. BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY •Consumptive value: •Food/Drink •Fuel •Medicine •Batter crop varieties •Industrial Material Non-Consumptive Value: •Recreation •Education and Research •Traditional value
  40. 40. Direct values The direct value include food resources like grains, vegetables, fruits which are obtained from plant resources and meat, fish, egg, milk and milk products from animal resources. These also include other values like medicine, fuel, timber, fiber, wool, wax, resin, rubber, silk and decorative items. The direct values are of two types (i) Consumptive use value and (ii) Productive use value.
  41. 41. Consumptive use value: These are the direct use values where the biodiversity products can be harvested and consumed directly. Example: Food, fuel and drugs. These goods are consumed locally and do no figure in national and international market. (a) Food: (i) Plants: The most fundamental value of biological resources particularly plants is providing food. Basically three crops i.e. wheat, maize and rice constitute more than two third of the food requirement all over the world. (ii) Fish: Through the development of aquaculture, techniques, fish and fish products have become the largest source of protein in the world.
  42. 42. Fuel: Since ages forests have provided wood which is used as a fuel. Moreover fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, natural gas are also product of biodiversity which are directly consumed by humans.
  43. 43. Drugs and medicines: The traditional medical practice like ayurveda utilizes plants or their extracts directly. In allopathy, the pharmaceutical industry is much more dependent on natural products. Many drugs are derived from plants like Quinine: The famous anti malaria drug is obtained from cinchona tree. Penicillin: A famous antibiotic is derived from pencillium, a fungus. Tetracycline: It is obtained from bacterium. Recently vinblastin and vincristine, two anti cancer drugs have been obtained from catharanthus plant which has anti cancer alkaloids.
  44. 44. Productive use values: These are the direct use values where the product is commercially sold in national and international market. Many industries are dependent upon these values. Example- Textile, leather, silk, paper and pulp industry etc. Although there is an international ban on trade of products from endangered species like tusks of elephants, wool from sheep, fur of many animals etc. These are traded in market and fetch a booming business.
  45. 45. Indirect values Biodiversity provides indirect benefits to human beings which support the existence of biological life and other benefits which are difficult to quantify. These include social and cultural values, ethical values, aesthetic values, option values and environment service values. Social and cultural value: Many plants and animals are considered holy and sacred in India and are worshipped like Tulsi, peepal, cow, snake etc. In Indian society great cultural value is given to forest and as such tiger, peacock and lotus are named as the national animal, bird and flower respectively.
  46. 46. Ethical: These values are related to conservation of biodiversity where ethical issue of ‘all life forms must be preserved’ is laid down. There is an existence value which is attached to each species because biodiversity is valuable for the survival of human race. Moreover all species have a moral right to exist independent of our need for them. Aesthetic value: There is a great aesthetic value which is attached to biodiversity. Natural landscapes at undisturbed places are a delight to watch and also provide opportunities for recreational activities like bird watching, photography etc. It promotes eco-tourism which further generates revenue by designing of zoological, botanical gardens, national parks, wild life conservation etc.
  47. 47. Option values: These values include the unexplored or unknown potentials of biodiversity. Environment service values: The most important benefit of biodiversity is maintenance of environment services which includes Carbon dioxide fixation through photosynthesis. Maintaining of essential nutrients by carbon (C), oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Sulphur (S), Phosphorus (P) cycles. Maintaining water cycle and recharging of ground water. Soil formation and protection from erosion. Regulating climate by recycling moisture into the atmosphere. Detoxification and decomposition of waste.
  48. 48. Ecological services: Balance of nature Biological productivity Regulation of climate Degradation of waste Cleaning of air and water Cycling of nutrients Control of potential pest and disease causing species Detoxification of soil and sediments Stabilization of land against erosion Carbon sequestration and global climate change Maintenance of Soil fertility
  49. 49. Flora and fauna diversity depends on- •Climate •Altitude •Soils •Presence of other species  Most of the biodiversity concentrated in Tropical region. BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS: A region with high biodiversity with most of spices being Endemic. India have two Biodiversity Hotspots- East Himalayan Region and Western Ghat
  50. 50. HOTSPOTS A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species. Hotspots were first named in 1988 by Dr. Sabina Virk. Many hotspots are nearby of large human populations. While hotspots are spread all over the world, the majority are forest areas and most are located in the tropics. The following picture shows hotspots around the world.
  51. 51. A biodiversity hotspot is a bio-geographic region that is both a significant reservoir of biodiversity and is threatened with destruction. The term biodiversity hotspot specifically refers to 25 biologically rich areas around the world that have lost at least 70 percent of their original habitat.
  52. 52. What’s a Hotspot? To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria: It must have at least 1,500 vascular plants as endemics — which is to say, it must have a high percentage of plant life found nowhere else on the planet. A hotspot, in other words, is irreplaceable. It must have 30% or less of its original natural vegetation. In other words, it must be threatened. Around the world, 35 areas qualify as hotspots. They represent just 2.3% of Earth’s land surface, but they support more than half of the world’s plant species as endemics — i.e., species found no place else — and nearly 43% of bird, mammal, reptile and amphibian species as endemics.
  53. 53. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Natural causes: Narrow geographical area Low population Low breeding rate Natural disasters Anthropogenic causes: Habitat modification Overexploitation of selected species Innovation by exotic species. Pollution Hunting Global warming and climate change Agriculture Domino effect
  54. 54. Threats to biodiversity Habitat destruction Important to protect habitat in order to protect biodiversity within it. Huge pressure from the World’s rapidly increasing population. Global climate change Change in a biotic elements of ecosystems leading to biotic change. Habitat fragmentation From human activity. Reduces ability of habitat to support species.
  55. 55. Pollution Introduction of pollutants such as nutrient overloading with nitrate fertilizer as well as more immediately harmful chemicals. Over-exploitation This includes the illegal wildlife trade as well as overfishing, logging of tropical hardwoods etc. Alien species Introduced by humans to regions where there are no natural predators. Disease Reduction in habitat causing high population densities, encourages spread of diseases.
  56. 56. Habitat loss
  57. 57. Habitat loss:- Habitat loss can be described when an animal loses their home. Every animal in the animal kingdom has a niche, a their in their animal community and without their habitat they no longer have a niche. Reasons of habitat loss by humans: agriculture, farming harvesting natural resources for personal use for industrial and urbanization development Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary causes of species extinction world wide…!!!
  58. 58. Example : The impact upon china’s panda, ones found across the nation. Now it’s only found in fragmented and isolated regions in the south west of the country as a result of wide spread deforestation in the 20th century. There are natural causes too.. Habitat destruction through natural processes such as volcanism, fire and climate change is well documented in the fossil record. One study shows that fragmentation of tropical rainforest in euro 3000 million years ago lead to a great loss of amphibian diversity.
  59. 59. Solutions on for this.. •Protecting remaining intact section of natural habitat. •Reduce human population and expansion of urbanisation and industries. •Educating the public about the importance of natural habitat and bio diversity. •Solutions to habitat loss can include planting trees, planting home gardens so as to reduce need for man to need large lands for agricultural farms which lead to habitat loss.
  60. 60. Poaching
  61. 61. Poaching is the hunting and harvesting taking of wild plants or animals, such as through hunting , harvesting, fishing or trapping. History of poaching •Millions of years ago, in the Stone Age • Followed through the ages, to even the tribal natives but it was during the Late Middle Ages that poaching became a punishable offense
  62. 62. Why Poaching is done??? Poaching is done for large profits gained by the illegal sale or trade of animal parts, meat and pelts. Exists because there is a demand for these products, caused by a lack of education or disregard for the law amongst the buyers Many cultures believe that certain animal parts have medicinal value
  63. 63. Poaching is not limited to animals its also for plants too…………! Three of the most often poached species in the park are galax, black cohosh, and ginseng. GALAX BLACK COHOSH GINSENG
  64. 64. How does poaching affect the environment? •Poaching or illegal hunting causes animals endangered of being extinct. If more animals becomes extinct there's a disruption in the food chain, and that will cause major problems in our ecosystem, resulting eventually in new adaptations of animals, and or species beyond human control. •Poaching results in animals being hunted too soon for them to have time to reproduce and repopulate.
  65. 65. Man- wild conflicts
  66. 66. Man-wildlife conflict • Any conflict that arises where the behavior of one (human or wildlife) is unacceptably disadvantageous to other • Increase in man wildlife conflict is due to resource limitation like 1. Space 2. Food 3. Shelter • It is also due to Increasing population of human beings , Loss of forest, decrease in quality of forest and development activities. • Crops like sugarcane and tea estates are reported to provide excellent cover for wild animals • There are 661 Protected Areas in the country covering around 4.8% geographical areas. There are 100 National Parks, 514 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 43 Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves in the country
  67. 67. A ‘Conflict’ of Words • One-sided Reporting Can Harm Wildlife • The headlines are invariably provocative – menace, threat, fear, attack and death! • In 99.9 per cent of these cases (with the exception of deliberate stalking and predation on humans by big cats), it’s never an aggressive attack by the animal. The animal gets cornered, surrounded by people (big cats) or faces an abrupt encounter at short range because of its poor senses (elephants, bear) and then attacks out of fear. • reporters and sub editors should avoid biased or sensationalized reports
  68. 68.  In India, wild elephants probably kill far more people than tiger, leopard or lion.  Damage to agricultural crops and property, killing of livestock and human beings are some of the worst forms of man-animal conflict.  Farmers sometimes poison and shoot wild animals as they damage their crops, but this can be prevented by taking certain measures. 2006-07 / 31 / 342 2007-08 / 34 / 241 2008-09 / 46 / 726 2010-11 / 52 / 689
  69. 69.  Governments is working on improvement of habitat to augment food and water availability and to reduce movement of animals from the forests to the habitations.  Training forest staff and police to tackle these situations and creating awareness among the people about the Do’s and Don’ts to minimize conflicts .  construction of boundary walls and solar fences around the sensitive areas to prevent the wild animal attacks.  Some devices of Information Technology, viz., radio collars with Very High Frequency, Global Positioning System and Satellite uplink facilities can be used to track the movements of wild animals .  Ways to reduce the conflicts
  70. 70. Species and taxonomy Each species is classified within a hierarchy reflecting evolutionary relationships. Two related species might be in the same genus; two related genera in the same family, etc.
  71. 71. Threatened endangered species In India
  72. 72. Diversity of subspecies Within species, diversity exists in subspecies, or geographic variations. The tiger, Panthera tigris, had 8 subspecies. 5 persist today, including Panthera tigris altaica, the Siberian tiger. Endangered golden lion tamarin, endemic to Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest, which has been almost totally destroyed.
  73. 73. CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY
  74. 74. Biodiversity Conservation In situ Sacred groves and lakes Biosphere Reserves Terrestrial Marine National parks, wildlife sanctuaries Ex situ Sacred plant home garden Seed Bank, Gene bank, Cryopreservation Botanical garden, Zoological garden, Aquaria
  75. 75. Biodiversity loss and species extinction • Extinction = last member of a species dies and the species vanishes forever from Earth • Extirpation = disappearance of a particular population, but not the entire species globally • These are natural processes. On average one species goes extinct naturally every 500–1,000 years—this is the background rate of extinction. • 99% of all species that ever lived are now extinct.
  76. 76. Benefits of biodiversity: Biophilia Biophilia = human love for and attachment to other living things; “the connections that human beings subconsciously seek out with the rest of life”: • Affinity for parks and wildlife • Keeping of pets • Valuing real estate with landscape views • Interest in escaping cities to go hiking, birding, fishing, hunting, backpacking, etc.
  77. 77. TERMS RELATED TO BIODIVERSITY • Endemic species- Plant and animal species confined to a particular geographical area are called endemic species. • Extinct species- Species that no longer exist anywhere on the Earth are called extinct species. • Endangered species- Species that are at a high risk of getting extinct in their habitat are called endangered species. • Ecosystem- An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.
  78. 78. DISTIBUTION OF BIODIVERSITY • Biodiversity is not evenly distributed, rather it varies greatly across the globe as well as within regions. Among other factors, the diversity of all living things depends on temperature, precipitation, altitude, soils, geography and the presence of other species. The study of the spatial distribution of organisms, species and ecosystems is the science of biogeography. • Flora diversity also depends on factors like climate, altitude, soil and presence of other species. • Most of the biodiversity is concentrated in the tropical region.

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